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Estimation of the Total Magnetization Direction of Approximately S...

By: V. C. F. Barbosa; D. P. Sales; V. C. Oliveira Jr.; L. Uieda

Description: Observatório Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We have developed a fast total-field anomaly inversion to estimate the magnetization direction of multiple sources with approximately spherical shape and known centres. Our method can be applied to interpret multiple sources with different magnetization directions. It neither requires the prior computation of any transformation like reduction to the pole nor the use of regularly spaced data on a hori...

Almeida, F. F. M.: Relações tectônicas das rochas alcalinas mesozóicas da região meridional da plataforma sul-americana, Revista Brasileira de Geociências, 13, 139–158, 1983.; Aster, R. C., Borchers, B., and Thurber, C. H.: Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems (International Geophysics), Academic Press, San Diego, USA, 2005.; Baranov, V.: A new method for interpretation of aeromagnetic maps: pseudo-gravimetric anomalies, Geophysics, 22, 359–382,

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Adjoints and Low-rank Covariance Representation : Volume 8, Issue ...

By: S. E. Cohn; M. K. Tippett

Description: International Research Institute for climate prediction, LDEO, Palisades, NY, USA. Quantitative measures of the uncertainty of Earth system estimates can be as important as the estimates themselves. Direct calculation of second moments of estimation errors, as described by the covariance matrix, is impractical when the number of degrees of freedom of the system state is large and the sources of uncertainty are not completely known. Theore...

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A Nonlinear Method of Removing Harmonic Noise in Geophysical Data ...

By: C.-s. Chen; Y. Jeng

Description: Department of Earth Sciences, National Taiwan Normal University, 88, Sec. 4, Ting-Chou Road, Taipei, 116, Taiwan. A nonlinear, adaptive method to remove the harmonic noise that commonly resides in geophysical data is proposed in this study. This filtering method is based on the ensemble empirical mode decomposition algorithm in conjunction with the logarithmic transform. We present a synthetic model study to investigate the capability of signal reconstru...

Bagaini, C.: Acquisition and processing of simultaneous vibroseis data, Geophysical prospecting, 58(Eq. (1)), 81–99, 2010.; Battista, B. M., Knapp, C., McGee, T., and Goebel, V.: Application of the empirical mode decomposition and Hilbert-Huang transform to seismic reflection data, Geophysics, 72(2), H29–H37, 2007.; Butler, K. E. and Russell, R. D.: Subtraction of powerline harmonics from geophysical records, Geophysics, 58(Eq. (5)), 898–903, 1993.; Butler, K. E. and Rus...

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Double Layers in the Downward Current Region of the Aurora : Volum...

By: D. L. Newman; C. W. Carlson; L. Andersson; M. V. Goldman; R. E. Ergun

Description: Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA. Direct observations of magnetic-field-aligned (parallel) electric fields in the downward current region of the aurora provide decisive evidence of naturally occurring double layers. We report measurements of parallel electric fields, electron fluxes and ion fluxes related to double layers that are responsible for particle acceleration. The observ...

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Using Ensemble Data Assimilation to Forecast Hydrological Flumes :...

By: T. Kauranne; A. Bibov; Z. Mussa; I. Amour

Description: Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta, Finland. Data assimilation, commonly used in weather forecasting, means combining a mathematical forecast of a target dynamical system with simultaneous measurements from that system in an optimal fashion. We demonstrate the benefits obtainable from data assimilation with a dam break flume simulation in which a shallow-water equation model is complemented with wave meter measurements. Data assimilatio...

Aliparast, M.: Two-dimensional finite volume method for dam-break flow simulation, Int. J. Sediment Res., 24, 99–107, 2009.; Auvinen, H., Bardsley, J., Haario, H., and Kauranne, T.: The variational Kalman filter and an efficient implementation using limited memory BFGS, Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fl., 64, 314–335, 2009.; Baghlani, A.: Simulation of dam-break problem by a robust flux-vector splitting approach in Cartesian grid, Scientia Iranica, 18, 1061–1068, 2011.; Barcena, J...

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Complexity and Predictability of Daily Precipitation in a Semi-ari...

