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Recurrent Frequency-size Distribution of Characteristic Events : V...

By: J. B. Rundle; D. L. Turcotte; K. F. Tiampo; S. G. Abaimov

Description: Department of Earth Sciences, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada. Statistical frequency-size (frequency-magnitude) properties of earthquake occurrence play an important role in seismic hazard assessments. The behavior of earthquakes is represented by two different statistics: interoccurrent behavior in a region and recurrent behavior at a given point on a fault (or at a given fault). The interoccurrent frequency-size behavior has been investi...

Abaimov, S. G.: Critical behavior of slider-block model, arXiv:0902.3767, 2009.; Abaimov, S. G., Turcotte, D. L., and Rundle, J. B.: Recurrence-time and frequency-slip statistics of slip events on the creeping section of the San Andreas fault in central California, Geophys. J. Int., 170, 1289–1299, 2007a.; Abaimov, S. G., Turcotte, D. L., Shcherbakov, R., and Rundle, J. B.: Recurrence and interoccurrence behavior of self-organized complex phenomena, Nonlin. Processes Geo...

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Magnetic Holes in the Solar Wind Between 0.3 Au and 17 Au : Volume...

By: N. F. Ness; K. Baumgärtel; F. M. Neubauer; K. Sperveslage

Description: Institut für Geophysik und Meteorologie, Universität zu Köln, D-50923, Germany. Magnetic holes (MHs) are depressions of the magnetic field magnitude. Turner et al. (1977) identified the first MHs in the solar wind and determined an occurrence rate of 1.5 MHs/d. Winterhalter et al. (1994) developed an automatic identification criterion to search for MHs in Ulysses data in the solar wind between 1 AU and 5.4 AU. We adopt their criterion to expand the sear...

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Site Effect Classification Based on Microtremor Data Analysis Usin...

By: K. Heydarzadeh; P. Afzal; A. Adib

Description: Department of Mining Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. The aim of this study is to classify the site effect using concentration–area (CA) fractal model in Meybod city, central Iran, based on microtremor data analysis. Log–log plots of the frequency, amplification and vulnerability index (kg) indicate a multifractal nature for the parameters in the area. The resul...

Architectural Institute of Japan: Earthquake Motion and Ground Condition, AIJ, AIJ, 5-26-20 Shiba, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108, Japan, 1993.; Afzal, P., Fadakar Alghalandis, Y., Khakzad, A., Moarefvand, P., and Rashidnejad Omran, N.: Delineation of mineralization zones in porphyry Cu deposits by fractal concentration-volume modeling, J. Geochem. Explor., 108, 220–232, 2011.; Afzal, P., Dadashzadeh Ahari, H., Rashidnejad Omran, N., and Aliyari, F.: Delineation of gold mineralize...

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Reconnection Current Sheet Structure in a Turbulent Medium : Volum...

By: S. Murray; S. Pillsworth; G. Kowal; E. T. Vishniac; G. Eyink; A. Lazarian

Description: Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon SK S7N 5E2, Canada. In the presence of turbulence, magnetic field lines lose their dynamical identity and particles entrained on field lines diffuse through space at a rate determined by the amplitude of the turbulence. In previous work (Lazarian and Vishniac, 1999; Kowal et al., 2009; Eyink et al., 2011) we showed that this leads to reconnection speeds which are independ...

Armstrong, J. W., Rickett, B. J., and Spangler, S. R.: Electron density power spectrum in the local interstellar medium, \apj, 443, 209–221, 1995.; Bale, S. D., Kellogg, P. J., Mozer, F. S., Horbury, T. S., and Reme, H.: Measurement of the Electric Fluctuation Spectrum of Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence, \prl, 94, 215002, doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.215002, 2005.; Burkhart, B., Lazarian, A., and Gaensler, B. M.: P...

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Granular Flow in Equilibrium with the Bottom: Experimental Analysi...

By: A. Lamberti; B. Zanuttigh

Description: DISTART - Universitá di Bologna Viale del Risorgimento 2, 40136 BOLOGNA, Italy. The paper presents measurements performed on the granular flow that develops in a drum partially filled with sand grains and rotating at various speeds. The aims of the paper are: to provide experimental evidence and measurements on grain flow in a drum; to compare theoretical and experimental velocity profiles; to point out discrepancies among theory and expe...

