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On the Mean-field Theory of the Karlsruhe Dynamo Experiment : Volu...

By: E. Apstein; M. Rheinhardt; H. Fuchs; K.-h. Rädler

Description: Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-15482 Potsdam, Germany. In the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe an experiment has been constructed which demonstrates a homogeneous dynamo as is expected to exist in the Earth's interior. This experiment is discussed within the framework of mean-field dynamo theory. The main predictions of this theory are explained and compared with the experimental results.

Key words....

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A Nonextensive Entropy Path to Probability Distributions in Solar ...

By: M. P. Leubner; Z. Vörös

Description: Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Graz, Austria. The observed scale dependence of the probability distributions of the differences of characteristic solar wind variables is analyzed. Intermittency of the turbulent fluctuations at small-scale spatial separations is accompanied by strongly non-Gaussian distributions that turn into a normal distribution for large-scale separation. Conventional theoretical models are subject to insuffi...

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Toward Enhanced Understanding and Projections of Climate Extremes ...

By: A. Agrawal; E. A. Kodra; C. Hays; A. Banerjee; J. Kawale; So. Chatterjee; S. Ghosh; K. Steinhaeuser; Q. Fu; P. Ganguli; P. K. Snyder; A. Choudhary; S. Boriah; R. Mawalagedara; D. Wang; V. Mithal; K. Salvi; W. Hendrix; W. Liao; V. Kumar; A. R. Ganguly; D. Wuebbles; K. Hayhoe; S. Liess; D. Das; J. Faghmous; D. Kumar; Sn. Chatterjee; R. Oglesby

Description: Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA. Extreme events such as heat waves, cold spells, floods, droughts, tropical cyclones, and tornadoes have potentially devastating impacts on natural and engineered systems and human communities worldwide. Stakeholder decisions about critical infrastructures, natural resources, emergency preparedness and humanitarian aid typically need to be made at local to regional scales over seasonal to decadal planning horizon...

Stainforth, D. A., Aina, T., Christensen, C., Collins, M., Faull, N., Frame, D. J., Kettleborough, J. A., Knight, S., Martin, A., Murphy, J. M., Piani, C., Sexton, D., Smith, L. A., Spicer, R. A., Thorpe, A. J., and Allen, M. R.: Uncertainty in predictions of the climate response to rising levels of greenhouse gases, Nature, 433, 403–406, doi:10.1038/nature03301, 2005.; Stainforth, D., Kettleborough, J., Allen, M., Collin...

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Verification Against Perturbed Analyses and Observations : Volume ...

By: C. Piccolo; M. J. P. Cullen; N. E. Bowler

Description: Met Office, Fitzroy Road, Exeter, EX1 3PB, UK. It has long been known that verification of a forecast against the sequence of analyses used to produce those forecasts can under-estimate the magnitude of forecast errors. Here we show that under certain conditions the verification of a short-range forecast against a perturbed analysis coming from an ensemble data assimilation scheme can give the same root-mean-square error as verification against the trut...

Berre, L., Stefanescu, S., and Pereira, M.: The representation of the analysis effect in three error simulation techniques, Tellus A, 58, 196–209, 2006.; Bowler, N. E.: Explicitly accounting for observation error in categorical verification of forecasts, Mon. Weather Rev., 134, 1600–1606, 2006.; Bowler, N. E.: Accounting for the effect of observation errors on verification of MOGREPS, Meteorol. Appl., 15, 199–205, 2008.; Bowler, N. E., Arribas, A., Mylne, K. R., Robertso...

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Density Representation of Long's Equation : Volume 14, Issue 3 (11...

By: M. Humi

Description: Department of Mathematical Sciences, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 100 Institute Road, Worcester, MA 01609, USA. Long's equation describes two dimensional stratified atmospheric flow over terrain. Its solutions using regular first order perturbations and linear approximation were investigated analytically and numerically by many authors. Special attention was paid to the properties of the gravity waves that have been predicted to be generated as a res...

Durran, D. R.: Two-Layer solutions to Long's equation for vertically propagating mountain waves, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 118, 415–433, 1992.; Abramowitz, M. and Stegun, I. A.: Handbook of Mathematical Functions, Dover Publications, New-York, 1970.; Baines, P. G.: Topographic effects in Stratified flows, Cambridge Univ. Press, New York, 1995.; Davis, K. S.: Flow of Nonuniformly Stratified Fluid of Large Depth over Topography, M.Sc thesis in Mechanical Engineering, ...

