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Generation of Second Mode Solitary Waves by the Interaction of a F...

By: K. Hutter; V. I. Vlasenko

Description: Institut für Mechanik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Hochschulstr. 1, D-64289 Darmstadt, Germany. Results of an experimental and theoretical study of the interaction of a first mode internal solitary wave with a localised bottom topography (sill) are presented. Laboratory experiments have been performed in a 10m long and 0.33m wide channel filled with a stratified fluid. The interface between the two layers (fresh and salt water) is d...

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Estimation of Sedimentary Proxy Records Together with Associated U...

By: K. Rehfeld; S. Prasad; J. Heitzig; B. Goswami; J. Kurths; A. Ambili; N. Marwan

Description: Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Transdisciplinary Concepts & Methods, 14412 Potsdam, Germany. Sedimentary proxy records constitute a significant portion of the recorded evidence that allow us to investigate paleoclimatic conditions and variability. However, uncertainties in the dating of proxy archives limit our ability to fix the timing of past events and interpret proxy record inter-comparisons. While there are various ag...

Anoop, A., Prasad, S., Plessen, B., Basavaiah, N., Gaye, B., Naumann, R., Menzel, P., Weise, S., and Brauer, A.: Palaeoenvironmental implications of evaporative Gaylussite crystals from Lonar lake, Central India, J. Quaternary Sci., 28, 349–359, 2013.; Blaauw, M.: Methods and code for classical age-modelling of radiocarbon sequences, Quat. Geochronol., 5, 512–518, 2010.; Blaauw, M., Christen, J. A., Mauquoy, D., van der Plicht, J., and Bennett, K.: Testing the timing of ...

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Multivariate Autoregressive Modelling of Sea Level Time Series fro...

By: M. J. Fernandes; M. E. Silva; S. M. Barbosa

Description: Department of Applied Mathematics, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Portugal. This work addresses the autoregressive modelling of sea level time series from TOPEX/Poseidon satellite altimetry mission. Datasets from remote sensing applications are typically very large and correlated both in time and space. Multivariate analysis methods are useful tools to summarise and extract information from such large space-time datasets. Multivariate autoregre...

AVISO: AVISO User Handbook for Merged TOPEX/POSEIDON Products, AVI-NT-02-101-CN ed. 3.0, 1996.; Barbosa, S M., Fernandes, M J., and Silva, M E.: Space-time analysis of sea level in the North Atlantic from TOPEX/Poseidon satellite altimetry, International Association of Geodesy Symposia, 129, 248-253, Springer, 2005.; Berwin, R.: Topex/Poseidon Sea Surface Height Anomaly Product. User's Reference Manual, NASA JPL Physical Oceanography DAAC, Pasadena, CA., 2003.; Chambers,...

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Brief Communication Stratospheric Winds, Transport Barriers and th...

By: M. G. Brown; H. Koçak; F. J. Beron-vera; M. J. Olascoaga

Description: Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA. The Arctic stratosphere throughout the late winter and early spring of 2011 was characterized by an unusually severe ozone loss, resulting in what has been described as an ozone hole. The 2011 ozone loss was made possible by unusually cold temperatures throughout the Arctic stratosphere. Here we consider the issue of what constitutes suitable environmenta...

Arnold, V. I., Kozlov, V. V., and Neishtadt, A. I.: Mathematical aspects of classical and celestial mechanics, in: Dynamical Systems III, Encyclopedia of Mathematical Sciencies, vol. 3, 3rd Edn., 518 pp., Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 2006.; Baldwin, M. P., Dameris, M., and Shepherd, T. G.: How will the stratosphere affect climate change?, Science, 316, 1576–1577, 2007.; Beron-Vera, F. J., Brown, M. G., Olascoaga, M. J., Rypina, I. I., Koçak, H., and Udovydchenkov,...

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Patch Behaviour and Predictability Properties of Modelled Finite-a...