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Gyrostatic Extensions of the Howard-krishnamurti Model of Thermal ...

By: A. Gluhovsky; C. Tong

Description: Biometrics Research RY33-300, Merck Research Laboratories, P.O.Box 2000, Rahway, NJ, 07065, USA. The Howard & Krishnamurti (1986) low-order model (LOM) of Rayleigh-Bénard convection with spontaneous vertical shear can be extended to incorporate various additional physical effects, such as externally forced vertical shear and magnetic field. Designing such extended LOMs so that their mathematical structure is isomorphic to those of systems of coupled gy...

Agee, E M.: Mesoscale cellular convection over the oceans, Dyn. Atmos. Oceans, 10, 317–341, 1987.; Atkinson, B W and Zhang, J W.: Mesoscale shallow convection in the atmosphere, Rev. Geophys., 34, 403–431, 1996.; Bénard, H and Avsec, D.: Travaux récents sur les tourbillons cellulaires et les tourbillons en bandes: applications à l'astrophysique et à la météorologie, J. Phys. Radium, 9, 486–500, 1938.; Brown, R A.: Longitudinal instabilities and secondary flows in the pla...

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A Fault and Seismicity Based Composite Simulation in Northern Cali...

By: J. B. Rundle; M. B. Yıkılmaz; L. H. Kellogg; E. M. Heien; D. L. Turcotte

Description: Department of Geology, University of California, Davis One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616-8605, USA. We generate synthetic catalogs of seismicity in northern California using a composite simulation. The basis of the simulation is the fault based Virtual California (VC) earthquake simulator. Back-slip velocities and mean recurrence intervals are specified on model strike-slip faults. A catalog of characteristic earthquakes is generated for a period of 10...

Bakun, W. H., Aagaard, B., Dost, B., Ellsworth, W. L., Hardebeck, J. L., Harris, R. A., Ji, C., Johnston, M. J. S., Langbein, J., Lienkaemper, J. J., Michael, A. J., Murray, J. R., Nadeau, R. M., Reasenberg, P. A., Reichle, M. S., Roeloffs, E. A., Shakal, A., Simpson, R. W., and Waldhauser, F.: Implications for prediction and hazard assessment from the 2004 Parkfield earthquake, Nature, 437, 969–974, 2005.; Bath, M.: Lateral inhomogeneities of upper mantle, Tectonophysic...

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Statistical Properties of Nonlinear One-dimensional Wave Fields : ...

By: D. Chalikov

Description: Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center (ESSIC), University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20 742–2465, USA. A numerical model for long-term simulation of gravity surface waves is described. The model is designed as a component of a coupled Wave Boundary Layer/Sea Waves model, for investigation of small-scale dynamic and thermodynamic interactions between the ocean and atmosphere. Statistical properties of nonlinear wave fields are investigated on a...

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A New Method for Abrupt Change Detection in Dynamic Structures : V...

By: S. Q. Wan; G. L. Feng; Q. Wu; J. F. Chou; W. P. He

Description: National Climate Center, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing, China. Based on Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), we propose a new method – Moving Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MDFA) – to detect abrupt change in dynamic structures. Application of this technique shows that this method may be of use in detecting time-instants of abrupt change in dynamic structures and we even find that the MDFA results almost do not depend on length of subser...

Alexi, M. G., Brook, E. J., and Severinghaus, J. P: Abrupt change in atmospheric methane at the MIS 5b-5a transition, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L20703, doi:10.1029/2007GL029799, 2007.; Alley, R. B., Marotzke, J. W., Nordhaus, D., Overpeck, J. T., Peteet, D. M., and Pielke, R. A.: Abrupt climate change, Science, 229, 2005–2010, 2003.; Broecker, W. S.: Does the trigger for abrupt climate change reside in the ocean or in the atmosphere?, Science, 300, 1519–1522, 2003.; Bunde...

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Synchronization of Coupled Stick-slip Oscillators : Volume 21, Iss...

