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Hydrogeology and Hydrogeochemistry of an Alkaline Volcanic Area: t...

By: D. Pittalis; G. Oggiano; G. Cerri; G. Ghiglieri

Description: Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cagliari, Italy, Desertification Research Group-NRD, University of Sassari, Italy. The objective of this study is to analyze the geochemical conditions associated with the presence of fluoride (F) in the groundwater of an area of Northern Tanzania. The studied aquifers are composed of volcanic rocks such as phonolitic and nephelinitic lavas, basalts, lahars of various ages and mantling ash. Sediment...

APHA: Standard methods for examination of water and wastewater. America Pubblic Health Association, Washington D.C.-APHA, 1992.; Balcone-Boissard, H., Baker, D. R., Villemant, B., and Boudon, G.: F and Cl diffusion in phonolitic melts: Influence of the Na/K ratio, Chemical Geology, 263, 89–98, 2009.; Bruker AXS: Diffrac$^{\rm plus}$ Evaluation package EVA 14. Release 15-07-2008, Bruker AXS GmbH Karlsruhe, Germany, 2008.; Craig H.: Standards for reporting concentra...

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Forest Cover Influence on Regional Flood Frequency Assessment in M...

By: G. B. Chirico; G. Forzieri; F. Preti

Description: Dipartimento di Economia, Ingegneria, Scienze e Tecnologie Agrarie e Forestali, Sezione di Ingegneria dei Biosistemi Agrari e Forestali, University of Florence, Florence, Italy. The paper aims at evaluating to what extent the forest cover can explain the component of runoff coefficient as defined in a regional flood frequency analysis based on the application of the rational formula coupled with a regional model of the annual maximum rainfall depths. The ...

Alila, Y., Kura\'{s}, P. K., Schnorbus, M., and Hudson, R.: Forests and floods: a new paradigm sheds light on age-old controversies, Water Resour. Res., 45, W08416, doi:10.1029/2008WR007207, 2009.; Alila, Y., Hudson, R., Kura\'{s}, P. K., Schnorbus, M., and Rasouli, K.: Reply to comment by Jack Lewis et al. on Forests and floods: A new paradigm sheds light on age-old controversies, Water Resour. Res., 46, W05802,

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Thermal Damping and Retardation in Karst Conduits : Volume 19, Iss...

By: M. D. Covington; M. Perne; J. M. Myre; E. C. Alexander Jr.; S. W. Jones; M. O. Saar; A. J. Luhmann

Description: University of Minnesota, Department of Earth Sciences, 310 Pillsbury Dr. SE, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA. Water temperature is a non-conservative tracer in the environment. Variations in recharge temperature are damped and retarded as water moves through an aquifer due to heat exchange between water and rock. However, within karst aquifers, seasonal and short-term fluctuations in recharge temperature are often transmitted over long ...

Ashton, K.: The analysis of flow data from karst drainage systems, The Transactions of the Cave Research Group, 7, 161–203, 1966.; Atkinson, T. C.: Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of the unsaturated zone: An important control of groundwater hardness in limestones, J. Hydrol., 35, 111–123, 1977a.; Atkinson, T. C.: Diffuse flow and conduit flow in limestone terrain in the Mendip Hills, Somerset (Great Britain), J. Hydrol., 35, 93–110, 1977b.; Beardsmore, G. R. and Cull, J...

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Benefits from Using Combined Dynamical-statistical Downscaling App...

By: I. Portoghese; E. Romano; F. Salerno; A. B. Petrangeli; N. Guyennon; G. Tartari; S. Calmanti; D. Copetti

Description: National Research Council, Water Research Institute, Roma, Italy. Various downscaling techniques have been developed to bridge the scale gap between global climate models (GCMs) and finer scales required to assess hydrological impacts of climate change. Such techniques may be grouped into two downscaling approaches: the deterministic dynamical downscaling (DD) and the statistical downscaling (SD). Although SD has been traditionally seen as an alternativ...

Anav, A., Ruti, P. M., Artale, V., and Valentini, R.: Modelling the effects of land-cover changes on surface climate in the Mediterranean region, Clim. Res., 41, 91–104, 2010.; Artale, V., Calmanti, S., Carillo, A., Dell'Aquila, A., Herrmann, M., Pisacane, G., Ruti, P. M., Sannino, G., Struglia, M. V., Giorgi, F., Bi, X., Pal, J. S., and Rauscher, S.: An atmosphere-ocean regional climate model for the Mediterranean area: assessment of a present climate simulation, Clim. ...

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Model Based on Dimensional Analysis for Prediction of Nitrogen and...