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Phase Space Structure and Fractal Trajectories in 1½ Degree of Fre...

By: M. G. Brown

Description: Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, 4600 Rickenbacker Cswy., Miami, FL 33149. We consider particle motion in nonautonomous 1 degree of freedom Hamiltonian systems for which H(p,q,t) depends on N periodic functions of t with incommensurable frequencies. It is shown that in near-integrable systems of this type, phase space is partitioned into nonintersecting regular and chaotic regions. In th...

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A Quasi-analytical Ice-sheet Model for Climate Studies : Volume 10...

By: J. Oerlemans

Description: Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research, Utrecht University Princetonplein 5, 3584 CC UTRECHT, The Netherlands. A simple quasi-analytical model is developed to study the response of ice-sheets to climate change. The model is axisymmetrical and rests on a bed with a constant slope. The mechanics are highly parameterised. The climatic conditions are represented by the altitude of the runoff line. Above the runoff line the accumulation...

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Characterizing the Evolution of Climate Networks : Volume 21, Issu...

By: J. Kurths; K. Rehfeld; N. Molkenthin; V. Stolbova; N. Marwan; L. Tupikina

Description: PIK Potsdam Institute of Climate Impact Research, P.O. Box 601203, 14412 Potsdam, Germany. Complex network theory has been successfully applied to understand the structural and functional topology of many dynamical systems from nature, society and technology. Many properties of these systems change over time, and, consequently, networks reconstructed from them will, too. However, although static and temporally changing networks have been studied extensi...

Albert, R. and Barabasi, A.: Topology of evolving networks: local events and universality, Phys. Rev. Lett., 85, 5234–5237, 2000.; Barreiro, M., Marti, A., and Masoller, C.: Inferring long memory processes in the climate network via ordinal pattern analysis, Chaos, 21, 013101, doi:10.1063/1.3545273, 2011.; Barthélemy, M.: Spatial networks, Phys. Rep., 499, 1–100, doi:1...

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Semi-automated Extraction of Deviation Indexes (Di) from Satellite...

By: N. Casagli; D. Tapete; F. Cigna

Description: Department of Earth Sciences, University of Florence, Via La Pira 4, 50121 Florence, Italy. We develop a methodology based on satellite Persistent Scatterers (PS) time series and aimed to calculate two indexes which are capable to depict the deviation from a deformation model defined a priori. Through a simple mathematical approach, these indexes reproduce the visual process of identification of trend deviations that is usually performed manually by the ...

Berardino, P., Fornaro, G., Lanari, R., and Sansosti, E.: A New Algorithm for Surface Deformation Monitoring Based on Small Baseline Differential SAR Interferograms, IEEE T. Geosci. Remote, 40, 2375–2383, 2002.; Bianchini, S., Cigna, F., Righini, G., Proietti, C., and Casagli, N.: Landslide HotSpot Mapping by means of Persistent Scatterer Interferometry, Environ. Earth Sci., 67, 1155–1172, doi:10.1007/s12665-012-1559-5<...

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Periodic and Homoclinic Orbits in a Toy Climate Model : Volume 1, ...

By: M. Toner; A. D. Kirwan, Jr.

Description: Dept. of Mathematics and Statistics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia, USA. A two dimensional system of autonomous nonlinear ordinary differential equations models glacier growth and temperature changes on an idealized planet. We apply standard perturbative techniques from dynamical systems theory to study small amplitude periodic orbits about a constant equilibrium. The equations are put in cononical form and the local phase space topology is ...

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Sub-inertial Modulation of Nonlinear Kelvin Waves in the Coastal Z...

By: D. V. Stepanov; V. V. Novotryasov

Description: V. I. Ilichev Pacific Oceanological Institute, Vladivostok, Russia. Observational evidence is presented for interaction between nonlinear internal Kelvin waves at the Ωt,i (where the Ωt is the semidiurnal frequency and the Ωi is the inertial frequency) and random oscillations of the background coastal current at the sub-inertial Ω frequency in the Japan/East Sea. Enhanced coastal currents at the sum Ω+ and di...