By: L. M. V. Carvalho; T. De M. B. S. Xavier; M. A. F. Da Silva Dias; M. E. S. Silva

Description: Department of Geography, FFLCH, University of São Paulo, Brazil. Complexity and predictability of daily precipitation in a tropical semi-arid region (Ceará State, Brazil) is assessed by applying entropy concepts. Precipitation regimes in that region depend on several dynamical forcings, the most important being the displacement and activity of the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone in the Atlantic Ocean. Topography is another important factor that influenc...

Alves, J. M. B.: Verification of the seasonal prognostics of precipitation in the Ceará State by using percentiles, Rev. Bras. Meteorol., 15, 73–86 (in portuguese), 2000.; Asnani, G. C.: Tropical Meteorology., vol 1., Nobles Printer, India, 604 pp., 1993.; Bengtsson, L., Hodges, K. I., and Froude, L. S. R.: Global observation and forecast skill, Tellus, 57A, 515–527, 2005.; Bengtsson, L. and Hodges, K. I.: A note on atmospheric predictability, Tellus, 58, 154–157, 2006.;...

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The Influence of Surface Gravity Waves on the Injection of Turbule...

By: I. Fer; M. Bakhoday Paskyabi

Description: Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Allégaten 70, 5007 Bergen, Norway. Observations were made in the near-surface layer, at about 8 m depth in 132 m deep water off the coast of Ålesund in Norway, for a duration of 2.5 months in late 2011. The measurement period covers the passage of two low pressure systems with substantial wind and wave forcing. The time series of the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy, ε, and the estimates of surfac...

Anis, A. and Moum, J. N.: Surface wave–turbulence interactions: Scaling Ε(z) near the sea surface, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25, 2025–2045, 1995.; Ardhuin, F. and Jenkins, A. D.: On the interaction of surface wave and upper ocean turbulence, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 36, 551–557, 2006.; Babanin, A. V. and Haus, B. K.: On the existence of water turbulence induced by nonbreaking surface waves, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 39, 2675–2679, 2009.; Burchard, H.: Simulating the wave–enhanced layer u...

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Improving the Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter Using a Second-orde...

By: S. Zhang; L. Wang; G. Wu; X. Zhang; X. Liang; X. Zheng

Description: State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China. The Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (ETKF) assimilation scheme has recently seen rapid development and wide application. As a specific implementation of the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF), the ETKF is computationally more efficient than the conventional EnKF. However, the current implementation of the ETKF stil...

Anderson, J. L.: An adaptive covariance inflation error correction algorithm for ensemble filters, Tellus A, 59, 210–224, 2007.; Anderson, J. L.: Spatially and temporally varying adaptive covariance inflation for ensemble filters, Tellus A, 61, 72–83, 2009.; Anderson, J. L. and Anderson, S. L.: A Monte Carlo implementation of the non-linear filtering problem to produce ensemble assimilations and forecasts, Mon. Weather Rev., 127, 2741–2758, 1999.; Bishop, C. H. and Toth,...

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On Resonant Interactions of Ions with Plasma Waves in a Reduced Qu...

By: E. Marsch

Description: Max-Planck-Institut für Aeronomie, Max-Planck-Str. 2, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany. Based on quasi-linear theory (involving pitch angle scattering), the resonant interactions between ions and waves in an anisotropic multi-component plasma are discussed. In particular, electromagnetic Alfvén and ion-cyclotron waves propagating along or obliquely to the magnetic field are considered. A set of reduced (with respect to the perpendicular...

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Lagrangian Structure of Flows in the Chesapeake Bay: Challenges an...

By: R. Malek-madani; M. Branicki

Description: School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TW, UK. In this work we discuss applications of Lagrangian techniques to study transport properties of flows generated by shallow water models of estuarine flows. We focus on the flow in the Chesapeake Bay generated by Quoddy (see Lynch and Werner, 1991), a finite-element (shallow water) model adopted to the bay by Gross et al. (2001). The main goal of this analysis is to outline ...

Lekien, F., Shadden, S. C., and Marsden, J. E.: Lagrangian coherent structures in n-dimensional systems, J. Math. Phys., 48(6), 065404, ISSN 0022-2488 , 2007.; Li, M., Zhong, L., and Boicourt, W.: Simulations of Chesapeake Bay estuary: Sensitivity to turbulence mixing parameterizations and comparison with observations, J. Geophys. Res., 110, C12004, doi:10.1029/2004JC002585, 2005.; Lynch, D. R. and Werner, F. E.: Three-dimensional hydrodynamics on finite elements. Part I...