By: M. Zeleňáková; M. Šlezingr; D. Słyś; M. Čarnogurská

Description: Technical University of Košice, Department of Environmental Engineering, Košice, Slovakia. The main aim of this paper is to develop a model for pollutant concentration prediction in a stream. The developed model that determines nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in a river is based on a dimensional analysis. Applications of dimensional analysis to water quality modelling are presented, pointing out possibilities of applying this methodology in wa...

Beaujouan, V., Durand, P., and Ruiz, L.: Modelling the effect of the spatial distribution of agricultural practices on nitrogen fluxes in rural catchments, Ecol. Model., 137, 91–103, 2001.; Bendíková, M.: Environmental risks in condition of streams in Slovakia, Dissertation, Technical University of Košice, 2004.; Borah, D. K. and Bera, M.: Watershed-scale hydrologic and nonpoint-source pollution models: Review of mathematical bases, Trans. ASAE, 46, 1553–1566, 2003.; Buc...

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Intensity-duration-frequency and Spatial Analysis of Droughts Usin...

By: A. Malekian; M. Mohseni Saravi; A. A. Safdari

Description: Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran. Precipitation deficit and its daily, seasonal and annual oscillations are inherent characteristics of Iran's climate. Droughts are generally characterized by a prolonged and abnormal moisture deficiency. In drought studies it is important to characterize the start and end of a drought as well as its intensity, duration, frequency and magnitude. The objective of this study was to analyze dr...

Dupigny, G. and Lesley, A.: Towards characterizing and planning for drought in Vermont-Part 1: A climatological perspective, J. Am. Water Resour. As., 37(3), 505–524, 2001.; Edwards, D. C.: Characteristics of 20th century drought in the United States at multiple time scales, MSc Thesis, Colorado State University, 155 pp., 1997.; Faraj Zadeh, M., Movahed Danesh, A., and Ghaemi, H.: Drought in Iran (Application of some indices), Journal of Danesh-Keshavarzi, 1(2–5), 31–51,...

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Nitrate Sinks and Sources as Controls of Spatio-temporal Water Qua...

By: M. Weiler; C. Gascuel-odoux; P. Durand; T. Schuetz

Description: Chair of Hydrology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany. Several controls are known to affect water quality of stream networks during flow recession periods such as solute leaching processes, surface water – groundwater interactions as well as biogeochemical in-stream retention processes. Throughout the stream network combinations of specific water and solute export rates and local in-stream conditions overlay the biogeochemical signals from upstr...

Alexander, R. B., Böhlke, J. K., Boyer, E. W., David, M. B., Harvey, J. W., Mulholland, P. J., Seitzinger, S. P., Tobias, C. R., Tonitto, C., and Wollheim, W. M.: Dynamic modeling of nitrogen losses in river networks unravels the coupled effects of hydrological and biogeochemical processes, Biogeochemistry, 93, 91–116, doi:10.1007/s10533-008-9274-8, 2009.; Aquilina, L., Vergnaud-Ayraud, V., Labasque, T., Bour, O., M...

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Dams on Mekong Tributaries as Significant Contributors of Hydrolog...

By: T. A. Cochrane; T. Piman; H. Lauri; M. E. Arias; M. Kummu

Description: Department of Civil and Natural Resources Engineering, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand. River tributaries have a key role in the biophysical functioning of the Mekong Basin. Of particular attention are the Sesan, Srepok, and Sekong (3S) rivers, which contribute nearly a quarter of the total Mekong discharge. Forty two dams are proposed in the 3S, and once completed they will exceed the active storage of China's large dam cascade in t...

Adamson, P. T., Rutherfurd, I. D., Peel, M. C., and Conlan, I. A.: The hydrology of the Mekong River, in: The Mekong, available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B9FBM-4Y59TWF-M/2/29840b78b5de4ee935ae707cd803a3b4, Academic Press, San Diego, 53–76, 2009.; Agostinho, A. A., Bonecker, C. C., and Gomes, L. C.: Effects of water quantity o...

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Assessing Water Resources Adaptive Capacity to Climate Change Impa...

By: A. F. Hamlet

Description: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Washington, USA. Climate change impacts in Pacific Northwest Region of North America (PNW) are projected to include increasing temperatures and changes in the seasonality of precipitation (increasing precipitation in winter, decreasing precipitation in summer). Changes in precipitation are also spatially varying, with the northwestern parts of the region generally experiencing greater incr...

Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), NPD, US Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), PNR: The Columbia River system: The Inside Storym Report DOE/BP-1689, published by the USACE, USBR and BPA, 1994.; Cohen, S. J., Miller, K., Hamlet, A., and Avis, W.: Climate Change and Resource Management in the Columbia River Basin, Water International, 25(2), 253–272, 2000.; Cohen, S., de Loe, R., Hamlet, A. F., Herrington, R., Mortsch, L., and Shrubsole, D...

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Transient Analysis of Fluctuations of Electrical Conductivity as T...