Emery, W. J. and Thomson, R. E.: Data Analysis Methods in Physical Oceanography, Pergamon Press, New York, 1997.; Filonov, A. and Novotryasov, V.: Features of the nonlinear wave spectrum in the coastal zone. Geophiys. Res. Lett., 32, L15602, doi:10.1029/2005GL023046, 2005.; Filonov, A. and Novotryasov, V.: On a spectrum of nonlinear internal waves in the oceanic coastal zone, Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 14, 757–762,

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Weighted Complex Networks Applied to Seismicity: the Itoiz Dam (No...

By: F. Luzón; A. Jiménez

Description: Department of Applied Physics, University of Almería, Carretera de Sacramento s/n, Cañada de San Urbano, 04120, Almería, Spain. On 18 September 2004, an earthquake of magnitude mbLg = 4.6 was recorded near the Itoiz dam (Northern Spain). It occurred after the first impoundment of the reservoir and has been catalogued by some authors as induced seismicity. We analyzed the seismicity in the region as weighted complex networks and tried to differentiate thi...

Båth, M.: Lateral inhomogeneities in the upper mantle, Tectonophysics, 2, 483–514, 1965.; Chen, S. and Chen, Q.: A weighted network model based on the preferential selection of edges, Appl. Math. Sci., 1(23), 1145–1156, 2007.; Barrat, A., Barthelemy, M., and Vespignani, A.: Dynamical Processes on Complex Networks, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2008.; Abe, S. and Suzuki, N.: Small-world structure of earthquake network, Physica A, 337, 357–362, 2004a.; Abe, S. and...

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Sequence of Eruptive Events in the Vesuvio Area Recorded in Shallo...

By: S. Alessio; G. Vivaldo; C. Taricco

Description: Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell'Università, V. Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino, Italy and Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario (IFSI)-INAF, C. Fiume 4, 10133 Torino, Italy. The dating of the cores we drilled from the Gallipoli terrace in the Gulf of Taranto (Ionian Sea), previously obtained by tephroanalysis, is checked by applying a method to objectively recognize volcanic events. This automatic statistical procedure allows identifying pul...

Allen, M. R. and Smith, L. A.: Monte Carlo SSA: detecting oscillations in the presence of coloured noise, J. Climate, 9, 3373–3404, 1996.; Arnò, V., Principe, C., Rosi, M., Santacroce, R., Sbrana, A., and Sheridan, M. F.: Eruptive History, in: Somma-Vesuvius, Quaderni de La Ricerca Scientifica, edited by Santacroce R., CNR, Roma, Italy, 114(8), 53–103, 1987.; Bonino, G., Cini Castagnoli, G., Callegari, E., and Zhu, G. M.: Radiometric and tephroanalysis dating of recent I...

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Estimation of Flow Velocity for a Debris Flow Via the Two-phase Fl...

By: P. Xu; Y. Gao; Z. Zheng; S. Guo

Description: School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China. The two-phase fluid model is applied in this study to calculate the steady velocity of a debris flow along a channel bed. By using the momentum equations of the solid and liquid phases in the debris flow together with an empirical formula to describe the interaction between two phases, the steady velocities of the solid and liquid phases are obta...

Anderson, T. B. and Jackson, R.: Fluid mechanical description of fluidized beds: equations of motion, Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam., 6, 527–539, 1967.; Bagnold, R. A.: Experiments on a gravity-free dispersion of large solid spheres in a Newtonian fluid under shear, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. A, 225, 49–63, 1954.; Brunelli, S.: Trasporto solido annuo dei corsi d'acqua in funzione delle loro caratteristiche idrologiche e morfologiche, Tesi di Laurea, Università degli Studi di Pado...

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Avalanches in Bi-directional Sandpile and Burning Models: a Compar...

By: M. Bregman; D. Coca; M. Balikhin; R. A. Treumann; G. Consolini; M. Gedalin

Description: Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva, Israel. We perform a statistical analysis of two one-dimensional avalanching models: the bi-directional sandpile and the burning model (described in detail in the companion paper by Gedalin et al. (2005) Dynamics of the burning model). Such a comparison helps understand whether very limited measurements done by a remote observer may provide sufficient information to distinguish between the two physically different aval...

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Preface Nonlinear Plasma Waves in Space and Laboratories : Volume ...

