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Rainfall Nowcasting by at Site Stochastic Model P.R.A.I.S.E. : Vol...

By: D. L. De Luca; P. Versace; B. Sirangelo

Description: Dipartimento di Difesa del Suolo, Università della Calabria – Rende (IT). The paper introduces a stochastic model to forecast rainfall heights at site: the P.R.A.I.S.E.~model (Prediction of Rainfall Amount Inside Storm Events). PRAISE is based on the assumption that the rainfall height Hi+1 accumulated on an interval Δt between the instants iΔt and (i+1)Δt is correlated with a variable Zi<...

Abramowitz, M. and Stegun, I. A.: Handbook of mathematical functions, Dover, New York, 1970.; Bartlett, M. S.: The Spectral Analysis of Point Processes, J. R. Stat. Soc., B25, 264–296, 1963.; Box, G. E. P. and Jenkins, G. M.: Time series analysis: forecasting and control, Holden-Day. S.Francisco, 1976.; Bras, R. L. and Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.: Random functions and hydrology, Dover Publications, 1984.; Brockwell, P. J. and Davis, R. A .: Time Series. Theory and Methods, Spri...

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Hydrological Characterization of Watersheds in the Blue Nile Basin...

By: U. Ilstedt; A. I. Gärdenas; K. Bishop; S. G. Gebrehiwot

Description: Departmen of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7050, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden. We made a hydrological characterization of 32 watersheds (31–4350 km2) in the Blue Nile Basin, using data from a study of water and land resources in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia published in 1964 by the US Bureau of Reclamation (USBR). The USBR document contains data on flow, climate, topography, geology, ...

Abebe, S.: Identification and delineation of hydrological homogeneous regions – the case of Blue Nile River Basin, M.Sc. Thesis, ArbaMinch University, Ethiopia, 2007.; Adane, A. and G. Foerch.: Catchment characterization as predictors of baseflow index (BFI) in Wabi Shebele River Basin, East Africa, Conference on International Agricultural Research for Development, University of Bonn, Germany, 11–13 Oct 2006, 2006.; Black, P. E.: Watershed functions, J. Am. Water Resour....

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Big and Small: Menisci in Soil Pores Affect Water Pressures, Dynam...

By: G. H. De Rooij

Description: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Theodor-Lieser-Str. 4, 06120 Halle (Saale), Germany. Soil water is confined behind the menisci of its water-air interface. Catchment-scale fluxes (groundwater recharge, evaporation, transpiration, precipitation, etc.) affect the matric potential, and thereby the interface curvature and the configuration of the phases. In turn, these affect the fluxes (except precipitation), creating feedb...

Davidson, J. M., Stone, L. R. , Nielsen, D. R., and Larue, M. E.: Field measurement and use of soil-water properties, Water Resour. Res., 5, 1312–1321, doi:10.1029/WR005i006p01312, 1969.; Jury, W. A., Gardner, W. R., and Gardner, W. H.: Soil Physics, 5th ed., John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, USA, 328 pp., 1991.; Bear, J. and Bachmat, Y.: Introduction to modeling of transport phenomena in porous media, Kluwer Academic...

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The Role of Amazon Basin Moisture on the Atmospheric Branch of the...

By: A. Drumond; R. Nieto; J. Marengo; L. Moreira; L. Gimeno; T. Ambrizzi

Description: Ephyslab, Facultad de Ciencias, UVIGO, Ourense, Spain. We used a Lagrangian model (FLEXPART) and the 1979–2012 ERA Interim reanalysis data to investigate the role of Amazon Basin moisture in the regional hydrological budget along the year. FLEXPART computes budgets of evaporation minus precipitation by calculating changes in the specific humidity along forward and backwards trajectories. The Tropical Atlantic (TA) is the major remote moisture source ...

Arraut, J. M. and Satyamurty, P.: Precipitation and water vapor transport in the Southern Hemisphere with emphasis on the South American region, J. Appl. Meteorol. Clim., 48, 1902–1912, doi:10.1175/2009JAMC2030.1, 2009.; Arraut, J. M., Nobre, C., Barbosa, H. M. J., Obregon, G., and Marengo, J.: Aerial rivers and lakes: looking at large-scale moisture transport and its relation to Amazonia and to subtropical rainfall in...

