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Aggregation and Sampling in Deterministic Chaos: Implications for ...

By: P. Burlando; R. Eykholt; T. R. Green; H. S. Kim; J. D. Salas

Description: Department of Civil Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. A review of the literature reveals conflicting results regarding the existence and inherent nature of chaos in hydrological processes such as precipitation and streamflow, i.e. whether they are low dimensional chaotic or stochastic. This issue is examined further in this paper, particularly the effect that certain types of transformations, such as aggregation and sa...

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Correlations Between Climate Network and Relief Data : Volume 1, I...

By: J. Kurths; L. Da F. Costa; C. H. Comin; D. R. Amancio; F. A. Rodrigues; T. K. D. Peron

Description: São Carlos Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil. In the last few years, the scientific community has witnessed an ongoing trend of using ideas developed in the study of complex networks to analyze climate dynamics. This powerful combination, usually called climate networks, can be used to uncover non-trivial patterns of weather changes along the years. Here we investigate the temperature network of North America re...

Boccaletti, S., Latora, V., Moreno, Y., Chavez, M., and Hwang, D.: Complex networks: Structure and dynamics, Phys. Rep., 424, 175–308, 2006.; Costa, L., Rodrigues, F., Travieso, G., and Boas, P.: Characterization of complex networks: A survey of measurements, Adv. Phys., 56, 167–242, 2007.; da Fontoura Costa, L., Oliveira Jr, O., Travieso, G., Rodrigues, F., Boas, P., Antiqueira, L., Viana, M., and Rocha, L.: Analyzing and modeling real-world phenomena with complex netwo...

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Energy Transformations and Dissipation of Nonlinear Internal Waves...

By: J. N. Moum; J. D. Nash; E. L. Shroyer

Description: College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA. The energetics of large amplitude, high-frequency nonlinear internal waves (NLIWs) observed over the New Jersey continental shelf are summarized from ship and mooring data acquired in August 2006. NLIW energy was typically on the order of 105 Jm−1, and the wave dissipative loss was near 50 W m−1. However, wave energies (dissipations)...

Apel, J. R., Holbrook, J. R., Liu, A. K., and Tsai, J. J.: The {S}ulu {S}ea Internal Soliton Experiment, J. Phys. Ocean., 15, 1625–1651, 1985.; Brickman, D. and Loder, J. W.: Energetics of the Internal Tide on Northern Georges Bank, J. Phys. Ocean., 23, 409–424, 2.0.CO;2>doi:10.1175/1520-0485(1993)023<0409:EOTITO>2.0.CO;2, 1993.; Chang, M.-H., Lein, R.-C., Tang, T. Y., D'Asaro, E. A., and Yang, Y. J.: E...

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Implications of Model Error for Numerical Climate Prediction : Vol...

By: O. Martínez-alvarado

Description: Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Earley Gate, P.O. Box 243, Reading RG6 6BB, UK. Numerical climate models constitute the best available tools to tackle the problem of climate prediction. Two assumptions lie at the heart of their suitability: (1) a climate attractor exists, and (2) the numerical climate model's attractor lies on the actual climate attractor, or at least on the projection of the climate attractor on the model's phase space...

Anderson, J. L.: Selection of initial conditions for ensemble forecasts in a simple perfect model framework, J. Atmos. Sci., 53, 22–36, 1995.; Bowler, N. E., Arribas, A., Mylne, K. R., Robertson, K. B., and Beare, S. E.: The MOGREPS short-range ensemble prediction system, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 134, 703–722, 2008.; Brands, S., Herrera, S., Fernandez, J., and Gutierrez, J.: How well do CMIP5 Earth System Models simulate present climate conditions, Clim. Dynam., 41, 803–...

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New Results of Investigations of Whistler-mode Chorus Emissions : ...