By: B. Tsurutani; G. Morales

Description: Space Plasma Section, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, 91109, USA. No Abstract available.

Chang, T., Wu, C. C., Podesta, J., Echim, M., Lamy, H., and Tam, S. W. Y.: ROMA (Rank-Ordered Multifractal Analyses) of intermittency in space plasmas – a brief tutorial review, Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 17, 545–551, http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/npg-17-545-2010doi:10.5194/npg-17-545-2010, 2010.; del-Castillo-Negrete, D.: Non-diffusive, non-local transport in fluids and plasmas, Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 17, 795–807, http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/npg-17-795-2010doi:10.5194/n...

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Seasonal Variability of the Subpolar Gyres in the Southern Ocean: ...

By: C. Horenkamp; G. Froyland; K. Padberg-gehle; M. Dellnitz; A. Sen Gupta

Description: Department of Mathematics, University of Paderborn, 33095 Paderborn, Germany. The detection of regions in the ocean that are coherent over an extended period of time is a fundamental problem in many oceanic applications. For instance such regions are important for studying the transport of marine species and for the distribution of nutrients. In this study we demonstrate the efficacy of transfer operators in detecting and analysing such structures. We f...

Aumont, O., Orr, J., Jamous, D., Monfray, P., Marti, O., and Madec, G.: A degradation approach to accelerate simulations to steady-state in a 3-D tracer transport model of the global ocean, Clim. Dynam., 14, 101–116, 1998.; Barnier, B., Madec, G., Penduff, T., Molines, J.-M., Treguier, A.-M., Sommer, J. L., Beckmann, A., Biastoch, A., Boening, C., Dengg, J., Derval, C., Durand, E., Gulev, S., Remy, E., Talandier, C., Theetten, S., Maltrud, M., McClean, J., and De Cuevasm...

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Conditions for Large Earthquakes in a Two-asperity Fault Model : V...

By: S. Santini; M. Dragoni

Description: Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Bologna, Viale Carlo Berti Pichat 8, 40127 Bologna, Italy. A fault with two asperities is modelled as a system made of two blocks coupled by a spring and sliding on a plane under the same values of static and dynamic friction. An analytical solution is given for the simultaneous motion of the blocks and the corresponding orbits are plotted in the phase space. It is proven that, whichever the initial state is, the lo...

Burridge, R. and Knopoff, L.: Model and theoretical seismology, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 57, 341–371, 1967.; Belardinelli, M. E. and Belardinelli, E.: The quasi-static approximation of the spring-slider motion, Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 3, 143–149, doi:10.5194/npg-3-143-1996, 1996.; Byerlee, J.: Friction of rocks, Pure Appl. Geophys., 116, 616–626, 1978.; Cao, T. and Aki, K.: Seismicity simulation with a mass-spring ...

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Some Estimates on the Space Scales of Vortex Pairs Emitted from Ri...

By: V. P. Goncharov; V. I. Pavlov

Description: Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 109017 Moscow, Russia. Two-dimensional vortex pairs are frequently observed in geophysical conditions, for example, in a shelf zone of the ocean near river mouths. The main aims of the work are to estimate the space scales of such vortex structures, to analyze possible scenarios of vortex pair motion and to give the qualitative classification of their trajectories. We discuss ...

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Long-range Correlations of Extrapolar Total Ozone Are Determined b...

By: I. M. Jánosi; R. Müller; P. Kiss

Description: Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Eötvös University, Budapest, Hungary. TOMS (Version 8) ozone records are analysed between latitudes 60° S and 60° N, in order to extract autocorrelation properties with high spatial resolution. After the removal of semi-annual, annual, and quasi-biennial background oscillations, the residuals are evaluated by detrended fluctuation analysis. Long-range correlations are detected everywhere. Surprisingly, the la...

Bartos, I. and Jánosi, I. M.: Nonlinear correlations of daily temperature records over land, Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 13, 571–576, 2006.; Blender, R. and Fraedrich, K.: Long time memory in global warming simulations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1769, doi:10.1029/2003GL017666, 2003.; Calisesi, Y. and Matthes, K., The middle atmospheric ozone response to the 11-year solar cycle, Space Sci. Rev., 125, 273–286, 2006.; Chen, Z., Ivanov, P C., Hu, K., and Stanley, H E., Effect...

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