By: A. Musolff; N. Trauth; M. Vieweg; J. H. Fleckenstein; C. Schmidt

Description: Department Hydrogeology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany. Magnitudes and directions of water flux in the streambed are controlled by hydraulic gradients between the groundwater and the stream and by bedform-induced hyporheic exchange flows. These water fluxes vary over time driven by for instance by short term flood events or seasonal variations in stream flow and groundwater l...

Bianchin, M., Smith, L., and Beckie, R.: Quantifying hyporheic exchange in a tidal river using temperature time series, Water Resour. Res., 46, W07507, doi:{10.1029/2009WR008365}, 2010.; Boano, F., Demaria, A., Revelli, R., and Ridolfi, L.: Biogeochemical zonation due to intrameander hyporheic flow, Water Resour. Res., 46, W02511, doi:{201010.1029/2008WR007583}, 2010.; Boker, S., Xu, M., Rotondo, J., and King, K.: Windowed cross-correlation and peak picking for the analy...

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Coevolution of Water Security in a Developing City : Volume 10, Is...

By: V. Srinivasan

Description: Centre for Environment and Development Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment, ATREE, Royal Enclave, Srirampura, 560 064 P.O. Jakkur, Bangalore. The world is rapidly urbanizing. One of the challenges associated with this growth will be to supply water to rapidly growing, developing-world cities. While there is a long history of interdisciplinary research in water resources management, relatively few water studies attempts to explain...

Di Baldassarre, G., Kooy, M., Kemerink, J. S., and Brandimarte, L.: Towards understanding the dynamic behaviour of floodplains as human-water systems, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 3235–3244, doi:10.5194/hess-17-3235-2013, 2013.; Feldman, D. L.: Preventing the repetition: or, what Los Angeles' experience in water management can teach Atlanta about urban water disputes, Water Resour. Res., 45, W04422,

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Combining High-resolution Satellite Images and Altimetry to Estima...

By: J. Maubant; F. Frappart; F. Baup

Description: Centre d'Études de la BIOsphère (CESBIO), UMR5126, IRD – CNES – OMP – INSU – Université de Toulouse, 24 rue d'Embaquès, 32000 Auch, France. This study presents an approach to determine the volume of water in small lakes (<100 ha) by combining satellite altimetry data and high-resolution (HR) images. The lake being studied is located in the south-west of France and is only used for agricultural irrigation purposes. The altimetry satellite data are provi...

Abdul Hakeem, A. and Raju, P. V.: Use of high-resolution satellite data for the structural and agricultural inventory of tank irrigation systems, Int. J. Remote Sens., 30, 3613–3623, 2009.; Alsdorf, D. E., Rodrıguez, E., and Lettenmaier, D. P.: Measuring surface water from space, Rev. Geophys., 45, RG2002, doi:10.1029/2006RG000197, 2007.; Baup, F., Fieuzal, R., Marais-Sicre, C., Dejoux, J. F., le Dantec, V., Mordelet, P....

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Characterization of the Hydrological Functioning of the Niger Basi...

By: N. Mognard; F. Papa; B. Decharme; A. Boone; V. Pedinotti; J. F. Crétaux; G. Panthou

Description: CNRM/GAME, Météo-France, CNRS, URA1357, Toulouse, France. During the 70s and 80s, West Africa has faced extreme climate variations with extended extreme drought conditions. Of particular importance is the Niger basin, since it traverses a large part of the Sahel and is thus a critical source of water in this semi arid region. However, the understanding of the hydrological processes over this basin is currently limited by the lack of spatially distribute...

Alkama, M. R., Kageyama, M., Ramstein, G., Marti, O., Ribstein, P., and Swingedouw, D.: Impact of a realistic river routing in coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations of the Last Glacial Maximum climate, Clim. Dynam., 30, 855–869, 2008. \bibitem []{} Alkama, R., Decharme, B., Douville, H., Becker, M., Cazenave, A., Sheffield, J., Voldoire, A., Tyteca, S., and Le Moigne, P.: Global evaluation of the ISBA/TRIP continental hydrological system, Part 1: Comparison to GRACE terre...

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Root Selection Methods in Flood Analysis : Volume 7, Issue 2 (30/1...

By: M. Bruen; J. Dooge; B. Parmentier

Description: Centre for Water Resources Research, University College Dublin, Earlsfort Terrace, Dublin 2, Ireland. In the 1970s, de Laine developed a root-matching procedure for estimating unit hydrograph ordinates from estimates of the fast component of the total runoff from multiple storms. Later, Turner produced a root selection method which required only data from one storm event and was based on recognising a pattern typical of unit hydrograph root...

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Water Flow Pathways and the Water Balance Within a Head-water Catc...

