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Nonlinear Analysis of Magnetospheric Data Part II. Dynamical Chara...

By: D. Kugiumtzis; E. T. Sarris; N. Hatzigeorgiu; M. A. Athanasiu; D. Diamantidis; G. P. Pavlos

Description: Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Demokritos University of Thrace, 67100 Xanthi, Greece. In this study we have used dynamical characteristies such as Lyapunov exponents, nonlinear dynamic models and mutual information for the nonlinear analysis of the magnetospheric AE index time series. Similarly with the geometrical characteristic studied in Pavlos et al. (1999b), we have found significant differences between the original time series a...

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Mixtures of Multiplicative Cascade Models in Geochemistry : Volume...

By: F. P. Agterberg

Description: Geological Survey of Canada, 601 Booth Street, Ottawa, K1A0E8, Canada. Multifractal modeling of geochemical map data can help to explain the nature of frequency distributions of element concentration values for small rock samples and their spatial covariance structure. Useful frequency distribution models are the lognormal and Pareto distributions which plot as straight lines on logarithmic probability and log-log paper, respectively. The model of de Wi...

Agterberg, F. P.: New applications of the model of de Wijs in regional geochemistry, Math. Geol., Preprint, 2007.; Agterberg, F. P.: Multifractal modeling of the sizes and grades of giant and supergiant deposits, Int. Geol. Rev., 37, 1–8, 1995.; Agterberg, F. P.: Multifractal simulation of geochemical map patterns, in: Geologic modeling and simulation: Sedimentary Systems, edited by: Merriam, D. F. and Davis, J. C., Kluwer, New York, 327–346, 2001a.; Agterberg, F. P.: As...

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Scaling Collapse and Structure Functions: Identifying Self-affinit...

By: G. Rowlands; N. W. Watkins; B. Hnat; S. C. Chapman

Description: Space and Astrophysics, University of Warwick, UK. Empirical determination of the scaling properties and exponents of time series presents a formidable challenge in testing, and developing, a theoretical understanding of turbulence and other out-of-equilibrium phenomena. We discuss the special case of self affine time series in the context of a stochastic process. We highlight two complementary approaches to the differenced variable of the data: i) att...

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Scale Invariant Events and Dry Spells for Medium-resolution Local ...

By: A. Deluca; Á. Corral

Description: Centre de Recerca Matemàtica, Edifici Cc, Campus Bellaterra, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain. We analyze distributions of rain-event sizes, rain-event durations, and dry-spell durations for data obtained from a network of 20 rain gauges scattered in a region of the northwestern Mediterranean coast. While power-law distributions model the dry-spell durations with a common exponent 1.50 ± 0.05, density analysis is inconclusive for event sizes and event ...

ACA (Agència Catalana de l'Aigua/Catalan Water Agency), available at: http://aca-web.gencat.cat/aca (last access: April 2014), 2014.; Andrade, R. F. S., Schellnhuber, H. J., and Claussen, M.: Analysis of rainfall records: possible relation to self-organized criticality, Physica A, 254, 557–568, 1998.; Bak, P.: How Nature Works: The Science of Self-Organized Criticality, Copernicus, New York, 1996.; Bauke, H.: Parameter estimation...

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Interaction Dynamics of Electrostatic Solitary Waves : Volume 6, I...

By: H. Matsumoto; Y. Omura; V. L. Krasovsky

Description: Space Research Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Profsoyuznaya 84/32, Moscow 117810, Russia. Interaction of nonlinear electrostatic pulses associated with electron phase density holes moving in a collisionless plasma is studied. An elementary event of the interaction is analyzed on the basis of the energy balance in the system consisting of two electrostatic solitary waves. It is established that an intrinsic property of the system is a specific i...

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Resurrecting Dead-water Phenomenon : Volume 18, Issue 2 (11/03/2011)

By: T. Dauxois; M. J. Mercier; R. Vasseur

Description: Université de Lyon, Laboratoire de Physique de l'École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, CNRS, France. We revisit experimental studies performed by Ekman on dead-water (Ekman, 1904) using modern techniques in order to present new insights on this peculiar phenomenon. We extend its description to more general situations such as a three-layer fluid or a linearly stratified fluid in presence of a pycnocline, showing the robustness of dead-water phenomenon. We ob...