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Reply to J. F. McKenzie Et Al.'s Comment on Obliquely Propagating ...

By: F. Verheest

Description: Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281, 9000 Gent, Belgium. No abstract available.

%%Cattaert, T. and Verheest, F.: %%Large amplitude parallel propagating electromagnetic oscillitons, %%Phys. Plasmas, 12, 012307, 2005.; Adlam, J. H. and Allen, J. E.: The structure of strong collision-free hydromagnetic waves, Philos. Mag., 3, 448–455, 1958. %%; Chen, F. F.: Introduction to plasma physics, Plenum Press, New York, pp.65–66, 1974.; Dubinin, E., Sauer, K., and McKenzie, J. F.: Nonlinear stationary whistler waves and whistler solitons (oscillitons). Exact s...

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Nonlinear Correlations of Daily Temperature Records Over Land : Vo...

By: I. M. Jánosi; I. Bartos

Description: Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Eötvös University, Budapest, Hungary. We present a near global statistics on the correlation properties of daily temperature records. Data from terrestrial meteorological stations in the Global Daily Climatology Network are analyzed by means of detrended fluctuation analysis. Long-range temporal correlations extending up to several years are detected for each station. In order to reveal nonlinearity, we evaluate...

Fraedrich, K., Luksch, U., and Blender, R. A.: 1/f-model for long time memory of the ocean surface temperature, Phys. Rev. E, 70, 037301, doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.70.037301, 2003.; Hegger, R., Kantz, H., and Schreiber, T.: Practical implementation of nonlinear time series methods: The TISEAN package, Chaos, 9, 413–435, 1999, The software package is publicly available at http://www.mpipks-dresden.mpg.de/ tisean.; Jun, W. C., Oh, G., and Kim, S.: Understanding volatility corre...

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Synchronization and Desynchronization in the Olami-feder-christens...

By: R. Krenn; S. Hergarten

Description: Institut für Erdwissenschaften, Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz, Heinrichstraße 26, 8010 Graz, Austria. The Olami-Feder-Christensen model is probably the most studied model in the context of self-organized criticality and reproduces several statistical properties of real earthquakes. We investigate and explain synchronization and desynchronization of earthquakes in this model in the nonconservative regime and its relevance for the power-law distribution o...

Bak, P.: How Nature Works – the Science of Self-Organized Criticality, Copernicus, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 1996.; Bak, P., Tang, C., and Wiesenfeld, K.: Self-organized criticality. An explanation of 1/f noise, Phys. Rev. Lett., 59, 381–384, 1987.; Burridge, R. and Knopoff, L.: Model and theoretical seismicity, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 57, 341–371, 1967.; Christensen, K., Hamon, D., Jensen, H. J., and Lise, S.: Comment on Self-organized criticality in the ...

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A Typical Wave Wake from High-speed Vessels: Its Group Structure a...

By: A. Rodin; I. Didenkulova

Description: Laboratory of Wave Engineering, Institute of Cybernetics at Tallinn University of Technology, Akadeemia tee 21, 12618 Tallinn, Estonia. High-amplitude water waves induced by high-speed vessels are regularly observed in Tallinn Bay, the Baltic Sea, causing intense beach erosion and disturbing marine habitants in the coastal zone. Such a strong impact on the coast may be a result of a certain group structure of the wave wake. In order to understand it, her...

Brown, E. D., Buchsbaum, S. B., Hall, R. E., Penhune, J. P., Schmitt, K. F., Watson, K. M., and Wyatt, D. C.: Observations of a nonlinear solitary wave packet in the Kelvin wake of a ship, J. Fluid Mech., 204, 263–293, 1989.; Didenkulova, I., Parnell, K. E., Soomere, T., Pelinovsky, E., and Kurennoy, D.: Shoaling and runup of long waves induced by high-speed ferries in Tallinn Bay, J. Coast. Res., Special Issue, 56, 491–495, 2009a.; Didenkulova, I., Pelinovsky, E., and R...

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Alfvén Waves in Space and Astrophysical Dusty Plasmas : Volume 21,...

