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A Statistical Mechanical Approach for the Computation of the Clima...

By: V. Lucarini; S. Sarno

Description: Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, UK. The climate belongs to the class of non-equilibrium forced and dissipative systems, for which most results of quasi-equilibrium statistical mechanics, including the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, do not apply. In this paper we show for the first time how the Ruelle linear response theory, developed for studying rigorously the impact of perturbations on general observables of non-equilibriu...

Abramov, R. and Majda, A. J.: Blended response algorithms for linear fluctuation-dissipation for complex nonlinear dynamical systems, Nonlinearity, 20, 2793–2821, 2007.; Arnold, V. I.: Catastrophe Theory, Springer, Berlin, 1992.; Baladi, V.: On the susceptibility function of piecewise expanding interval maps, Commun. Math. Phys., 275, 839–859, 2007.; Brayshaw, D. J., Hoskins, B., and Blackburn, M.: The storm track response to idealised SST perturbations in an aquaplanet ...

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Non-equilibrium Quasi-stationary States in a Magnetized Plasma : V...

By: S. V. Ratynskaia; O. E. Garcia; J.-v. Paulsen; V. I. Demidov; K. Rypdal

Description: Department of Physics, University of Tromsø, 9037 Tromsø, Norway. Non-equilibrium quasi-stationary states resulting from curvature driven interchange instabilities and drift-wave instabilities in a low beta, weakly ionized, magnetized plasma are investigated in the context of laboratory experiments in a toroidal configuration. Analytic modelling, numerical simulations and experimental results are discussed with emphasis on identifying...

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Resurrecting Dead-water Phenomenon : Volume 18, Issue 2 (11/03/2011)

By: T. Dauxois; M. J. Mercier; R. Vasseur

Description: Université de Lyon, Laboratoire de Physique de l'École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, CNRS, France. We revisit experimental studies performed by Ekman on dead-water (Ekman, 1904) using modern techniques in order to present new insights on this peculiar phenomenon. We extend its description to more general situations such as a three-layer fluid or a linearly stratified fluid in presence of a pycnocline, showing the robustness of dead-water phenomenon. We ob...

Baines, P. G.: Topographic Effects in Stratified Flows, Cambridge University Press, 1995.; Chomaz, J. M., Bonneton, P., and Hopfinger, E. J.: The structure of the near wake of a sphere moving horizontally in a stratified fluid, J. Fluid Mech., 254, 1–21, 1993.; Dalziel, S. B., Hughes, G. O., and Sutherland, B. R.: Whole-field density measurements by synthetic {S}chlieren, Exp. Fluids, 28, 322–335, 2000.; Dalziel, S. B., Carr, M., Sveen, J. K., and Davies, P. A.: Simultan...

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State Dependent Predictability: Impact of Uncertainty Dynamics, Un...

By: J. A. Hansen; V. M. Khade

Description: Dept. of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. The implications of state dependent, finite time error growth has been studied using singular values in a chaotic 2-dimensional map. Earlier studies have demonstrated the superiority of the singular values over the Lyapunov number in representing error growth over finite time scales, since they take state dependency into account. I...

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Effect of Thermal Pressure on Upward Plasma Fluxes Due to Ponderom...

By: F. Z. Feygin; A. K. Nekrasov

Description: Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences, 123995 Moscow, Russia. We consider the action of the ponderomotive force of low-frequency Alfvén waves on the distribution of the background plasma. It is assumed that the ponderomotive force for traveling waves arises as a result of the background inhomogeneity of medium under study. Expressions for the ponderomotive force obtained in this paper differ from previous analogous results. The ...

Guglielmi, A. V., Pokhotelov, O. A., Feygin, F. Z., Kurchashov, Yu. P., McKenzie, J. F., Shukla, P. K., Stenflo, L., and Potapov, A. S.: Ponderomotive wave forces in longitudinal MHD waveguides, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 7997–8002, 1995.; Kokubun, S., McPherron, R. L., and Russel, C. T.: OGO 5 Observations of Pc 5 waves: Ground-Magnetosphere correlations, J. Geophys. Res., 81, 5141–5149, 1976.; Landau, L. D. and Lifshits, E. M.: Electrodynamics of continious media, Nauka, M...