By: O. Santolík

Description: Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Prague and Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic. This review summarizes selected recent results obtained during investigation of whistler-mode chorus emissions in the Earth's magnetosphere. Special attention is paid to results published during the last five years, with a focus on the results of the CLUSTER project. The nonlinear nature of chorus emissions is demonstrated using both theoretical results and measur...

Bortnik, J., Thorne, R M., Meredith, N P., and Santolik, O.: Ray tracing of penetrating chorus and its implications for the radiation belts, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L15109, doi:10.1029/2007GL030040, 2007.; Bortnik, J., Thorne, R M., and Meredith, N P.: The unexpected origin of plasmaspheric hiss from discrete chorus emissions, Nature, 452, 62–66, doi:10.1038/nature06741, 2008.; Breneman, A W., Kletzing, C A., Chum, J., and Santolik, O.: Multi-Spacecraft Observations of ...

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Testing and Modelling Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticit...

By: P. H. A. J. M Van Gelder; J. K. Vrijling; J. Ma; W. Wang

Description: Faculty of Water Resources and Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing, 210098, China. Conventional streamflow models operate under the assumption of constant variance or season-dependent variances (e.g. ARMA (AutoRegressive Moving Average) models for deseasonalized streamflow series and PARMA (Periodic AutoRegressive Moving Average) models for seasonal streamflow series). However, with McLeod-Li test and Engle's Lagrange Multiplier test, clear evidences ...

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A Barnes-hut Scheme for Simulating Fault Slip : Volume 18, Issue 2...

By: T. E. Tullis; N. M. Beeler

Description: US Geological Survey, Cascades Observatory, Vancouver, Washington, 98683, USA. To account for natural spatial and temporal complexity, large-scale, long-duration calculations are required for simulations of seismicity in fault zones that host large earthquakes. Without advances in computational methods, the rate of progress in earthquake simulator models and associated earthquake forecasts is limited by the rates at which computer speed and storage incr...

Ampuero, J.-P. and Rubin, A. M.: Earthquake nucleation on rate-and-state faults: aging and slip laws, J. Geophys. Res., 113, B01302, doi:10.1029/2007JB005082, 2008.; Barnes, J. and Hut, P.: A Hierarchical O(N log N) force calculation algorithm, Nature, 324, 446~pp., 1986.; Ben-Zion, Y. and Rice, J. R.: Earthquake failure sequences along a cellular fault zone in a three-dimensional elastic solid containing asperity and nonasperity regions, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 14109–1413...

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Application of Local Singularity in Prospecting Potential Oil/Gas ...

By: Zhijun Chen; Gao Chen; Shuyun Xie; Zhengyu Bao; Qiuming Cheng

Description: State Key Lab of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 430074, China. Together with generalized self-similarity and the fractal spectrum, local singularity analysis has been introduced as one part of the new 3S principle and technique for mineral resource assessment based on multifractal modeling, which has been demonstrated to be useful for anomaly delineation. Local singularity is used in this paper to char...

Abrams, M. A.: Significance of hydrocarbon seepage relative to petroleum generation and entrapment, Marine and Petroleum Geology, 22, 457–477, 2005.; Cheng, Q.: Multifractality and spatial statistics, Computers and Geosciences, 25, 9, 949–961, 1999.; Cheng, Q., Agterberg, F. P., and Ballantyne, S. B.: The separation of geochemical anomalies from background by fractal methods, Exploration Geochemistry, 51, 109–130, 1994.; Cheng, Q.: GeoData Analysis System (GeoDAS) for mi...

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Distinguishing the Effects of Internal and Forced Atmospheric Vari...

By: M. Barreiro; J. I. Deza; C. Masoller

Description: Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Colom 11, 08222, Terrassa, Barcelona, Spain. The fact that the climate on the earth is a highly complex dynamical system is well-known. In the last few decades great deal of effort has been focused on understanding how climate phenomena in one geographical region affects the climate of other regions. Complex networks are a powerful framework for identifying climate interdep...