By: T. Hori; Y. Kawamura; N. Sugiura

Description: Research Institute for Global Change, JAMSTEC, Yokosuka, Japan. A rationale is provided for the emergence of synchronization in a system of coupled oscillators in a stick-slip motion. The single oscillator has a limit cycle in a region of the state space for each parameter set beyond the supercritical Hopf bifurcation. The two-oscillator system that has similar weakly coupled oscillators exhibits synchronization in a parameter range. The synchronization...

Abe, Y. and Kato, N.: Complex earthquake cycle simulations using a two-degree-of-freedom spring-block model with a rate-and state-friction law, Pure Appl. Geophys., 170, 745–765, doi:10.1007/s00024-011-0450-8, 2013.; Aihara, I., Takeda, R., Mizumoto, T., Otsuka, T., Takahashi, T., Okuno, H. G., and Aihara, K.: Complex and transitive synchronization in a frustrated system of calling frogs, Phys. Rev. E, 83, 031913, <...

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Automatic Extraction of Faults and Fractal Analysis from Remote Se...

By: I. Niemeyer; P. R. Marpu; R. Gloaguen

Description: Institute for Geology, Freiberg University of Mining and Technology, 09599 Freiberg, Germany. Object-based classification is a promising technique for image classification. Unlike pixel-based methods, which only use the measured radiometric values, the object-based techniques can also use shape and context information of scene textures. These extra degrees of freedom provided by the objects allow the automatic identification of geological structures. In...

Baker, B. H.: Geology of the Magadi area., Geol. Surv. Kenya Rep., 42, 82 p., 1958.; Baker, B. H., Mitchell, J. G., and Williams L. A. J.: Stratigraphy, geochronology and volcano-tectonic evolution of the Kedong-Naivasha-Kinangop region, Gregory Rift Valley, Kenya, J. Geol. Soc., London, 145, 107–116, 1988.; Barnsley, M.: Fractals everywhere, Academic Press, San Diego, pp 1–117, 1988.; Benz, U. C., Hoffmann, P., Willhauck, G., Lingenfelder, I., and Heynen, M.: Multi-reso...

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Increasing the Horizontal Resolution of Ensemble Forecasts at Cmc ...

By: C. Girard; L. Lefaivre; P. Houtekamer; G. Pellerin

Description: Canadian Meteorological Centre, Montreal, Canada. Ensemble forecasts are run operationally since February 1998 at the Canadian Meteorological Centre, with outputs up to ten days. The ensemble size was increased from eight to sixteen members in August 1999. The method of producing the perturbed analyses consists of running independent assimilation cycles that use perturbed sets of observations and are driven by eight different models, ...

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Variable Predictability in Deterministic Dissipative Sandpile : Vo...

By: M. G. Shnirman; A. B. Shapoval

Description: Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, UMR 7154, CNRS, France. It is known that some quiescence precedes the strong events in the Bak–Tang–Wiesenfeld sand-pile (Pepke and Carlson, 1994) We introduce dissipation depending on the propagation of the events into this model such that in the constructed model the growth of activity occurs before the strong events. This fact allows the prediction of them in advance with a certain efficiency. This ef...

Bak, P., Tang, C., and Wiesenfeld, K.: Self-Organized Criticality: An Explanation of $1/f$ Noise, Phys. Rev. Lett., 59, 381–384, 1987.; Dhar, D.: The Abelian Sandpile and Related Models, Physica A, 263, 4–25, 1999.; De Menech, M., Stella, A. L., and Tebaldi, C.: Rare Events and Breakdown of Simple Scaling in the Abelian Sandpile, Phys. Rev. E, 58, R2677–R2680, 1998.; Dhar, D.: Theoretical Studies of Self-Organized Criticality, Physica A, 369, 29–70, 2006.; Dickman, R., M...

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Ion Acceleration by Parallel Propagating Nonlinear Alfvén Wave Pac...

By: T. K. Suzuki; T. Hada; T. Umeda; Y. Nariyuki

Description: Faculty of Human Development, University of Toyama, 3190, Toyama City, Toyama 930-8555, Japan. The numerical simulation of the nonlinear evolution of the parallel propagating Alfvén waves in a radially expanding plasma is performed by using a kinetic-fluid model (the Vlasov–MHD model). In our study, both the nonlinear evolution of the Alfvén waves and the radial evolution of the velocity distribution function (VDF) are treated simultaneously. On the othe...