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Corrigendum to Holocene Climate Variability on Millennial Scales R...

By: A. Y. Schumann; A. Witt
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An Algorithm for Detecting Layer Boundaries in Sediments : Volume ...

By: K. Bube; U. Feudel; T. Klenke

Description: Institut für Chemie und Biologie des Meeres, Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, 26111 Oldenburg, Germany. In this paper we present an algorithm based on wavelet multiscale decomposition, designed to detect lines of maximal gradients in horizontal direction within two-dimensional data sets. The algorithm is capable of identifying layer boundaries within sediment profiles, as demonstrated for artificial as well as two field data sets....

Block, A., von Bloh, W., Klenke, T., and Schellnhuber, H J.: Multifractal Analysis of the Microdistribution of Elements in Sedimentary Structures Using Images From Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X Ray Spectroscopy, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 223–230, 1991.; Canny, J.: A Computational Approach to Edge Detection, IEEE Trans. Patt.\ Anal. Mach. Intell., 8, 679–698, 1986.; Capilla, C.: Application of the Haar wavelet transform to detect microseismic signal arr...

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Multifractal Two-scale Cantor Set Model for Slow Solar Wind Turbul...

By: A. Wawrzaszek; W. M. MacEk

Description: Space Research Centre, Polish Academy of Science, Bartycka 18A, 00-716 Warsaw, Poland. To quantify solar wind turbulence, we consider a generalized two-scale weighted Cantor set with two different scales describing nonuniform distribution of the kinetic energy flux between cascading eddies of various sizes. We examine generalized dimensions and the corresponding multifractal singularity spectrum depending on one probability measure parameter and two res...

Bruno, R. and Carbone, V.: The solar wind as a turbulence laboratory, Living Rev. Sol. Phys., 2, lrsp2005–4, 2005.; Bruno, R., Carbone, V., Sorriso-Valvo, L., and Bavassano, B.: Radial evolution of solar wind intermittency in the inner heliosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 1130, doi:10.1029/2002JA009615, 2003.; Burlaga, L. F.: Multifractal structure of the interplanetary magnetic field - Voyager 2 observations near 25 AU, ...

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Particle Acceleration in Tangential Discontinuities by Lower Hybri...

By: J. Huba; V. D. Shapiro; R. Bingham; D. Spicer

Description: Code 930, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771, UK. We consider the role that the lower-hybrid wave turbulence plays in providing the necessary resistivity at collisionless reconnection sights. The mechanism for generating the waves is considered to be the lower-hybrid drift instability. We find that the level of the wave amplitude is sufficient enough to heat and accelerate both electrons and ions.

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Dispersive Mhd Waves and Alfvenons in Charge Non-neutral Plasmas :...

By: J. Ekeberg; K. Stasiewicz

Description: Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala and Kiruna, Sweden. Dispersive properties of linear and nonlinear MHD waves, including shear, kinetic, electron inertial Alfvén, and slow and fast magnetosonic waves are analyzed using both analytical expansions and a novel technique of dispersion diagrams. The analysis is extended to explicitly include space charge effects in non-neutral plasmas. Nonlinear soliton solutions, here called alfvenons, are found t...

Aschwanden, M.: Physics of the solar corona, Springer, 2004.; Balikhin, M., Gedalin, M., and Petrukovich, A.: New mechanism for electron heating in shocks, Phys. Rev. Lett., 70, 1259–1262, 1993.; Banerjee, D., Erdelyi, R., Oliver, R., and O'Shea, E.: Present and Future Observing Trends in Atmospheric Magnetoseismology, Solar Phys., 246, 3–29, 2007.; Buti, B.: Chaos in Magnetoplasmas, Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 6, 129–143, 1999.; Carlson, C W., McFadden, J P., Ergun, R E...

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On Mhd Waves, Fire-hose and Mirror Instabilities in Anisotropic Pl...

By: B.-j. Wang; L.-n. Hau

Description: Institute of Space Science, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan, R.O.C.. Temperature or pressure anisotropies are characteristic of space plasmas, standard magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model for describing large-scale plasma phenomena however usually assumes isotropic pressure. In this paper we examine the characteristics of MHD waves, fire-hose and mirror instabilities in anisotropic homogeneous magnetized plasmas. The model equations are a set o...

