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Obliquely Propagating Large Amplitude Solitary Waves in Charge Neu...

By: F. Verheest

Description: Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281, 9000 Gent, Belgium. This paper deals in a consistent way with the implications, for the existence of large amplitude stationary structures in general plasmas, of assuming strict charge neutrality between electrons and ions. With the limit of pair plasmas in mind, electron inertia is retained. Combining in a fluid dynamic treatment the conservation of mass, momentum and energy with strict ch...

Ablowitz, M. J. and Clarkson, P. A.: Solitons, Nonlinear Evolution Equations and Inverse Scattering, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1991.; Adlam, J. H. and Allen, J. E.: The structure of strong collision-free hydromagnetic waves, Philos. Mag., 3, 448–455, 1958.; Baumjohann, W., Treumann, R. A., Georgescu, E., Haerendel, G., Fornacon, K.-H., and Auster, U.: Wave form and packet structure of lion roars, Ann. Geophys., 17, 1528–1534, 1999.; Boehmer, H., Adams, M...

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The Effect of Volatile Bubble Growth Rate on the Periodic Dynamics...

By: I. L'Heureux

Description: Ottawa-Carleton Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario K1N6N5, Canada. Many volcanic eruptions exhibit periodic behavior. For instance, periodic ground inflations and deflations in proximity to a volcano are the consequences of periodic overpressure variations in the magma conduit and periodic magma flow rate. The period varies from a few hours to many years, depending on the volcano param...

Costa, A., Melnik, O., Sparks, R. S. J., and Voight, B.: Control of magma flow in dykes on cyclic lava dome extrusion, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L02303, doi:10.1029/2006GL027466, 2007.; Harris, A. J. L., Rose, W. I., and Flynn, L. P.: Temporal trends in lava dome extrusion at Santiaguito 1922–2000, Bull. Volcanol., 65, 77–89, 2003.; Hess, K.-U. and Dingwell, D. B.: Viscosities of hydrous leucogranitic melts: a non- Arrhenian model, Amer. Mineral., 81, 1297–1300, 1996.; La...

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Comparison Between Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter and Psas...

By: H. Li; E. J. Fertig; E. Kalnay; E. J. Kostelich; I. Szunyogh; B. R. Hunt; J. Liu; R. Todling

Description: University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. This paper compares the performance of the Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (LETKF) with the Physical-Space Statistical Analysis System (PSAS) under a perfect model scenario. PSAS is a 3D-Var assimilation system used operationally in the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS-4 DAS). The comparison is carried out using simulated winds and geopotential height observations and the f...

Anderson, J. L.: An ensemble adjustment Kalman filter for data assimilation, Mon. Weather Rev., 129, 2884–2903, 2001.; Anderson, J. L. and Anderson, S. L.: A Monte Carlo implementation of the nonlinear filtering problem to produce ensemble assimilations and forecasts, Mon. Weather Rev., 127, 2741–2758, 1999.; Bishop, C. H., Etherton, B., and Majumdar, S. J.: Adaptive sampling with the ensemble transform Kalman filter – Part I: Theoretical aspects, Mon. Weather Rev., 129,...

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On Statistical Equilibrium in Helical Fluid Flows : Volume 13, Iss...

By: M. V. Kurgansky

Description: Department of Geophysics, Faculty of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, University of Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción, Chile. The statistical mechanics of 3-D helical flows is re-examined for a continuum truncated at a top wavenumber. Based on the principle of equipartition of the flow enstrophy between helical modes, the emerging (i) energy spectrum law –2 and (ii) formal mathematical analogy between the helicity and the thermodynamic entropy are...

Baroud, C. N., Plapp, B. B., She, Z.-S. and Swinney, H. L.: Anomalous self-similarity in a turbulent rapidly rotating fluid, Phys. Rev. Lett., 88, 11, 114501, doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.88.114501, 2002.; Bloxham, J. and Jackson, A.: Fluid flow near the surface of Earth's outer core, Rev. Geophys., 29, 1, 97-120, 1991.; Brissaud, A., Frisch, U., Leorat, J., Lesieur, M., and Mazure, A.: Helicity cascades in fully developed isotropic turbulence, Phys. Fluids, 16, 1366-1377, 19...