By: M. P. McCartney; C. Neal

Description: Institute of Hydrology, Maclean Building, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB. Dambos, seasonally saturated wetlands, are widespread in headwater catchments in sub-Saharan Africa. It is widely believed that they play an important role in regional hydrology but, despite research conducted over the last 25 years, their hydrological functions remain poorly understood. To improve conceptualisation of hydrological flow paths and investigate t...

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The European Flood Risk Directive: Challenges for Research : Volum...

By: E. Mostert; S. J. Junier

Description: Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands. In recent years, flood management has shifted from protection against floods to managing the risks of floods. In Europe, this shift is reflected in the Flood risk directive of October 2007 (2007/60/EC; FRD). The FRD requires EU Member States to undertake a preliminary assessment of flood risks and, for areas with a significant flood risk, to prepare flood hazard and flood risk maps a...

Ashton, V., Aziz, H., Keith, S., and Smith, T.: Review of EU Flood R{&}D Projects, Report prepared as a part of the group management project on the M.Sc. Water Resources Technology and Management Course, University of Birmingham, Department of Civil Engineering, Birmingham, http://www.actif-ec.net/library/review{_EU{_}flood{_}projects.pdf}, 2003.; Baan, P. J. A. and Klijn, F.: Flood risk perception ...

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Sensitivity of the West African Hydrological Cycle in Orchidee to ...

By: J. Polcher; T. D'Orgeval; P. De Rosnay

Description: UPMC/LMD, Paris, France (Université Pierre et Marie Curie / Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique). The aim of this article is to test the sensitivity of the West African hydrological cycle to infiltration processes and to river reinfiltration pathways. This is done through sensitivity experiments to both inputs and paramterization settings of the ORCHIDEE Land-Surface Model. The parameterizations to take into account the effects of flat areas, ponds an...

Beven, K.: Macropores and water flow in soils, Water Resour. Res., 18, 1311–1325, 1982.; Beven, K.: Infiltration into a class of vertically non uniform soils, Hydrolog. Sci. J., 29, 1425–434, 1984.; Carsel, R. and Parrish, R.: Developing joint probability distributions of soil water retention characteristics, Water Resour. Res., 24, 755–769, 1988.; Bonan, G., Oleson, K., Vertenstein, M., Levis, S., Zeng, X., Dai, Y., Dickinson, R., and Yang, Z.-L.: The land surface clima...

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Comparison of Three Updating Schemes Using Artificial Neural Netwo...

By: Shenglian Guo; Kieran M. O’connor; Lihua Xiong

Description: State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072, China. Three updating schemes using artificial neural network (ANN) in flow forecasting are compared in terms of model efficiency. The first is the ANN model in the simulation mode plus an autoregressive (AR) model. For the ANN model in the simulation model, the input includes the observed rainfall and the previously estimated discharges, ...

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Observed Drought and Wetness Trends in Europe: an Update : Volume ...

By: K. Fraedrich; A. Sutera; I. Bordi

Description: Department of Physics, University of Rome La Sapienza, Italy. Linear and nonlinear trends of drought and wetness are analysed in terms of the gridded Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) determined from monthly precipitation in Europe (NCEP/NCAR). In characterizing the meteorological and hydrological aspects, the index is computed on a seasonal and on a bi-annual time scale. Two datasets are compared: one from 1949 to 1997 and the other one includes t...

Wilhite, D. A.: Combating Drought through Preparedness, Nat. Resour. Forum, 26, 275–285, 2002.; Blender, R. and Fraedrich, K.: Long term memory of the hydrological cycle and river runoffs in China in a high resolution climate model, Int. J. Climatol., 26, 1547–1565, 2006.; Bordi, I. and Sutera, A.: Fifty years of precipitation: some spatially remote teleconnnections, Water Resour. Manag., 15, 247–280, 2001.; Bordi, I. and Sutera, A.: An analysis of drought in Italy in th...

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Technical Note: Assessing a 24/7 Solution for Monitoring Water Qua...

By: P. Jordan; R. Cassidy

Description: School of Environmental Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland, UK. Quantifying nutrient and sediment loads in catchments is difficult owing to diffuse controls related to storm hydrology. Coarse sampling and interpolation methods are prone to very high uncertainties due to under-representation of high discharge, short duration events. Additionally, important low-flow processes such as diurnal signals linked to point source impacts ...

Arnscheidt, J., Jordan, P., Li, S., McCormick, S., McFaul, R., McGrogan, H. J., Neal, M., and Sims, J. T.: Defining the sources of low-flow phosphorus transfers in complex catchments, Sci. Total Environ., 382, 1–13, 2007.; Bowes, M. J., Smith, J. T., and Neal, N.: The value of high-resolution nutrient monitoring: A case study of the River Frome, Dorset, UK, J. Hydrol., 378, 82–96, 2009.; Cassidy, R. and Jordan, P.: Limitations of instantaneous water quality sampling in s...

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