Araneda, J. A., Marsch, E., and Vinas, A. F.: Proton Core Heating and Beam Formation via Parametrically Unstable Alfven-Cyclotron Waves, Phys. Rev. Lett., 100, 125003, doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.125003, 2008.; Bale, S. D., Kasper, J. C., Howes, G. G., Quataert, E., Salem, C., and Sundkvist, D.: Magnetic fluctuation power near proton temperature anisotropy instability thresholds in the solar wind, Phys. Rev. Le...

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Nonlinear Quenching of Current Fluctuations in a Self-exciting Hom...

By: R. Hide

Description: Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU, U.K.. In the interpretation of geomagnetic polarity reversals with their highly variable frequency over geological time it is necessary, as with other irregularly fluctuating geophysical phenomena, to consider the relative importance of forced contributions associated with changing boundary conditions and of free contributions characteristic of the behaviour of nonlinear systems ope...

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Geometric and Topological Approaches to Significance Testing in Wa...

By: C. Duffy; R. G. Najjar; J. A. Schulte

Description: Department of Meteorology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA. Geometric and topological methods are applied to significance testing in the wavelet domain. A geometric test was developed for assigning significance to pointwise significance patches in local wavelet spectra, contiguous regions of significant wavelet coefficients with respect to some noise model. This geometric significance test was found t...

Barber, C. B., Dobkin, D. P., and Huhdanpaa, H.: Quickhull algorithm for convex hulls, ACM T. Math. Software, 22, 469–483, 1996.; Beyer, W. H.: CRC Standard Mathematical Tables, 28th Edn., CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 674 pp., 1987.; Edelsbrunner, H. and Harer, J.: Persistent homology – a survey, Contemp. Math.,; Jenkins, G. W. and Watts, D. G.: Spectral Analysis and its Applications, Holden-Day, San Francisco, California, 541 pp., 1968.; Grinsted, A., Moore, J. C., a...

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Analysis of Phase Coherence in Fully Developed Atmospheric Turbule...

By: D. Koga; E. L. Rempel; M. J. A. Bolzan; F. M. Ramos; A. C.-l. Chian; R. A. Miranda

Description: National Institute for Space Research (INPE) and World Institute for Space Environment Research (WISER), P. O. Box 515, São José dos Campos-SP 12227-010, Brazil. In a recent paper (Koga et al., 2007) it was shown that the intermittent nature of solar wind turbulence can be characterized by kurtosis and phase coherence index. In this paper, we apply these two nonlinear time series techniques to characterize the intermittent nature of atmospheric turbulence...

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Acoustic-gravity Nonlinear Structures : Volume 9, Issue 3/4 (30/11...

By: L. Stenflo; P. K. Shukla; D. Jovanović

Description: Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 57, Yu-11001 Belgrade, Yugoslavia. A catalogue of nonlinear vortex structures associated with acoustic-gravity perturbations in the Earth's atmosphere is presented. Besides the previously known Kelvin-Stewart cat's eyes, dipolar and tripolar structures, new solutions having the form of a row of counter-rotating vortices, and several weakly two-dimensional vortex chains are given. The existence conditions...

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Nonlinear Viscoelastic Compaction in Sedimentary Basins : Volume 7...

By: X.-s. Yang

Description: Department of Fuel and Energy and Applied Mathematics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK. In the mathematical modelling of sediment compaction and porous media flow, the rheological behaviour of sediments is typically modelled in terms of a nonlinear relationship between effective pressure pe and porosity Φ, that is pe = pe (Φ). The compaction law is essentially a poroelastic one. However, viscous c...

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Numerical Simulations of a Three-wave Coupling Occurring in the Io...

By: H. Matsumoto; R. Gendrin; H. Usui

Description: Radio Science Center for Space and Atmosphere, Kyoto Univerisity Uji, Kyoto 611-0011, Japan. We studied a three-wave coupling process occurring in an active experiment of microwave power transmission (MPT) in the ionospheric plasma by performing one-dimensional electromagnetic PIC (Particle-In-Cell) simulations. In order to examine the spatial variation of the coupling process, we continuously emitted intense electromagnetic waves from an...

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