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Nonlinear Compressional Electromagnetic Ion-cyclotron Wavepackets ...

By: I. Kourakis; P. K. Shukla

Description: Institut für Theoretische Physik IV, Fakultät für Physik und Astronomie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, 44780 Bochum,. The parametric coupling between large amplitude magnetic field-aligned circularly polarized electromagnetic ion-cyclotron (EMIC) waves and ponderomotively driven ion-acoustic perturbations in magnetized space plasmas is considered. A cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation for the modulated EMIC wave envelope is derived, and then solved analytical...

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Approximate Asymptotic Integration of a Higher Order Water-wave Eq...

By: A. R. Osborne

Description: Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Università, Via Pietro Giuria 1, Torino 10125, Italy. The complete mathematical and physical characterization of nonlinear water wave dynamics has been an important goal since the fundamental partial differential equations were discovered by Euler over 200 years ago. Here I study a subset of the full solutions by considering the irrotational, unidirectional multiscale expansion o...

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Instability and Change Detection in Exponential Families and Gener...

By: S. Chatterjee; Y. Lu

Description: Amazon.com, Seattle, Washington, USA. Exponential family statistical distributions, including the well-known Normal, Binomial, Poisson, and exponential distributions, are overwhelmingly used in data analysis. In the presence of covariates, an exponential family distributional assumption for the response random variables results in a generalized linear model. However, it is rarely ensured that the parameters of the assumed distributions are stable throug...

Albers, W. and Kallenberg, W. C. M.: CUMIN Charts, Metrika, 70, 111–130, 2009.; Alwan, L. C.: Designing an Effective EF-CUSUM Chart without the Use of Nomographs, Commun. Stat. A-Theor., 29, 2879–2893, 2000.; Atienza, O. O., Tang, L. C., and Ang, B. W.: A Uniform Most Powerful Cumulative Sum Scheme Based on Symmetry, J. Roy. Stat. Soc. D-Sta., 49, 209–217, 2000.; Bolton, R. J. and Hand, D. J.: Statistical fraud detection: A review, Stat. Sci., 17, 235–255, 2002.; Brown, ...

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Fractal Dimension of Lightning Discharge : Volume 2, Issue 2 (30/1...

By: F. Castaño; A. F. Pacheco; J. B. Gómez; J. Sañudo

Description: Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura,06071 Badajoz, Spain. Using a stochastic model, we simulate the process of dielectric breakdown in the atmosphere and calculate the fractal dimension of 3-dimensional lightning patterns. Finite-size effects have been studied. The projections of our patterns on vertical planes fit the experimental fractal dimension obtained from photographic analysis. This work is inspired by a previous work by A.A. Tsonis.

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Searching for Determinism in Observed Data: a Review of the Issues...

By: G. N. Triantafyllou; J. B. Elsner; A. A. Tsonis

Description: Dept. of Geosciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, WI 53201, USA. In this paper we present a review of advances made and problems still existing in the application of the theory of chaos and dynamical systems to time series. In particular we discuss issues pertaining the estimation of dimensions, Lyapunov exponents and nonlinear prediction from an observable. We analyze the problems and discuss proper ways to deal with them.

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Anomalies of Critical State in Fracturing Geophysical Objects : Vo...

By: V. S. Kuksenko; V. S. Smirnov; N. G. Tomilin; A. Chmel

Description: Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 194021 St. Petersburg, Russia. Non-linear time-sequences of fracture-related events were studied in drifting sea-ice and fracturing rock. A reversible drop of the b-value was detected prior to the large-scale sea-ice cover fragmentation, when the time sequence of impact interactions between ice-fields was fully decorrelated. A similar loss of the temporal invariance of the fracture process w...

Amitrano, D.: Rupture by damage accumulation in rocks, Intern. J. Fracture, 139, 369–381, 2006.; Bouchaud, E.: Scaling properties of cracks, J. Phys. Cond. Matter, 9, 4319–4344, 1997.; Botvina, L. R.: Kinetic similarity of fracture processes on various scale levels, Intern. J. Fracture, 128, 133–138, 2004.; Caldarelli, G., Di Tolla, F. D., and Petri, A.: Self-organization and annealed disorder in a fracturing process, Phys. Rev. Lett., 77, 2503–2506, 1996.; Chmel, A.: Th...