Baines, P. G.: Topographic Effects in Stratified Flows, Cambridge University Press, 1995.; Chomaz, J. M., Bonneton, P., and Hopfinger, E. J.: The structure of the near wake of a sphere moving horizontally in a stratified fluid, J. Fluid Mech., 254, 1–21, 1993.; Dalziel, S. B., Hughes, G. O., and Sutherland, B. R.: Whole-field density measurements by synthetic {S}chlieren, Exp. Fluids, 28, 322–335, 2000.; Dalziel, S. B., Carr, M., Sveen, J. K., and Davies, P. A.: Simultan...

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The Role of Subsidence in a Weakly Unstable Marine Boundary Layer:...

By: M. Cassol; U. Rizza; M. M. Miglietta; A. S. Lanotte; A. M. Sempreviva; I. M. Mazzitelli

Description: Dip. Ingegneria dell'Innovazione, Univ. del Salento, 73100 Lecce, Italy. The diurnal evolution of a cloud free, marine boundary layer is studied by means of experimental measurements and numerical simulations. Experimental data belong to an investigation of the mixing height over inner Danish waters. The mixed-layer height measured over the sea is generally nearly constant, and does not exhibit the diurnal cycle characteristic of boundary layers over la...

Batcharova, E. and Gryning, S.-E.: Applied model for the growth of the daytime mixed layer, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol., 56, 261–274, 1991.; Batcharova, E. and Gryning, S.-E.: Applied model for the height of the daytime mixed layer and the entrainment zone, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol., 71, 311–323, 1994.; Bellon, G. and Stevens, B.: Using the Sensitivity of Large-Eddy Simulations to Evaluate Atmospheric Boundary Layer Models, J. Atmos. Sci., 69, 1582–1601, 2012.; Carlson, M. A. and ...

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Stochastic Electron Motion Driven by Space Plasma Waves : Volume 2...

By: A. A. Tel’nikhin; T. K. Kronberg; G. V. Khazanov

Description: NASA Goddard Space FlightCenter, Greenbelt, MD, USA. Stochastic motion of relativistic electrons under conditions of the nonlinear resonance interaction of particles with space plasma waves is studied. Particular attention is given to the problem of the stability and variability of the Earth's radiation belts. It is found that the interaction between whistler-mode waves and radiation-belt electrons is likely to involve the same mechanism that is respons...

Albert, J. M.: Nonlinear interaction of outer zone electrons with VLF waves, Geopys. Res. Lett., 29, 116-1–116-3, doi:10.1029/2001GL013941, 2002.; Arnold, V.: Geometrical Methods in the Theory of Ordinary Differential Equations, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1988.; Abdo, A. A., Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Asano, K., Atwood, W. B., Axelsson, M., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Baring, M. G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K...

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Improving the Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter Using a Second-orde...

By: X. Zheng; G. Wu; X. Zhang; L. Wang; S. Zhang; X. Liang; X. Yi

Description: State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China. The ensemble transform Kalman filter (ETKF) assimilation scheme has recently seen rapid development and wide application. As a specific implementation of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), the ETKF is computationally more efficient than the conventional EnKF. However, the current implementation of the ETKF still ha...

Anderson, J. L.: An adaptive covariance inflation error correction algorithm for ensemble filters, Tellus A, 59, 210–224, 2007.; Anderson, J. L.: Spatially and temporally varying adaptive covariance inflation for ensemble filters, Tellus A, 61, 72–83, 2009.; Anderson, J. L. and Anderson, S. L.: A Monte Carlo implementation of the non-linear filtering problem to produce ensemble assimilations and forecasts, Mon. Weather Rev., 127, 2741–2758, 1999.; Bishop, C. H. and Toth,...

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Fractal Analysis of Ulf Electromagnetic Emissions in Possible Asso...

By: H. Sun; Q. Li; D. Yang; M. Hayakawa; Y. Ida

Description: Research Station on Seismo Electromagnetics, The University of Electro-Communications (UEC), 1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Chofu Tokyo 182-8585, Japan. The long-term data (during the period of 1 March 2003 through 31 December 2006) of ULF geomagnetic variations observed at Kashi station (geographic coordinates: 39.5° N, 76.0° E) in China have been used to investigate the long-term variation of fractal dimension of ULF emissions. We have studied the changes in frac...

