World Library  


 
  • Cover Image

What Do Moisture Recycling Estimates Tell? Lessons from an Extreme...

By: H. F. Goessling; C. H. Reick

Description: Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany. Moisture evaporated from the continents (recycled moisture) contributes up to 80% to the total atmospheric moisture content and, hence, precipitation in some regions. Recycling estimates are traditionally used to indicate a region's rainfall-dependence on land-surface evaporation. Accordingly, recycling estimates are employed to deduce the hydrological consequences of land-cover change. However, mo...

Benton, G. S., Blackburn, R. T., and Snead, V. O.: The role of the atmosphere in the hydrologic cycle, Eos Trans. AGU, 31, 61–73, 1950.; Betts, A., Ball, J., Beljaars, A., Miller, M., and Viterbo, P.: The land surface-atmosphere interaction: a review based on observational and global modeling perspectives, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 7209–7225, 1996.; Betts, R.: Self-beneficial effects of vegetation on climate in an ocean-atmosphere general circulation model, Geophys. Res. Le...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Enhancing the T-shaped Learning Profile when Teaching Hydrology Us...

By: B. L. Ruddell; R. Schiesser; C. A. Sanchez; V. Merwade

Description: Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA. Previous research has suggested that the use of more authentic learning activities can produce more robust and durable knowledge gains. This is consistent with calls within civil engineering education, specifically hydrology, that suggest that curricula should more often include professional perspective and data analysis skills to better develop the T-shaped knowledge profile of a professional hydrologist...

Alfieri, L., Brooks, P. J., Aldrich, N. J., and Tenenbaum, H. R.: Does discovery-based instruction enhance learning?, J. Educ. Psychol., 103, 1–18, 2011.; ASCE: Perspective on water resources education and training, J. Water Res. Pl.-ASCE, 116, 116, 99–133, doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9496(1990)116:1(99), 1990.; Bransford, J. D., Brown, A. L., and Cocking, R. R.: How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, an...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Development of a Window Correlation Matching Method for Improved R...

By: M. S. Babel; A. Das Gupta; S. Weesakul; T. Piman

Description: Water Engineering and Management, Asian Institute of Technology, Pathumthani, Thailand. The present study develops a method called window correlation matching method (WCMM) to reduce collocation and timing errors in matching pairs of radar measured reflectivity, Ze, and gauge measured rainfall intensity, R, for improving the accuracy of the estimation of Ze−R relationships. This method was compared with the trad...

Atlas, D.: Advances in radar meteorology, in: Advances in Geophysics, edited by: Atlas, D., Academic press, New York, USA, 318–478, 1964.; Atlas, D., Rosenfeld, D., and Jameson, M. R.: Evolution of radar rainfall measurements: steps and mis-steps, Weather Radar Technology for Water Resources Management, IRTCUD/University of Sao Paulo, Brazil and IHP-UNESCO, 1997.; Atlas, D., Rosenfeld, D., and Wolff, D. B.: Climatologically tuned reflectivity-rain rate relations and link...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Constructal Theory of Pattern Formation : Volume 11, Issue 2 (17/0...

By: A. Bejan

Description: Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA. This review article shows that the occurrence of macroscopic flow configuration is a universal natural phenomenon that can be explained and predicted on the basis of a principle of physics (the constructal law): For a flow system to persist in time (to survive) it must evolve in such a way that it provides easier and easier access to the currents that flow through it. The examples given in this article come ...

Bejan, A. and Errera, M. R.: Deterministic tree networks for river drainage basins, Fractals, 6, 245–261, 1998.; Bejan, A. and Gobin, D.: Constructal theory of droplet impact geometry, Int. J. Heat Mass Trans., 49, 2412–2419, 2006.; Bejan, A.: Shape and Structure, from Engineering to Nature, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2000.; Bejan, A.: Convection Heat Transfer, 3rd ed., Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, 2004.; Bejan, A.: Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics, 3rd ed., Wi...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Distributed Hydrological Modeling of Total Dissolved Phosphorus Tr...