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Geometric Aspects of Hf Driven Langmuir Turbulence in the Ionosphe...

By: E. Helmersen; D. F. Dubois; E. Mjølhus

Description: University of Tromsø, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, N-9037 Tromsø, Norway. The geometric aspects of HF-generated Langmuir turbulence in the ionosphere and its detection by radars are theoretically discussed in a broad approach, including local modelling (damped and driven Zakharov system), basic parametric instabilities, polarization and strength of the driving electric field, and radar configurations. Sele...

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Error Growth and Dynamical Vectors During Southern Hemisphere Bloc...

By: J. S. Frederiksen; M. Wei

Description: CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Australia. The structural organization of initially random perturbations or errors evolving in a barotropic tangent linear model with time-dependent basic states taken from observations, is examined for cases of block development, maturation and decay in the Southern Hemisphere atmosphere during April, November and December 1989. We determine statistical results relating the structures of evolved errors to singular vectors (S...

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Hamiltonian Approach to the Derivation of Evolution Equations for ...

By: N. N. Romanova

Description: Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyzhevsky 3, 109017, Moscow, Russia. The dynamics of weakly nonlinear wave trains in unstable media is studied. This dynamics is investigated in the framework of a broad class of dynamical systems having a Hamiltonian structure. Two different types of instability are considered. The first one is the instability in a weakly supercritical media. The simplest example of instability of this type ...

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Assessment of Numerical Schemes for Solving the Advection–diffusio...

By: C. B. Uvo; W. Collischonn; C. R. Fragoso Jr.; F. F. Pereira; D. M. L. Motta Marques

Description: Department of Water Resources Engineering, Lund University, Lund, Sweden. In this work, a first-order upwind and a high-order flux-limiter schemes for solving the advection–diffusion equation on unstructured grids were evaluated. The numerical schemes were implemented as a module of an unstructured two-dimensional depth-averaged circulation model for shallow lakes (IPH-UnTRIM2D), and they were applied to the Guaíba River in Brazil. Their performances we...

Gross, E. S., Kose, J. R., and Monismith, S. G.: Evaluation of advective schemes for estuarine salinity simulations., Journal of hydraulic engineering, 125, 32–46, 1999.; Gross, E. S., Bonaventura, L., and Rosatti, L.: Consistency with continuity in conservative advection schemes for free-surface models., International Journal of Numerical Methods in Fluids, 38, 307–327, 2002.; Guerrero, J. S. P., Pimentel, L. C. G., Skaggs, T. H., and van Genuchten, M. T.: Analytical so...

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Correlations Between Climate Network and Relief Data : Volume 1, I...

By: J. Kurths; L. Da F. Costa; C. H. Comin; D. R. Amancio; F. A. Rodrigues; T. K. D. Peron

Description: São Carlos Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil. In the last few years, the scientific community has witnessed an ongoing trend of using ideas developed in the study of complex networks to analyze climate dynamics. This powerful combination, usually called climate networks, can be used to uncover non-trivial patterns of weather changes along the years. Here we investigate the temperature network of North America re...

Boccaletti, S., Latora, V., Moreno, Y., Chavez, M., and Hwang, D.: Complex networks: Structure and dynamics, Phys. Rep., 424, 175–308, 2006.; Costa, L., Rodrigues, F., Travieso, G., and Boas, P.: Characterization of complex networks: A survey of measurements, Adv. Phys., 56, 167–242, 2007.; da Fontoura Costa, L., Oliveira Jr, O., Travieso, G., Rodrigues, F., Boas, P., Antiqueira, L., Viana, M., and Rocha, L.: Analyzing and modeling real-world phenomena with complex netwo...

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Forecasting Characteristic Earthquakes in a Minimalist Model : Vol...