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Hydrochemical Analysis of Stream Water in a Tropical, Mountainous ...

By: J. Ingwersen; T. Streck; Y. Sukvanachaikul; W. Sangchan; S. Uhlenbrook; C. Hugenschmidt

Description: Institute of Soil Science and Land Evaluation, Biogeophysics Section (310d), University of Hohenheim, 70953 Stuttgart, Germany. Land use in the vulnerable mountainous parts of the Mae Sa watershed, northern Thailand, has been changed from subsistence agriculture to market-driven production within the past decades. This change is reflected in an increased application of agrochemicals on agricultural areas to secure yields and control pests. Our study site...

Bonell, M.: Progress in the understanding of runoff generation dynamics in forests, J. Hydrol., 150, 217–275, 1993.; Burns, D. A., McDonnell, J. J., Hooper, R. P., Peters, N. E., Freer, J. E., Kendall, C., and Beven, K.: Quantifying contributions to storm runoff through end-member mixing analysis and hydrologic measurements at the Panola Mountain Research Watershed (Georgia, USA), Hydrol. Processes, 15, 1903–1924, 2000.; Chaves, J., Neill, C., Germer, S., Neto, S. G., Kr...

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Analysis of Intra-country Virtual Water Trade Strategy to Alleviat...

By: M. Faramarzi; R. Schulin; H. Yang; C. R. Binder; J. Mousavi; K. C. Abbaspour

Description: Departement of Natural Resources, Isfahan University of Technology, 84156 Isfahan, Iran. Increasing water scarcity has posed a major constraint to sustain food production in many parts of the world. To study the situation at the regional level, we took Iran as an example and analyzed how an intra-country virtual water trade strategy (VWTS) may help improve cereal production as well as alleviate the water scarcity problem. This strategy calls, in part, f...

Abbaspour, K. C., Faramarzi, M., Ghasemi, S. S., and Yang, H.: Assessing the impact of climate change on water resources in Iran, Water Resour. Res., 45, W10434, doi:10.1029/2008WR007615, 2009.; Afkhami, M., Shariat, M., Zaafarzadeh, N., Ghadiri, H., and Nabizadeh, R.: Reginal water quality management for the Karun-Dez river basin, Iran, Water Environ. J., 21, 192–199, doi:10.1111/j.1747-6593.2007.00070, 2007.; Agha, S. R.: Use of goal programming and integer programming...

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Topographic Effects on Solar Radiation Distribution in Mountainous...

By: J. Herrero; M. J. Polo; C. Aguilar

Description: Fluvial Dynamics and Hydrology Research Group, University of Córdoba, Spain. Distributed energy and water balance models require time-series surfaces of the climatological variables involved in hydrological processes. Among them, solar radiation constitutes a key variable to the circulation of water in the atmosphere. Most of the hydrological GIS-based models apply simple interpolation techniques to data measured at few weather stations disregarding top...

Aguilar, C.: Scale effects in hydrological processes. Application to the Guadalfeo river watershed (Granada). PhD Thesis. University of Córdoba, http://www.cuencaguadalfeo.com/archivos/Guadalfeo/Tesis/TesisCris_en.pdf, last access: 5 April 2010, 2008.; Allen, R. G.: A Penman for all seasons, J. Irrig. Drain. Eng. ASCE., 112, 348–368, 1986.; Allen, R. G., Pereira, L. S., Raes, D., and Smi...

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Improvement, Calibration and Validation of a Distributed Hydrolo...

By: J. Noilhan; F. Habets; E. Martin; P. Quintana Seguí

Description: CNRM-GAME (Météo-France CNRS). 42 av. G. Coriolis, 31057 Toulouse CEDEX, France. The hydrometeorological model SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU (SIM) computes water and energy budgets on the land surface and riverflows and the level of several aquifers at the scale of France. SIM is composed of a meteorological analysis system (SAFRAN), a land surface model (ISBA), and a hydrogeological model (MODCOU). In this study, an exponential profile of hydraulic...