By: T. S. Steenhuis; P. Gérard-marchant; W. D. Hively

Description: Department of Natural Resources, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. Reducing non-point source phosphorus (P) loss to drinking water reservoirs is a main concern for New York City watershed planners. A spatially distributed model of total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) loading was developed using raster maps covering a watershed with 164-ha dairy farm. Transport of TDP was calculated separately for baseflow and for surface runoff from manure-covered ...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Multi-scale Hydrometeorological Observation and Modelling for Flas...

By: P. Brunet; C. Bouvier; P.-a. Ayral; J. Le Coz; F. Branger; C. Batiot; A. Confoland; P. Marchand; E. Leblois; J. Andrieu; J. Carreau; A. Wijbrans; N. Patris; I. Braud; S. Anquetin; B. Vincendon; G. Nord; O. Vannier; J.-f. Didon-lescot; G. Dramais; J. Douvinet; J.-p. Vandervaere; G. Delrieu; B. Renard; R. Le Boursicaud; L. Nottale; B. Boudevillain; R. Freydier; S. Gérard; J.-d. Taupin; P. Martin; J. Huza; M. Adamovic; O. Le Bourgeois; J.-l. Seidel; J.-m. Domergue

Description: Irstea, UR HHLY, Hydrology-Hydraulics, Villeurbanne, France. This paper presents a coupled observation and modelling strategy aiming at improving the understanding of processes triggering flash floods. This strategy is illustrated for the Mediterranean area using two French catchments (Gard and Ardèche) larger than 2000 km2. The approach is based on the monitoring of nested spatial scales: (1) the hillslope scale, where processes influencing ...

Adamovic, M., Branger, F., Braud, I., and Kirchner, J.: Does the Kirchner discharge recession analysis provide useful information about catchment hydrological functioning in a Mediterranean context? Application to the Ardèche catchment (France), Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., in preparation, 2014.; Ambroise, B.: Variable active versus contributing areas or periods: a necessary distinction, Hydrol. Process., 18, 1149–1155, 2004.; Ali, G., Tetzlaff, D., Soulsby, C., and McDonne...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Soil Moisture and Evapotranspiration of Different Land Cover Types...

By: B. J. Fu; G. Y. Gao; X. L. Yao; J. Zhou; S. Wang

Description: State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085, P. R. China. We studied the impacts of re-vegetation on soil moisture dynamics and evapotranspiration (ET) of five land cover types in the Loess Plateau in northern China. Soil moisture and temperature variations under grass (Andropogon), subshrub (Artemisia scoparia), shrub (Spira...

Schymanski, S. J.: Optimality as a Concept to Understand and Model Vegetation at Different Scales, Geography Compass, 5, 1580–1598, 2008.; Chen, H. S., Shao, M. A., and Li, Y. Y.: Soil desiccation in the Loess Plateau of China, Geoderma, 143, 91–100, 2008a.; Chen, H. S., Shao, M. A., and Li, Y. Y.: The characteristics of soil water cycle and water balance on steep grassland under natural and simulated rainfall conditions in the Loess Plateau of China, J. Hydrol., 360, 24...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Using Geochemical Tracers to Distinguish Groundwater and Parafluvi...

By: H. Hofmann; I. Cartwright

Description: School of Earth, Atmosphere and Environment, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia. Understanding the location and magnitude of groundwater inflows to rivers is important for the protection of riverine ecosystems and the management of connected groundwater and surface water systems. Downstream trends in 222Rn activities and Cl concentrations in the Avon River, southeast Australia, implies that it contains alternating gaining an...

Aksoy, H., Kurt, I., and Eris, E.: Filtered smoothed minima baseflow separation method, J. Hydrol., 372, 94–101, 2009.; Atkinson, A., Cartwright, I., Gilfedder, B., Hofmann, H., Unland, N., Cendón, D., and Chisari, R.: A multi-tracer approach to quantifying groundwater inflows to an upland river; assessing the influence of variable groundwater chemistry, Hydrol. Process., 29, 1–12, 2015.; Barron, O., Silberstein, R., Ali, R., Donohue, R., McFarlane, D. J., Davies, P., Ho...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Topological and Canonical Kriging for Design-flood Prediction in U...