By: H. E. De Swart; D. Calvete; N. C. Vis-star

Description: Institute for Marine and Atmospheric research, Utrecht University, Princetonplein 5, 3584 CC Utrecht, The Netherlands. The long-term evolution of shoreface-connected sand ridges is investigated with a nonlinear spectral model which governs the dynamics of waves, currents, sediment transport and the bed level on the inner shelf. Wave variables are calculated with a shoaling-refraction model instead of using a parameterisation. The spectral model describes...

Ashton, A D. and Murray, A B.: High-angle wave instability and emergent shoreline shapes: 1. Modeling of sand waves, flying spits, and capes, J. Geophys. Res., 111, 1–19, F04011, \doi10.1029/2005JF000422, 2006.; Bruun, P.: Coast erosion and the development of beach profiles, Technical Memorandum, vol. 44, Beach Erosion Board, Corps of Engineers, 1954.; Bruun, P.: Sea-level rise as a cause of shore erosion, in: Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Journ...

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Enhancing Predictability by Increasing Nonlinearity in Enso and Lo...

By: Z. Ye; W. W. Hsieh

Description: Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada. The presence of nonlinear terms in the governing equations of a dynamical system usually leads to the loss of predictability, e.g. in numerical weather prediction. However, for the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon, in an intermediate coupled equatorial Pacific model run under the 1961–1975 and the 1981–1995 climatologies, the latter climato...

An, S.-I. and Wang, B.: Interdecadal change of the structure of the ENSO mode and its impact on the ENSO frequency, J. Climate, 13, 2044–2055, 2000.; An, S.-I.: Interdecadal changes in the El~Niño La-Niña asymmetry, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L23210, doi:10.1029/2004GL021699, 2004.; An, S.-I. and Jin, F.-F.: Nonlinearity and asymmetry of ENSO, J. Climate, 17, 2399–2412, 2004.; Bishop, C. M.: Neural Networks for Pattern Recognition, Clarendon Press, 482~pp., 1995.; Chen, D....

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A Delay Differential Model of Enso Variability: Parametric Instabi...

By: S. Thompson; I. Zaliapin; M. Ghil

Description: Dépt. Terre-Atmosphère-Océan and Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, Ecole Normale Supérieure, Paris, France. We consider a delay differential equation (DDE) model for El-Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability. The model combines two key mechanisms that participate in ENSO dynamics: delayed negative feedback and seasonal forcing. We perform stability analyses of the model in the three-dimensional space of its physically relevant parameters. Ou...

Andronov, A. A. and Pontryagin, L. S.: Systèmes grossiers, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 14, 5, 247–250, 1937.; Baker, C. T. H.: Retarded differential equations, J. Comp. Appl. Math., 125, 309–335, 2000.; Baker, C. T. H., Paul, C. A. H., and Willé, D. R.: A bibliography on the numerical solution of delay differential equations, Numerical Analysis Report, 269, Manchester Centre for Computational Mathematics, Manchester, England, 1995.; Battisti, D. S.: The dynamics and thermodyn...

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Solar Wind Low-frequency Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence: Extended ...

By: P. Veltri; R. Bruno; V. Carbone

Description: Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá della Calabria, 87036 Roges di Rende, Italy. In this paper we review some of the work done in investigating the scaling properties of Magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, by using velocity fluctuations measurements performed in the interplanetary space plasma by the Helios spacecraft. The set of scaling exponents ξq for the q-th order velocity structure fu...

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Evaluation of Eta Model Seasonal Precipitation Forecasts Over Sout...

By: J. L. Gomes; J. F. Bustamante; S. C. Chou

Description: Center for Weather Prediction and Climate Studies – CPTEC, National Institute for Space Research, INPE, Brazil. Seasonal forecasts run by the Eta Model over South America were evaluated with respect to precipitation predictability at different time scales, seasonal, monthly and weekly for one-year period runs. The model domain was configured over most of South America in 40km horizontal resolution and 38 layers. The lateral boundary conditions were take...

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The Modified Korteweg - De Vries Equation in the Theory of Large -...