Andersen, J., Refsgaard, J C., and Jensen, K H.: Distributed hydrological modelling of the Senegal River Basin – model construction and validation, J. Hydrol., 247, 200–214, 2001.; Beven, K.: A manifesto for the equifinality thesis, J. Hydrol., 320, 18–36, 2006.; Boone, A.: Modélisation des processus hydrologiques dans le schéma de surface ISBA: Inclusion d'un réservoir hydrologique, du gel et modélisation de la neige., Ph.D. thesis, Université Paul Sabatier (Toulouse II...

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Decomposition Analysis of Water Footprint Changes in a Water-limit...

By: X. A. Yin; Z. F. Yang; Y. Zhi

Description: State Key Laboratory of Water Environmental Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China. Decomposition analysis of water footprint (WF) changes, or assessing the changes in WF and identifying the contributions of factors leading to the changes, is important to water resource management. However, conventional studies focus on WF from the perspective of administrative region rather than river basin. Decomposition analysis...

Allan, J. A.: Virtual water: a strategic resource, global solutions to regional deficits, Ground Water, 36, 545–546, 1998.; Allan, J. A.: A convenient solution, UNESCO Courier, 52, 29–31, 1999.; Beijing Government: Beijing Green-Development Strategy in National 12th Five-Year Plan, available at: http://zhengwu.beijing.gov.cn/ghxx/sewgh/t1198652.htm (last access: 9 August 2010), 2010.; Beijing Statistics Bu...

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Estimates of the Climatological Land Surface Energy and Water Bala...

By: P. Porada; A. Kleidon; M. Renner

Description: Max-Planck-Institut für Biogeochemie, Jena, Germany. The land surface energy and water balances are tightly coupled by the partitioning of absorbed solar radiation into terrestrial radiation and the turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat, as well as the partitioning of precipitation into evaporation and runoff. Evaporation forms the critical link between these two balances. Its rate is strongly affected by turbulent exchange as it provides the mea...

Arora, V. K.: The use of the aridity index to assess climate change effects on annual runoff, J. Hydrol., 265, 164–177, 2002.; Aladin, N., Cretaux, J.-F., Plotnikov, I. S., Kouraev, A. V., Smurov, A. O., Cazenave, A., Egorov, A. N., and Papa, F.: Modern hydro-biological state of the Small Aral sea, Environmetrics, 16, 375–392, 2005.; Becker, A., Finger, P., Meyer-Christoffer, A., Rudolf, B., Schamm, K., Schneider, U., and Ziese, M.: A description of the global land-surfa...

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Potential Impacts to Freshwater Ecosystems Caused by Flow Regime A...

By: J.-p. Suen

Description: Dept. of Hydraulic and Ocean Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. Observed increases in the Earth's surface temperature bring with them associated changes in precipitation and atmospheric moisture that consequentially alter river flow regimes. This paper uses the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration approach to examine climate-induced flow regime changes that can potentially affect freshwater ecosystems. Analyses of the annual ext...

Angeler, D. G.: Resurrection ecology and global climate change research in freshwater ecosystems, J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc., 26(1), 12–22, 2007.; Black, A. R., Rowan, J. S., Duck, R. W., Bragg, O. M., and Clelland, B. E.: DHRAM: a method for classifying river flow regime alterations for the EC Water Framework Directive, Aquat. Conserv., 15(5), 427–446, 2005.; Bunn, S. E. and Arthington, A. H.: Basic principles and ecological consequences of altered flow regimes for aquatic...

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Spatio-temporal Impact of Climate Change on the Groundwater System...

By: P. Willems; J. Dams; T. Van Daele; E. Salvadore; V. Ntegeka; O. Batelaan

Description: Department of Hydrology and Hydraulic Engineering, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Given the importance of groundwater for food production and drinking water supply, but also for the survival of groundwater dependent terrestrial ecosystems (GWDTEs) it is essential to assess the impact of climate change on this freshwater resource. In this paper we study with high temporal and spatial resolution the impact of 2...