By: J. O. Skoslash;Ien; A. Castellarin; J. E. Kiang; S. A. Archfield; A. Pugliese

Description: Massachusetts-Rhode Island Water Science Center, US Geological Survey, Northborough, MA, USA. In the United States, estimation of flood frequency quantiles at ungaged locations has been largely based on regional regression techniques that relate measurable catchment descriptors to flood quantiles. More recently, spatial interpolation techniques of point data have been shown to be effective for predicting streamflow statistics (i.e. flood flows and ...

Blöschl, G. and Sivapalan, M.: Process controls on regional flood frequency: coefficient of variation and basin scale, Water Resour. Res., 33, 2967–2980, 1997.; Burn, D. H.: Evaluation of regional flood frequency analysis with a region of influence approach, Water Resour. Res., 26, 2257–2265, 1990.; Castellarin, A., Burn, D., and Brath, A.: Assessing the effectiveness of hydrological similarity measures for flood frequency analysis, J. Hydrol., 241, 270–285, doi:

Read More
  • Cover Image

Developing an Improved Soil Moisture Dataset by Blending Passive a...

By: W. A. Dorigo; R. A. M. De Jeu; R. M. Parinussa; A. I. J. M. Van Dijk; W. Wagner; Y. Y. Liu; M. F. McCabe; J. P. Evans

Description: School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. Combining information derived from satellite-based passive and active microwave sensors has the potential to offer improved retrievals of surface soil moisture variations at global scales. Here we propose a technique to take advantage of retrieval characteristics of passive (AMSR-E) and active (ASCAT) microwave satellite estimates over sparse-to-moderately ve...

Dee, D. P. and Uppala, S.: Variational bias correction of satellite radiance data in the ERA-Interim reanalysis, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 135, 1830–1841, doi:10.1002/qj.493, 2009.; Draper, C. S., Walker, J. P., Steinle, P. J., de Jeu, R. A. M., and Holmes, T. R. H.: An evaluation of AMSR-E derived soil moisture over Australia, Remote Sens. Environ., 113, 703–710, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2008.11.011, 2009.; Dorigo, W. A., Scipal, K., Parinussa, R. M., Liu, Y. Y., Wagner, W., de...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Nitrogen Surface Water Retention in the Baltic Sea Drainage Basin ...

By: A. Vassiljev; E. Smedberg; H. E. Hägg; A. Pengerud; C.-m. Mörth; C. Humborg; P. Stålnacke; H. E. Andersen

Description: Bioforsk – Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Fr. A. Dahls vei 20, 1430 Ås, Norway. In this paper, we estimate the surface water retention of nitrogen (N) in all the 117 drainage basins to the Baltic Sea with the use of a statistical model (MESAW) for source apportionment of riverine loads of pollutants. Our results show that the MESAW model was able to estimate the N load at the river mouth of 88 Baltic Sea rivers, for whic...

Alexander, R. B., Smith, R. A., and Schwarz, G. E.: Effect of stream channel size on the delivery of nitrogen to the gulf of Mexico, Nature, 403, 758–761, 2000.; Behrendt, H. and Opitz, D.: Retention of nutrients in river systems: dependence on specific runoff and hydraulic load, Hydrobiologia, 410, 111–122, 2000.; Bergström, S. and Carlsson, B.: River runoff to the Baltic Sea – 1950–1990, Ambio, 23, 280–287, 1994.; Grimvall, A. and Stålnacke, P.: Statistical methods for...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Recharge Estimation and Soil Moisture Dynamics in a Mediterranean,...

By: S. Schmidt; J. Lange; H. Puhlmann; F. Ries; M. Sauter

Description: Chair of Hydrology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany. Knowledge of soil moisture dynamics in the unsaturated soil zone provides valuable information on the temporal and spatial variability of groundwater recharge. This is especially true for the Mediterranean region, where a substantial fraction of long-term groundwater recharge is expected to occur during high magnitude precipitation events of above-average wet winters. To elucidate process un...