Straus, D. M. and Shukla, J.: Distinguishing between the SST-forced variability and internal variability in mid latitudes: analysis of observations and GCM simulations, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 126, 2323–2350, doi:10.1002/qj.49712656716, 2000.; Ting, M., Kushnir, Y., Seager, R., and Li, C.: Forced and internal twentieth-century SST Trends in the North Atlantic, J. Climate, 22, 1469–1481,

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An Extension of Conditional Nonlinear Optimal Perturbation Approac...

By: Q. Wang; W. Duan; M. Mu; R. Zhang

Description: Key Laboratory of Ocean Circulation and Wave, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China. The approach of conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation (CNOP) was previously proposed to find the optimal initial perturbation (CNOP-I) in a given constraint. In this paper, we extend the CNOP approach to search for the optimal combined mode of initial perturbations and model parameter perturbations. This optimal combined mode, ...

Aanonsen, S. I.: Efficient history matching using a multiscale technique, SPE Reservoir Evaluation and Engineering, 154–164, February 2008.; Birgin, E. G., Martinez, J. M., and Raydan, M.: Nonmonotone spectral projected gradient methods on convex sets, SIAM J. Optimiz., 10, 1196–1211, 2000.; Chu, P. C., Lu, S. H., and Chen, Y. C.: Two kinds of predictability problems in Lorenz system and climate models, Second Hayes Symposium on Seasonal to Interannual Climate Variabilit...

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Charged Dust and Shock Phenomena in the Solar System : Volume 13, ...

By: A. A. Gisko; S. I. Popel

Description: Institute for Dynamics of Geospheres, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia. The results on shock phenomena in dusty plasmas of the Solar System are reviewed. The problems of dust ion acoustic bow shock in interaction of the solar wind with dusty cometary coma and formation of transient atmospheres of atmosphereless cosmic bodies such as Moon, Mercury, asteroids and comets are considered. The latter assumes the evolution of meteoroid impact plumes ...

Bingham, R., Shapiro, V. D., Tsytovich, V. N., de Angelis, U., Gilman, M., and Shevchenko, V. I.: Theory of wave activity occurring in the AMPTE artificial comet, Phys. Fluids, 3, 1728–1738, 1991.; Dawson, J. M., Bingham, R., and Shapiro, V. D.: X-rays from comet Hyakutake, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion, 39, A185–193, 1997.; Erlandson, R. E., Swaminathan, P. K., Meng, C.-I., Stoyanov, B. J., Zetzer, J. I., Gavrilov, B. G., Kiselev, Yu. N., and Romanovsky, Yu. A.: Observ...

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Head-on Collision of Two Solitary Waves and Residual Falling Jet F...

By: C. Kharif; J. Touboul; J. Chambarel

Description: Institut de Recherche sur les Phénomènes Hors Equilibre, Marseille, France. The head-on collision of two equal and two unequal steep solitary waves is investigated numerically. The former case is equivalent to the reflection of one solitary wave by a vertical wall when viscosity is neglected. We have performed a series of numerical simulations based on a Boundary Integral Equation Method (BIEM) on finite depth to investigate during the collision the ma...

Byatt-Smith, J. G B.: The reflection of a solitary wave by a vertical wall, J. Fluid. Mech., 197, 503–521, 1988.; Bona, J L. and Chen, M.: A Boussinesq system for two-way propagation of nonlinear dispersive waves, Physica D., 116, 191–224, 1998.; Byatt-Smith, J. G B.: An integral equation for unsteady surface waves and a comment on the Boussinesq equation., J. Fluid Mech., 49, 625–633, 1971.; Chan, R. K C. and Street, R L.: A computer study of finite-amplitude water wave...

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A Two-fluid Model Describing the Finite-collisionality, Stationary...