Allen, D. M., Cannon, A. J., Toews, M. W., and Scibek J.: Variability in simulated recharge using different GCM's, Water Resour. Res., 46, W00F03, doi:10.1029/2009WR008932, 2010.; Arnold, J. G. and Allen, P. M.: Automated methods for estimating baseflow and ground water recharge from streamflow records, J. Am. Water Resour. As., 35, 411–424, 1999.; Baguis, P. E., Roulin, P., Willems, P., and Ntegeka, V.: Climate change s...

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Identifying Runoff Processes on the Plot and Catchment Scale : Vol...

By: F. Naef; S. Scherrer; P. Schmocker-fackel

Description: Insitute of Environmental Engineering, ETH Zurich, ETH Hönggerberg, 8093 Zürich, Switzerland. Rainfall-runoff models that adequately represent the real hydrological processes and that do not have to be calibrated, are needed in hydrology. Such a model would require information about the runoff processes occurring in a catchment and their spatial distribution. Therefore, the aim of this article is (1) to develop a methodology that allows the delineation o...

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Creating a Catchment Scale Perspective for River Restoration : Vol...

By: D. Miller; J. Barquín; L. Benda

Description: Earth Systems Institute, Mt. Shasta, California, Seattle, Washington, USA. One of the major challenges in river restoration is to identify the natural fluvial landscape in catchments with a long history of river control. Intensive land use on valley floors often predates the earliest remote sensing: levees, dikes, dams, and other structures alter valley-floor morphology, river channels and flow regimes. Consequently, morphological patterns indicative of...

Barquín, J., Ondiviela, B., Recio, M., Álvarez-Cabria, M., Peñas, F. J., Fernández, D., Gómez, A., Álvarez, C., and Juanes, J. A.: Assessing the conservation status of alder-ash alluvial forest and Atlantic salmon in the Natura 2000 river network of Cantabria, Northern Spain, in: River conservation and management: 20 years on, edited by: Boon, P. J. and Raven, P. J., Wiley-Blackwell, in press, 2011.; Alcala-Zamora, J. and Quiepo De Llano, J.: Historia de una empresa side...

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Urban Metabolism and River Systems: an Historical Perspective – Pa...

By: S. Barles

Description: Laboratoire Théorie des Mutations Urbaines, UMR CNRS AUS, Institut Français d'Urbanisme, Université de Paris 8, Champs-sur-Marne, France. The aim of this paper is to analyse interaction between Paris and the Seine during the industrial era, 1790–1970, a period marked by strong population growth, changes in techniques, and the absence of specific legislation on environmental issues. The viewpoint focuses on exchanges of waters and wastes between city and ...

Barles, S. and Lestel, L.: The nitrogen question: industrialization, urbanization, and river quality in Paris, 1830–1939, J. Urban History, 33, 2007.; Dumas, J. B.: Rapport conclusif, In Enquête sur les engrais industriels, J. Rothschild, Paris, I–XXXI, 1866.; Dureau, G.: Traité de la culture de la betterave à sucre, 2d ed., Journal des fabricants de sucre Pub., Paris, IV, 554pp., 1886.; Annuaire statistique de la ville de Paris, année\ldots, Paris, 1880–1967.; Arnould, ...

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Use of Remote Sensing for Hydrological Parameterisation of Alpine ...

By: G. Lampart; M. Braun; W. Mauser; H. Bach

Description: VISTA Geowissenschaftliche Fernerkundung GmbH Gabelsbergerstr. 51, D-80333 München, Germany. Physically-based water balance models require a realistic parameterisation of land surface characteristics of a catchment. Alpine areas are very complex with strong topographically-induced gradients of environmental conditions, which makes the hydrological parameterisation of Alpine catchments difficult. Within a few kilometres the water balan...

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Trends of Streamflow, Sediment Load and Their Dynamic Relations fo...