Dasgupta, B., Tsurutani, B. T., and Janaki, M. S.: A kinetic approach to the Pondermotive Force, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 2128, doi:10.1029/2003GL017385, 2003.; Farrugia, C. J., Vasquez, B., Richardson, I. G., Torbert, R. B., Burlaga, L. F., Biernat, H. K., Mühlbachler, S., Ogilvie, K. W., Lepping, R. P., Scudder, J. D., Berdichevsky, D. E., Semenov, V. S., Kubyshkin, I. V., Phan, T. D., and Lin, R. P.: A reconnection layer associated with a magnetic cloud, Adv. Space Re...

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Identifying Non-normal and Lognormal Characteristics of Temperatur...

By: A. S. Jones; J. M. Forsythe; S. J. Fletcher; A. J. Kliewer

Description: Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere, Colorado State University, 1375 Campus Delivery, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1375, USA. Data assimilation systems and retrieval systems that are based upon a maximum likelihood estimation, many of which are in operational use, rely on the assumption that all of the errors and variables involved follow a normal distribution. This work develops a series of statistical tests to show that mixing ratio, tem...

Akaike, H: A new look at the statistical model identification, IEEE T. Automat. Contr., 19, 716–723, doi:10.1109/tac.1974.1100705, 1974.; Biondini, R.: Cloud motion and rainfall statistics, J. Appl. Meteorol., 15, 205–224, 2.0.CO;2>doi:10.1175/1520-0450(1976)015<0205:CMARS>2.0.CO;2, 1976.; Bocquet, M., Pires, C., and Wu, L.: Beyond Gaussian statistic...

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Modeling of the Near-field Distribution of Pollutants Coming from ...

By: N. S. Shumilova; T. P. Lyubimova; S. Luo; Y. N. Parshakova; B. Roux

Description: Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics Ural Branch of RAS, Perm, Russia. The present study concerns the 3-D distribution of pollutants emitted from a coastal outfall in the presence of strong sea currents. The problem is solved using the nonlinear Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations in the framework of the k-ε model. The constants of the logarithmic law for the vertical velocity profile in the bottom boundary layer are obtained by p...

Bowden, K. F.: Physical problems of the benthic boundary layer, Geophys. Surveys, 3, 255–296, 1978.; Holmedal, L. E., Myrhaug, D., and Rue, H.: The sea bed boundary layer under random waves plus current, Continental Shelf Res., 23, 717–750, 2003.; Jirka, G. H., Doneker, R. L., and Hinton, S. W.: User's manual for CORMIX: a hydrodynamic mixing zone model and decision support system for pollutant discharges into surface waters, DeFrees Hydraulics Laboratory, Cornell Univer...

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New Types of Stable Nonlinear Whistler Waveguides : Volume 9, Issu...

By: Yu. A. Zaliznyak; T. A. Davydova; A. I. Yakimenko

Description: Plasma Theory Department, Institute for Nuclear Research, Nauki Ave. 47, Kiev 03680, Ukraine. The stationary self-focusing of whistler waves with frequencies near half of the electron-cyclotron frequency in the ionospheric plasma is considered in the framework of a two-dimensional generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation including fourth-order dispersion effects and nonlinearity saturation. New types of soliton-like (with zero topologic...

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Improving the Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter Using a Second-orde...

By: X. Zheng; G. Wu; X. Zhang; L. Wang; S. Zhang; X. Liang; X. Yi

Description: State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China. The ensemble transform Kalman filter (ETKF) assimilation scheme has recently seen rapid development and wide application. As a specific implementation of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), the ETKF is computationally more efficient than the conventional EnKF. However, the current implementation of the ETKF still ha...

Anderson, J. L.: An adaptive covariance inflation error correction algorithm for ensemble filters, Tellus A, 59, 210–224, 2007.; Anderson, J. L.: Spatially and temporally varying adaptive covariance inflation for ensemble filters, Tellus A, 61, 72–83, 2009.; Anderson, J. L. and Anderson, S. L.: A Monte Carlo implementation of the non-linear filtering problem to produce ensemble assimilations and forecasts, Mon. Weather Rev., 127, 2741–2758, 1999.; Bishop, C. H. and Toth,...