Bortnik, J., Bleier, T. E., Dunson, C., and Freund, F.: Estimating the seismotelluric current required for observable electromagnetic ground signals, Ann. Geophys., 28, 1615–1624, doi:10.5194/angeo-28-1615-2010, 2010.; Burlaga, L. F. and Klein, L. W.: Fractal structure of the interplanetary magnetic field, J. Geophys. Res., 91, 347–350, 1986.; Campbell, W.: Natural magnetic disturbance fields, not precursors, prece...

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Nonlinear Waves and Solitons Propagating Perpendicular to the Magn...

By: K. Sauer; G. Chanteur; J. F. McKenzie; E. M. Dubinin

Description: Max-Planck Institut für Aeronomie, Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany. We investigate the nature of nonlinear waves propagating transverse to the magnetic field in a bi-ion plasma including plasma pressure. By using the conservation laws derived from the multi-ion fluid equations the system may be described by a single order differential equation whose properties control the structure of the flow and the magnetic field. Compressive solitons exist...

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Predictability of Extreme Values in Geophysical Models : Volume 19...

By: P. Rabassa; H. W. Broer; M. P. Holland; A. E. Sterk; R. Vitolo

Description: College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, Harrison Building, Streatham Campus, University of Exeter, North Park Road, Exeter, EX4 4QF, UK. Extreme value theory in deterministic systems is concerned with unlikely large (or small) values of an observable evaluated along evolutions of the system. In this paper we study the finite-time predictability of extreme values, such as convection, energy, and wind speeds, in three geophysical models. ...

Abarbanel, H., Brown, R., and Kennel, M.: Variation of {L}yapunov Exponents on a Strange Attractor, J. Nonlin. Sci., 1, 175–199, 1991.; Bailey, B., Ellner, S., and Nychka, D.: Chaos with confidence: asymptotics and applications of local {L}yapunov exponents, Fields Institute Communications, 11, 115–133, 1997.; Beirlant, J., Goegebeur, Y., Teugels, J., and Segers, J.: Statistics of Extremes: Theory and Applications, John Wiley and Sons, Berlin, 2004.; Bowler, N., Arribas,...

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Internal Gravity Waves: Analysis Using the Periodic, Inverse Scatt...

By: G. W. Haarlemmer; W. B. Zimmerman

Description: Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Universtiy of Sheffield, Newcastle Street, Sheffield S1 3RD England. The discrete periodic inverse scattering transform (DPIST) has been shown to provide the salient features of nonlinear Fourier analysis for surface shallow water waves whose dynamics are governed by the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation - (1) linear superposition of components with power spectra that are invariants of the motion of nonlinea...

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Testing and Modelling Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticit...

By: P. H. A. J. M Van Gelder; J. K. Vrijling; J. Ma; W. Wang

Description: Faculty of Water Resources and Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing, 210098, China. Conventional streamflow models operate under the assumption of constant variance or season-dependent variances (e.g. ARMA (AutoRegressive Moving Average) models for deseasonalized streamflow series and PARMA (Periodic AutoRegressive Moving Average) models for seasonal streamflow series). However, with McLeod-Li test and Engle's Lagrange Multiplier test, clear evidences ...

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Anti-persistence in the Global Temperature Anomaly Field : Volume ...

By: A. A. Tsonis; C. Jones; H. R. Rocha; L. M. V. Carvalho; P. S. Polito

Description: Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences, University of São Paulo, Brazil. In this study, low-frequency variations in temperature anomaly are investigated by mapping temperature anomaly records onto random walks. We show evidence that global overturns in trends of temperature anomalies occur on decadal time-scales as part of the natural variability of the climate system. Paleoclimatic summer records in Europe and New-Zealand provide further support for these findi...

Alley, R. B., Marotzke, J., Nordhaus, W. D., Overpeck, J. T., Peteet, D. M., Pielke Jr., R. A., Pierrehumbert, R. T., Rhines, P. B., Stocker, T. F., Talley, L. D., and Wallace, J. M.: Abrupt climate change, Science, 299, 2005–2010, 2003.; Baba, K., Minobe, S., Kimura, N., and Wakatsuchi, M.: Intraseasonal variability of sea-ice concentration in the Antarctic with particular emphasis on wind effect, J. Geophys. Res., 111, C12023, doi:10.1029/2005JC003052, 2006.; Buldyrev,...

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Intermittency of Earthquake Cycles in a Model of a Three-degree-of...