Abusaada, M. J.: Flow Dynamics and Management Options in Stressed Carbonate Aquifer System, The Western Aquifer Basin, Palestine, PhD Thesis, University of Göttingen, 2011.; Allen, R. G., Pereira, L. S., Raes, D., and Smith, M.: Crop Evapotranspiration: Guidelines for Computing Crop Water Requirements, Irrigation and Drainage Paper 56, FAO, Rome, 1998.; Allocca, V., Manna, F., and De Vita, P.: Estimating annual groundwater recharge coefficient for karst aquifers of the s...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Surface Water Acidification and Critical Loads: Exploring the F-fa...

By: L. Rapp; K. Bishop

Description: Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden. As acid deposition decreases, uncertainties in methods for calculating critical loads become more important when judgements have to be made about whether or not further emission reductions are needed. An important aspect of one type of model that has been used to calculate surface water critical loads is the empirical F-factor which estimat...

Alveteg, M.: Dynamics of forest soil chemistry. Doctoral thesis, Department of Chemical Engineering II, Lund University, Lund, Sweden, 198 pp., 1998.; Alveteg, M.: Projecting regional patterns of future soil chemistry status in Swedish forests using SAFE, Water Air Soil Pollut., Focus, 49–59, 2004.; Bernes, C.: Acidification and liming of Swedish Freshwaters, Monitor 12, Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Sweden, 1991.; Binkley, D. and Högberg, P.: Does atmospheric...

Read More
  • Cover Image

An Assessment of the Ability of Bartlett–lewis Type of Rainfall Mo...

By: S. Vandenberghe; W. J. Vanhaute; B. De Baets; N. E. C. Verhoest; M. T. Pham

Description: Laboratory of Hydrology and Water Management, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, 9000 Ghent, Belgium. Of all natural disasters, the economic and environmental consequences of droughts are among the highest because of their longevity and widespread spatial extent. Because of their extreme behaviour, studying droughts generally requires long time series of historical climate data. Rainfall is a very important variable for calculating drought statis...

Bhalme, H. N. and Mooley, D. A.: Large-scale droughts/floods and monsoon circulation, Mon. Weather Rev., 108, 1197–1211, 1980.; Burton, A., Kilsby, C. G., Fowler, H. J., Cowpertwait, P. S. P., and O'Connell, P. E.: RainSim: a spatial–temporal stochastic rainfall modelling system, Environ. Model. Softw., 23, 1356–1369, 2008.; Byun, H.-R. and Wilhite, D. A.: Objective quantification of drought severity and duration, J. Climate, 12, 2747–2756, 1999.; Byun, H.-R., Sun-Ju, L....

Read More
  • Cover Image

What Are the Key Drivers of Regional Differences in the Water Bala...

By: F. Maussion; P. Krause; M. Fink; S. Biskop

Description: Department of Geography, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Germany. Lake-level fluctuations in closed basins on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) indicate climate-induced changes in the regional water balance. However, little is known about the region's key hydrological parameters, hampering the interpretation of these changes. The purpose of this study is to contribute to a more quantitative understanding of these controls. Four lakes in the south-central pa...

Allen, R. G., Pereira, L. S., Raes, D., and Smith, M.: Crop Evapotranspiration: Guidelines for Computing Crop Water Requirements, FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 56, Rome, Italy, 1998.; Beven, K.: How far can we go in distributed hydrological modelling?, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 5, 1–12, doi:10.5194/hess-5-1-2001, 2001.; Beven, K. and Freer, J.: Equifinality, data assimilation, and uncertainty estimation in mechanist...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Quantifying Groundwater Dependence of a Sub-polar Lake Cluster in ...

By: K. Rozanski; P. M. Rossi; A.-k. Ronkanen; B. Kløve; E. Isokangas

Description: Water Resources and Environmental Engineering Research Group, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, 90014 Oulun yliopisto, Finland. A stable isotope study of 67 kettle lakes and ponds situated on an esker aquifer (90 km2) in northern Finland was carried out to determine the role and extent of groundwater inflow in groundwater-dependent lakes. Distinct seasonal fluctuations in the δ18O and δ2H values of lakes are the result o...