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A Method to Calculate Finite-time Lyapunov Exponents for Inertial ...

By: D. Garaboa; V. Pérez-muñuzuri

Description: Group of Nonlinear Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain. The present study aims to improve the calculus of Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponents (iFTLEs) applied to describe the transport of inertial particles in a fluid flow. To this aim, the deformation tensor used to obtain the iFTLE is modified to take into account that the stretching rate between particles separated by a certain ...

Babiano, A., Cartwright, H. H. E., Piro, O., and Provenzale, A. Dynamics of a small neutrally buoyant sphere in a fluid and targeting in Hamiltonian systems, Phys. Rev. Lett., 84, 5764–5767, 2000.; Bec, J.: Fractal clustering of inertial particles in random flows, Phys. Fluids 15, L81–L84, 2003.; Beron-Vera, F. J., Olascoaga, M. J., Haller, G., Farazmand, M., Triñanes, J., and Wang, Y.: Dissipative inertial transport patterns near coherent Lagrangian eddies in the ocean,...

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Mixing of Rescaled Data and Bayesian Inference for Earthquake Recu...

By: A. Corral

Description: Grup de Física Estadística, Departament de Física, Facultat de Ciències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain. The limits of a recently proposed universal scaling law for the probability distributions of earthquake recurrence times are explored. The scaling properties allow to improve the statistics of occurrence of large earthquakes over small areas by mixing rescaled recurrence times for different areas. In this way...

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Logit-normal Mixed Model for Indian Monsoon Rainfall Extremes : Vo...

By: L. R. Dietz; S. Chatterjee

Description: University of Minnesota, School of Statistics, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. Describing the nature and variability of Indian monsoon rainfall extremes is a topic of much debate in the current literature. We suggest the use of a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM), specifically, the logit-normal mixed model, to describe the underlying structure of this complex climatic event. Several GLMM algorithms are described and simulations are performed to...

Attri, S. D. and Tyagi, A.: Climate Profile of India, Tech. rep., Government of India, Ministry of Earth Sciences, India Meteorological Department, 2010.; Breslow, N. and Clayton, D.: Approximate inference in generalized linear mixed models, J. Am. Stat. Assoc.,88, 9–25, 1993.; Ghosh, S., Luniya, V., and Gupta, A.: Trend analysis of Indian summer monsoon rainfall at different spatial scales, Atmos. Sci. Lett., 10, 285–290, 2009.; Bates, D.: lme4: Mixed-Effects Modeling l...

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Two- and Three-dimensional Computation of Solitary Wave Runup on N...

By: D. C. Kim; E. Pelinovsky; I. Didenkulova; B. H. Choi; S.-b. Woo

Description: Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Sungkyunkwan Univ., Chunchun-dong 300, Jangan-gu, Suwon 440-746, Korea. Solitary wave runup on a non-plane beach is studied analytically and numerically. For the theoretical approach, nonlinear shallow-water theory is applied to obtain the analytical solution for the simplified bottom geometry, such as an inclined channel whose cross-slope shape is parabolic. It generalizes Carrier-Greenspan approach for long w...

Antuono, M. and M. Brocchini, M.: The Boundary Value Problem for the Nonlinear Shallow Water Equations, Stud. Appl. Math., 119, 73–93, 2007.; Brocchini, M., Bernetti, R., Mancinelli, A., and Albertini, G.: An efficient solver for nearshore flows based on the WAF method, Coast. Eng., 43, 105–129, 2001.; Carrier, G. F. and Greenspan, H. P.: Water waves of finite amplitude on a sloping beach, J. Fluid Mech., 4, 97–109, 1958.; Carrier, G. F., Wu, T. T., and Yeh, H.: Tsunami ...

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Lyapunov, Floquet, and Singular Vectors for Baroclinic Waves : Vol...

By: R. M. Samelson

Description: College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, 104 Ocean Admin Bldg, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA. The dynamics of the growth of linear disturbances to a chaotic basic state is analyzed in an asymptotic model of weakly nonlinear, baroclinic wave-mean interaction. In this model, an ordinary differential equation for the wave amplitude is coupled to a partial differential equation for the zonal flow correction. The leading Lyap...

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