By: N. Kato; Y. Abe

Description: ITOCHU Techno-Solutions Corporation, Tokyo, Japan. We herein report the results of some numerical simulations of complex earthquake cycles using a three-degree-of-freedom spring-block model with a rate- and state-dependent friction law. The model consists of three blocks on a conveyor belt that is moving at a steady rate. Observed complex slip behaviour in the simulations is classified into five slip patterns, and for each of these the parameter depende...

Abe, Y. and Kato, N.: Complex earthquake cycle simulations using a two-degree-of-freedom spring-block model with a rate- and state-friction law, Pure Appl. Geophys., 170, 745–765, 2012.; Albers, D. J. and Sprott, J. C.: Routes to chaos in high-dimensional dynamical systems: A qualitative numerical study, Physica D, 223, 194–207, 2006.; Ben-Zion, Y., Dahmen, K., Lyakhovsky, V., Ertas, D., and Agnon, A.: Self-driven mode switching of earthquake activity on a fault system, ...

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Spatio-temporal Filling of Missing Points in Geophysical Data Sets...

By: M. Ghil; D. Kondrashov

Description: Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences and Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, USA. The majority of data sets in the geosciences are obtained from observations and measurements of natural systems, rather than in the laboratory. These data sets are often full of gaps, due to to the conditions under which the measurements are made. Missing data give rise to various problems, for example in spectral ...

Alvera-Azcárate, A., Barth, A., Rixen, M., and Beckers, J M.: Reconstruction of incomplete oceanographic data sets using empirical orthogonal functions: applications to the Adriatic Sea surface temperature, Ocean Modelling, 9, 325-346, 2005. %\bibitem[] Allen, M. R., and L. A. Smith (1996), Monte Carlo SSA: Detecting irregular oscillations in the presence of coloured noise. \textitJ. Clim., \textit9, 3373-3404.; Beckers, J. and Rixen, M.: EOF calculations and data fillin...

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A Nonextensive Entropy Path to Probability Distributions in Solar ...

By: M. P. Leubner; Z. Vörös

Description: Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Graz, Austria. The observed scale dependence of the probability distributions of the differences of characteristic solar wind variables is analyzed. Intermittency of the turbulent fluctuations at small-scale spatial separations is accompanied by strongly non-Gaussian distributions that turn into a normal distribution for large-scale separation. Conventional theoretical models are subject to insuffi...

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Nonlinear Electron Acoustic Structures Generated on the High-poten...

By: M. Berthomier; R. Pottelette

Description: LPP-CNRS/INSU, 4 avenue de Neptune, 94107 Saint-Maur des Fossés, France. High-time resolution measurements of the electron distribution function performed in the auroral upward current region reveals a large asymmetry between the low- and high-potential sides of a double-layer. The latter side is characterized by a large enhancement of a locally trapped electron population which corresponds to a significant part (~up to 30%) of the total electron density. ...

Bale, S. D., Hull, A., Larson, D. E., Lin, R. P., Muschietti, L., Kellogg, P. J., Goetz, K., and Monson, S. J. : Electrostatic turbulence and Debye-scale structures associated with electron thermalization at collisionless shocks, Astrophys. J., 575, L25–L28, 2002.; Berthomier, M., Pottelette, R., Malingre, M., and Khotyaintsev, Y.: Electron-acoustic solitons in an electron-beam plasma system, Phys. Plasmas, 9, 2987–2994, 2000.; Carlson, C. W., Pfaff, R., and Watzin, J. G...

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Nonlinear Interactions Between Relativistic Radiation Belt Electro...

By: J. Bortnik; X. Tao

Description: Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA. Resonant interactions between relativistic charged particles and oblique whistler mode waves are explored in this work, and it is shown that nonlinear phase trapping could happen in a gyrophase averaged sense, consistent with previous studies of interactions between nonrelativistic electrons and oblique whistler mode waves. A dimensionless parameter χ ...

Albert, J. M.: Cyclotron resonance in an inhomogeneous magnetic field, Phys. Fluids B, 5, 2744–2750, doi:10.1063/1.860715, 1993.; Albert, J. M.: Diffusion by one wave and by many waves, J. Geophys. Res., 115, A00F05, doi:10.1029/2009JA014732, 2010.; Albert, J. M., Meredith, N. P., and Horne, R. B.: Three-dimensional diffusion simulation of outer radiation belt electrons duri...

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