By: E. Pelinovsky; T. Talipova; R. Grimshaw

Description: Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Monash University, Clayton, 3168, Victoria, Australia. The propagation of large- amplitude internal waves in the ocean is studied here for the case when the nonlinear effects are of cubic order, leading to the modified Korteweg - de Vries equation. The coefficients of this equation are calculated analytically for several models of the density stratification. It is shown that the coefficient of the cubic nonlinear...

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Fractal Time Statistics of Ae-index Burst Waiting Times: Evidence ...

By: P. De Michelis; G. Consolini

Description: Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario – CNR, Roma, Italy. Recent observations and analyses evidenced that the magnetotail, as well as the magnetospheric dynamics are characterised by a scale-free behaviour and intermittence. These results, along with numerical simulations on cellular automata, suggest that the observed scale-invariance may be due to forced and/or self-organised criticality (FSOC), meaning that the magneto...

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What Can Asymptotic Expansions Tell US About Large-scale Quasi-geo...

By: A. Stegner; V. Zeitlin

Description: LMD, B.P.99, Université P.et M. Curie, 4, pl. Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France. The problem of the large-scale quasi-geostrophic anticyclonic vortices is studied in the framework of the baratropic rotating shallow- water equations on the β-plane. A systematic approach based on the multiplescale asymptotic expansions is used leading to a hierarchy of governing equations for the large-scale vortices depending on their characteristic size, velocity and...

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Barriers to Transport in Aperiodically Time-dependent Two-dimensio...

By: S. Wiggins; A. M. Mancho

Description: School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TW, UK. In this paper we consider fluid transport in two-dimensional flows from the dynamical systems point of view, with the focus on elliptic behaviour and aperiodic and finite time dependence. We give an overview of previous work on general nonautonomous and finite time vector fields with the purpose of bringing to the attention of those working on fluid transport from the dynamical systems p...

Acrivos, A., Aref, H., and Ottino, J. M. (Eds.): Symposium on Fluid Mechanics of Stirring and Mixing, Phys. Fluids A, Part 2, 723–1469, 1991.; Aref, H.: Stirring by chaotic advection, J. Fluid Mech., 143, 1–21, 1984.; Aref, H.: The development of chaotic advection, Phys. Fluids, 14, 1315–1325, 2002.; Aref, H. and El Naschie, M. S. (Eds.): Chaos Applied to Fluid Mixing, Chaos, Solitons, and Fractals, 4, 745–1116 , 1994.; Bower, A. S.: A simple kinematic mechanism for mixi...

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A Kalman Filter Application to a Spectral Wave Model : Volume 12, ...

By: A. Pires Silva; M. C. Bernadino; J. P. Pinto

Description: Marinha, Instituto Hidrográfico, Portugal. A sequential time dependent data assimilation scheme based on the Kalman filter is applied to a spectral wave model. Usually, the first guess covariance matrices used in optimal interpolation schemes are exponential spreading functions, which remain constant. In the present work the first guess correlation errors evolve in time according to the dynamic constraints of the wave model. A system error noise is dedu...

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Distinguished Hyperbolic Trajectories in Time-dependent Fluid Flow...

By: D. Small; S. Wiggins; K. Ide

Description: Department of Atmospheric Sciences, and Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1565, USA. In this paper we develop analytical and numerical methods for finding special hyperbolic trajectories that govern geometry of Lagrangian structures in time-dependent vector fields. The vector fields (or velocity fields) may have arbitrary time dependence and be realized only as data sets over finite time intervals, ...

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On the Nonlinear Feedback Loop and Energy Cycle of the Non-dissipa...

By: B.-w. Shen

Description: ESSIC, University of Maryland, College Park, Mesoscale Atmospheric Processes Laboratory, Code 612, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA. In this study, we discuss the role of the nonlinear terms and linear (heating) term in the energy cycle of the three-dimensional (XYZ) non-dissipative Lorenz model (3D-NLM). (X, Y, Z) represent the solutions in the phase space. We first present the closed-...

Bender, C. M. and Orszag, S. A.: Advanced Mathematical Methods for Scientists and Engineers, McGraw-Hill, New York, 593 pp., 1978.; Anthes, R.: Turning the tables on chaos: is the atmosphere more predictable than we assume?, UCAR Magazine, spring/summer, available at: https://www2.ucar.edu/atmosnews/opinion/turning-tables-chaos-atmosphere-more-predictable-we-assum...