By: Y. H. Li; X. P. Zhang; J. X. Liu; Y. L. Fu; N. Chen; Z. L. Gao

Description: State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100, China. To control severe soil erosion on the Loess Plateau, China, a great number of soil conservation measures have been adopted since 1950s and subsequently, the Grain for Green project has been implemented from 1999. The measures and the project result in a large scale land use/cover change (LUCC). Under...

Bi, H. X., Liu, B., Wu, J., Yun, L., Chen, Z. H., and Cui, Z. W.: Effects of precipitation and landuse on runoff during the past 50 yr in a typical watershed in Loess Plateau, China, Int. J. Sediment Res., 24(3), 352–364, 2009.; Brown, A. E., Zhang, L., McMahon, A. W., and Vertessy, R. A.: A review of paired catchment studies foe determing changes in water yield resulting from alterations in vegetation, J. Hydrol., 310(1–4), 28–61, 2005.; Castillo, V. M., Ma...

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Generalized Versus Non-generalized Neural Network Model for Multi-...

By: A. El-shafie; A. Noureldin

Description: Senior Lecturer, Civil and Structural Engineering Dept. University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) have been found efficient, particularly in problems where characteristics of the processes are stochastic and difficult to describe using explicit mathematical models. However, time series prediction based on ANN algorithms is fundamentally difficult and faces problems. One of the major shortcomings is the over-fitting while ...

Coulibaly, P., Anctil, F., and Bobée, B.: Real Time Neural Network-Based Forecasting System For Hydropower Reservoirs, in: First Int.\ Conf. On New Inform. Tech. For Decision Making In Civil Eng., Montreal, 1001–1011, 1998.; Haykin, S.: Neural Networks: a Comprehensive Foundation, Macmillan College Publishing Company, Newyork, 1994.; Kang, K. W., Park, C. Y., and Kim, J. H.: Neural Network And Its Application To Rainfall-Runoff Forecasting, Korean Journal Of Hydroscience...

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Applying Sequential Monte Carlo Methods Into a Distributed Hydrolo...

By: S. Kim; M. Shiiba; Y. Tachikawa; S. J. Noh

Description: Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan. Data assimilation techniques have received growing attention due to their capability to improve prediction. Among various data assimilation techniques, sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) methods, known as particle filters, are a Bayesian learning process that has the capability to handle non-linear and non-Gaussian state-space models. In this paper, we propose an improved parti...

Bloschl, G. and Sivapalan, M.: Scale issues in hydrological modelling: a review, Hydrol. Process., 9, 251–290, 1995.; Arulampalam, M. S., Maskell, S., Gordon, N., and Clapp, T.: A tutorial on particle filters for online nonlinear/non-Gaussian Bayesian tracking, IEEE T. Signal Process., 50, 174–188, 2002.; Clark, M. P., Rupp, D. E., Woods, R. A., Zheng, X., Ibbitt, R. P., Slater, A. G., Schmidt, J., and Uddstrom, M. J.: Hydrological data assimilation with the ensemble Kal...

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Multi-satellite Rainfall Sampling Error Estimates – a Comparative ...

By: M. Itkin; A. Loew

Description: Max Planck Institute For Meteorology, KlimaCampus, Hamburg, Germany. This study focus is set on quantifying sampling related uncertainty in the satellite rainfall estimates. We conduct observing system simulation experiment to estimate sampling error for various constellations of Low-Earth orbiting and geostationary satellites.

There are two types of microwave instruments currently available: cross track sounders and conical scanners. We ...

Adler, R. F., Huffman, G. J., Chang, A., Ferraro, R., Xie, P. P., Janowiak, J., Rudolf, B., Schneider, U., Curtis, S., Bolvin, D., Gruber, A., Susskind, J., Arkin, P., and Nelkin, E.: The version-2 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) monthly precipitation analysis (1979–present), J. Hydrometeorol., 4, 1147–1167, 2003.; Andersson, A., Fennig, K., Klepp, C., Bakan, S., Gra{ß}l, H., and Schulz, J.: The Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellit...

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