Aartolahti, T.: Morphology, vegetation and development of Rokuanvaara, an esker and dune complex in Finland, Soc. Geogr. Fenn., 127, 1–53, 1973.; Ala-aho, P., Rossi, P. M. and Kløve, B.: Interaction of esker groundwater with headwater lakes and streams, J. Hydrol., 500, 144–156, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.07.014, 2013.; Ala-aho, P., Rossi, P. M., Isokangas, E., and Kløve, B.: Fully integrated surface-subsurface ...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Acting, Predicting and Intervening in a Socio-hydrological World :...

By: S. N. Lane

Description: Institute of Earth Surface Dynamics, Faculté des géosciences et de l'environnement, Université de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland. This paper asks a simple question: if humans and their actions co-evolve with hydrological systems (Sivapalan et al., 2012), what is the role of hydrological scientists, who are also humans, within this system? To put it more directly, as traditionally there is a supposed separation of scientists and society, can we maintain ...

Aumann, C. A.: Constructing model credibility in the context of policy appraisal, Environ. Model. Softw., 26, 258–265, 2011.; Austin, Z., Alcock, R. E., Christley, R. M., Haygarth, P. M., Heathwaite, A. L., Latham, S. M., Mort, M., Oliver, D. M., Pickup, R., Wastling, J. M., and Wynne, B.: Policy, practice and decision making for zoonotic disease management: Water and Cryptosporidium, Environ. Int., 40, 70–78, 2012.; Bacon, F.: Novum Organum Scientificum, Venetiis, Typis...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Recent Climatic, Cryospheric, and Hydrological Changes Over the In...

By: C. M. Debeer; S. K. Carey; K. P. Chun; H. S. Wheater

Description: Global Institute for Water Security, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. It is well-established that the Earth's climate system has warmed significantly over the past several decades, and in association there have been widespread changes in various other Earth system components. This has been especially prevalent in the cold regions of the northern mid to high-latitudes. Examples of these changes can be found within the western ...

Abdul Aziz, O. I. and Burn, D. H.: Trends and variability in the hydrological regime of the Mackenzie River Basin, J. Hydrol., 319, 282–294, 2006.; ACIA (Arctic Climate Impacts Assessment): Impacts of a Warming Arctic: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521617782, 139 pp., 2004.; Adam, J. C., Hamlet, A. F., and Lettenmaier, D. P.: Implications of global climate change for snowmelt hydrology in the twenty-first century, Hydrol. Process., 2...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Extreme Weather Events in the Sneeuberg, Karoo, South Africa: a Ca...

By: K. M. Rowntree; R. C. Fox

Description: Department of Geography, Rhodes University, 6140 Grahamstown, South Africa. Two destructive flood events occurred in rapid succession in the semi-arid Sneeuberg Mountains of the Karoo, South Africa in February 2011. The temporal and spatial characteristics of these two extreme events are examined in this paper through analysis of data from an unusually dense, and reliable, network of farm rain gauges. These analyses add to our understanding derived...

Adeyewa, Z. and Nakamura, K.: Validation of TRMM radar rainfall data over major climatic regions in Africa, J. Appl. Meteorol., 42, 331–347, 2003.; Brown, T., Fox, R. C., and Funnel, D.: The invisible mountains: using GIS to examine the extent of mountain terrain in South Africa, Mt. Res. Dev., 24, 28–34, 2004.; Adler, R., Huffman, G., Bolvin, D., Curtis, S., and Nelkin, E.: Tropical rainfall distributions determined using TRMM combined with other satellite and rain gaug...

Read More
  • Cover Image

The Scale of Typhoon Rusa : Volume 3, Issue 5 (09/10/2006)

By: Y. S. Won; I. M. Chung; N. W. Kim

Description: Research Fellow, Water Resources Research Department, Korea Institute of Construction Technology, 2311, Daehwa-Dong, Ilsan-Gu, Goyang-Si, Gyeonggi-Do, 411-712, Republic of Korea. In August 2002, Typhoon RUSA hit Korea with severe gale and storm, causing extensive damage throughout the whole country and especially in the Gangneung area. Even on a single day, Typhoon RUSA recorded up to 879.5 mm of rainfall in the Gangneung area. Quantitative and qualitativ...

Read More
 
1
|
2
|
3
Records: 1 - 20 of 45 - Pages: 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.