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Dust-acoustic Solitary Structures in Plasmas with Nonthermal Elect...

By: S. R. Pillay; F. Verheest

Description: Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281, B–9000 Gent, Belgium. Large dust-acoustic solitons and kinks in dusty plasmas with positive cold dust, nonthermally distributed electrons and Boltzmann ions have been studied in a systematic way, to delimit their compositional parameter space. The existence domain of positive solitons is limited by infinite dust compression, of negative ones by the occurrence of potential kinks, provided t...

Asbridge, J. R., Bame, S. J., and Strong, I. B.: Outward flow of protons from Earths bow shock, J. Geophys. Res., 73, 5777–5782, 1968.; Baluku, T. K., Hellberg, M. A., and Mace, R. L.: Solitons in dusty plasmas with positive dust grains, Phys. Plasmas, 15, 033701, 2008.; Baboolal, S., Bharuthram, R., and Hellberg, M. A.: Cut-off conditions and existence domains for large-amplitude ion-acoustic solitons and double layers in fluid plasmas, J. Plasma Phys., 44, 1–23, 1990.;...

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Haar Wavelets, Fluctuations and Structure Functions: Convenient Ch...

By: D. Schertzer; S. Lovejoy

Description: Physics, McGill University, 3600 University st., Montreal, Que. H3A 2T8, Canada. Geophysical processes are typically variable over huge ranges of space-time scales. This has lead to the development of many techniques for decomposing series and fields into fluctuations Δv at well-defined scales. Classically, one defines fluctuations as differences: (Δvdiff = v(xx)-v(x) and this is adequate for many applicat...

Peterson, T. C. and Vose, R. S.: An overview of the Global Historical Climatology Network temperature database, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 78, 2837–2849, 1997.; Arneodo, A., Decoster, N., and Roux, S. G.: Intermittency, Log-Normal Statistics, And Multifractal Cascade Process In High-Resolution Satellite Images Of Cloud Structure, Phys. Rev. Lett., 83, 1255–1258, 1999.; Ashok, V., Balakumaran, T., Gowrishankar, C., Vennila, I. L. A., and Nirmalkumar, A.: The Fast Haar Wavelet...

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Oscillating Forcings and New Regimes in the Lorenz System: a Four-...

By: A. Pasini; F. Maimone; V. Pelino

Description: Italian Air Force, CNMCA, Pratica di Mare (Rome), Italy. It has been shown that forced Lorenz models generally maintain their two-lobe structure, just giving rise to changes in the occurrence of their regimes. Here, using the richness of a unified formalism for Kolmogorov-Lorenz systems, we show that introducing oscillating forcings can lead to the birth of new regimes and to a four-lobe attractor. Analogies within a climate dynamics framework are mentioned.

Ahlers, G., Hohenberg, P. C., and Lucke, M.: Externally modulated Rayleigh-Bénard convection: Experiment and theory, Phys. Rev. Lett., 53, 48–51, 1984.; Arnold, V. I.: Kolmogorov's hydrodynamic attractors, Proc. Roy. Soc. A, 434, 19–22, 1991.; Arnold, V. I. and Khesin, B. A.: Topological methods in hydrodynamics, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1998.; Broer, H., Simó, C., and Vitolo, R.: Bifurcations and strange attractors in the Lorenz-84 climate model with seasonal forcing,...

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Neural Network Prediction of Geomagnetic Activity: a Method Using ...

By: D. Jankovičová; Z. Vörös

Description: Geomagnetic Observatory Hurbanovo, Geophysical Institute SAS, Slovak Republic. Local scaling and singularity properties of solar wind and geomagnetic time series were analysed using Hölder exponents . It was shown that in analysed cases due to the multifractality of fluctuations, α changes from point to point. We argued there exists a peculiar interplay between regularity/irregularity and amplitude characteristics of fluctuations which co...

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