By: N. Rubab; A. C.-l. Chian; V. Jatenco-pereira

Description: Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas (IAG/USP), Rua do Matão, 1226, 05508-090 São Paulo, SP, Brazil. In this paper, we present some results of previous works on Alfvén waves in a dusty plasma in different astrophysical and space regions by taking into account the effect of superthermal particles on the dispersive characteristics. We show that the presence of dust and superthermal particles sensibly modify the dispersion of Alfvén wa...

Adams, F. C.: The birth environment of the solar system, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astr., 48, 47–85, doi:10.1146/annurev-astro-081309-130830, 2010.; Asamura, K., Chaston, C. C., Itoh, Y., Fujimoto, M., Sakanoi, T., Ebihara, Y., Yamazaki, A., Hirahara, M., Seki, K., Kasaba, Y., and Okada, M.: Sheared flows and samll-scale Alfvén wave generation in the auroral acceleration region, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L05105, <...

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Momentum and Buoyancy Transfer in Atmospheric Turbulent Boundary L...

By: S. S. Zilitinkevich; E. V. Ezhova; Yu. I. Troitskaya

Description: Institute of Applied Physics RAS, Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia. The surface-drag and mass-transfer coefficients are determined within a self-consistent problem of wave-induced perturbations and mean fields of velocity and density in the air, using a quasi-linear model based on the Reynolds equations with down-gradient turbulence closure. Investigation of a harmonic wave propagating along the wind has disclosed that the surface drag is generally larger for s...

Batchelor, G. K.: On steady laminar flow with closed streamlines at large Reynolds number, J. Fluid Mech., 1, 177–190, 1956.; Batchelor, G. K.: An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1967.; Brut, A., Butet, A., Durand, P., Caniaux, G., and Planton, S.: Air-sea exchanges in the equatorial area from the EQUALANT99 dataset: Bulk parametrizations of turbulent fluxes corrected for airflow distortion, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 131, 2497–25...

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Development of Internal Solitary Waves in Various Thermocline Regi...

By: T. Gerkema

Description: Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, The Netherlands. A numerical analysis is made on the appearance of oceanic internal solitary waves in a multi-modal setting. This is done for observed profiles of stratification from the Sulu Sea and the Bay of Biscay, in which thermocline motion is dominated by the first and third mode, respectively. The results show that persistent solitary waves occur only in ...

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Developing Diagnostics for Input-output Systems: the Effects of Ce...

By: I. A. Daglis; D. Vassiliadis

Description: Laboratory for Extraterrestrial Physics, Code 692, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA. Input-output systems are characterized by applying time series analysis techniques developed for autonomous systems to the input and the output time series separately and using the results as nonlinear statistics of the time series distributions. Two examples are presented using the correlation integral as a nonlinear statistic: the first one examines the change in th...

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Electrostatic Shock Properties Inferred from Akr Fine Structure : ...

By: J. Jasperse; R. A. Treumann; M. Berthomier; R. Pottelette

Description: CETP-CNRS, 4 Rue de Neptune, F-94107 Saint-Maur des Fossés, France. The auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) consists of a large number of fast drifting elementary radiation events that have been interpreted as travelling electron holes resulting from the nonlinear evolution of electron-acoustic waves. The elementary radiation structures sometimes become reflected or trapped in slowly drifting larger structures where the parallel electric ...

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Large Eddy Simulation Model for Wind-driven Sea Circulation in Coa...

By: F. Roman; C. Nasello; A. Petronio; V. Armenio

Description: Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Architettura, Università di Trieste, Piazzale Europa 1, 34127 Trieste, Italy. In the present paper a state-of-the-art large eddy simulation model (LES-COAST), suited for the analysis of water circulation and mixing in closed or semi-closed areas, is presented and applied to the study of the hydrodynamic characteristics of the Muggia bay, the industrial harbor of the city of Trieste, Italy. The model solves the non-hydrostatic...

Armenio, V. and Roman, F.: Large Eddy Simulation of environmental shallow water coastal flow, Ercoftac Bulletin, 78, 46–53, 2009.; Balaras, E.: Modeling complex boundaries using an external force field on fixed Cartesian grids in large-eddy simulations, Comput. Fluids, 33, 375–404, 2004.; Burchard, H., Craig, P., Gemmrich, J., Haren, H. V., Mathieu, P., Meier, H. M., Smith, W. N., Prandke, H., Rippeth, T., Skyllingstad, E., Smyth, W., Welsh, D., and Wijesekera, H.: Obser...

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