By: A. F. Pacheco; J. B. Gómez; M. Vázquez-prada; Á. González

Description: Departamento de Física Teórica and BIFI, Universidad de Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain. Using error diagrams, we quantify the forecasting of characteristic-earthquake occurrence in a recently introduced minimalist model. Initially we connect the earthquake alarm at a fixed time after the ocurrence of a characteristic event. The evaluation of this strategy leads to a one-dimensional numerical exploration of the loss function. This first str...

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Nonlinear Instability and Sensitivity of a Theoretical Grassland E...

By: B. Wang; M. Mu

Description: LASG, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China. Within a theoretical model context, the sensitivity and instability of the grassland ecosystem to finite-amplitude perturbations are studied. A new approach of conditional nonlinear optimal perturbations (CNOPs) is adopted to investigate this nonlinear problem. It is shown that the linearly stable grassland (desert) states can be nonlinearly unstable with finite...

Birgin, E. G., Mart\'\inez, J. M., and Raydan, M.: Nonmonotone spectral projected gradient methods on convex sets, SIAM Journal on Optimization, 10, 1196–1211, 2000.; Birgin, E. G., Mart\'\inez, J. M., and Raydan, M.: Algorithm 813: SPG–software for convex–constrained optimization, ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software, 27, 340–349, 2001.; Birgin, E. G., Mart\'\inez J. M., and Raydan, M.: Inexact Spectral Projected Gradient Methods on Convex Sets, IMA Journal of Nume...

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Scaling Laws of Diffusion and Time Intermittency Generated by Cohe...

By: D. Contini; A. Donateo; R. Cesari; P. Paradisi; P. Allegrini

Description: Istituto di Scienza e Tecnologie dell'Informazione A. Faedo (ISTI-CNR), Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa, Italy. We investigate the time intermittency of turbulent transport associated with the birth-death of self-organized coherent structures in the atmospheric boundary layer. We apply a threshold analysis on the increments of turbulent fluctuations to extract sequences of rapid acceleration events, which is a marker of the transition between self-organized s...

Bianco, S., Grigolini, P., and Paradisi, P.: Fluorescence intermittency in blinking quantum dots: renewal or slow modulation?, J. Chem. Phys., 123, 174704, doi:10.1063/1.2102903, 2005.; Bianco, S., Grigolini, P., and Paradisi, P.: A fluctuating environment as a source of periodic modulation Chem. Phys. Lett., 438, 336–340, 2007.; Cava, D. and Katul, G. G.: The effects of thermal stratification on clustering properties of ca...

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Aeroelectric Structures and Turbulence in the Atmospheric Boundary...

By: E. A. Mareev; M. V. Shatalina; N. M. Shikhova; S. S. Zilitinkevich; S. V. Anisimov; S. V. Galichenko

Description: Borok Geophysical Observatory of Shmidt's Institute of Physics of the Earth RAS, 152742 Borok, Yaroslavl, Russia. Complex electrical measurements with the use of sodar data show that electric field pulsation analysis is useful for electrodynamics/turbulence monitoring under different conditions. In particular, the number of aeroelectric structures (AES) generated per hour is a convenient measure of the turbulence intensity. During convectively unstable p...

Anisimov, S. V., Bakastov, S. S., and Mareev, E. A.: Spatiotemporal structures of electric field and space charge in the surface atmospheric layer, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 10603–10610, 1994.; Anisimov, S. V., Mareev, E. A., and Bakastov, S. S.: On the generation and evolution of aeroelectric structures in the surface layer, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 14359–14368, 1999.; Anisimov, S. V., Mareev, E. A., Shikhova, N. M., and Dmitriev, E. M.: Mechanisms of formation of pulsation s...

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On the Possibility of Wave-induced Chaos in a Sheared, Stably Stra...

By: M. G. Velarde; W. B. Zimmermann

Description: Department of Chemical Engineering, UMIST, Sackville Street, PO Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD, England. Shear flow in a stable stratification provides a waveguide for internal gravity waves. In the inviscid approximation, internal gravity waves are known to be unstable below a threshold in Richardson number. However, in a viscous fluid, at low enough Reynolds number, this threshold recedes to Ri = 0. Nevertheless, even the slightest viscosity strongly damps...

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