By: S. M. Finnegan; M. E. Koepke; D. J. Knudsen

Description: Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-6315, USA. The stationary inertial Alfvén (StIA) wave (Knudsen, 1996) was predicted for cold, collisionless plasma. The model was generalized (Finnegan et al., 2008) to include nonzero values of electron and ion collisional resistivity and thermal pressure. Here, the two-fluid model is further generalized to include anisotropic thermal pressure. A bounded range of values of parallel el...

Alfvén, H.: Existence of electromagnetic-hydrodynamic waves, Nature, 150, 405, 1942.; Allen, T K., Baker, W R., Pyle, R V., and Wilcox, J M.: Experimental generation of plasma Alfvén waves, Phys. Rev. Lett., 2, 383, 1959.; Chaston, C C., Bonnell, J W., Carlson, C W., McFadden, J P., Ergun, R E., Strangeway, R J., and Lund, E J.: Auroral ion acceleration in dispersive Alfvén waves, J. Geophys. Res., 109, A04205, doi:10.1029/2003JA010053, 2004.; Chust, T., Roux, A., Kurth,...

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Solar Cycle Dependence of Scaling in Solar Wind Fluctuations : Vol...

By: K. Kiyani; B. Hnat; S. C. Chapman

Description: Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Physics Department, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK. In this review we collate recent results for the statistical scaling properties of fluctuations in the solar wind with a view to synthesizing two descriptions: that of evolving MHD turbulence and that of a scaling signature of coronal origin that passively propagates with the solar wind. The scenario that emerges is that of coexistent signatures w...

REFERENCE 1 \beginthebibliography \bibitem[Aschwanden(2000)] Aschwanden2000 Aschwanden, M. J.: Time variability of the quiet sun observed with TRACE. II. Physical parameters, temperature evolution, and energetics of extreme-ultraviolet nanoflares Astrophys. J., 535, 1047, 2000.; Aschwanden, M. J. and Parnell, C. E.: Nanoflare statistics from first principles: fractal geometry and temperature synthesis, Astrophys. J., 572, 1048, 2002.; Barenblatt, G. I.: Scaling, self-sim...

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Multifractal Earth Topography : Volume 13, Issue 5 (16/10/2006)

By: D. Schertzer; S. Lovejoy; J.-s. Gagnon

Description: Department of Physics, McGill University, Montréal, Canada. This paper shows how modern ideas of scaling can be used to model topography with various morphologies and also to accurately characterize topography over wide ranges of scales. Our argument is divided in two parts. We first survey the main topographic models and show that they are based on convolutions of basic structures (singularities) with noises. Focusing on models with large numbers of de...

Audit, B., Bacry, E., Muzy, J. F., and Arnéodo, A.: Wavelet-based estimators of scaling behavior, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 48(11), 2938–2954, 2002.; Aviles, C. A., Scholz, C. H., and Boatwright, J.: Fractal analysis applied to characteristic segments of the San Andreas fault, J. Geophys. Res., 92(B1), 331–344, 1987.; Balmino, G.: The spectra of the topography of the Earth, Venus and Mars, Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(11), 1063–1066, 1993.; Banavar, J. R., Cola...

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Predictability of the Monthly North Atlantic Oscillation Index Bas...

By: X. Lana; A. Burgueño; C. Serra; M. D. Martínez

Description: Dept. de Física Aplicada, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 649, 08028 Barcelona, Spain. The predictability of the monthly North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO, index is analysed from the point of view of different fractal concepts and dynamic system theory such as lacunarity, rescaled analysis (Hurst exponent) and reconstruction theorem (embedding and correlation dimensions, Kolmogorov entropy and Lyapunov exponents). The main results point ...

Ambaum, M. H. P., Hoskins, B. J., and Stephenson, D. B.: Arctic oscillation or North Atlantic oscillation?, J. Climate, 14, 3495–3507, 2001.; Cohen, A. and Procaccia, I.: Estimation of Kolmogorv entropy from time signals of dissipative and conservative dynamical systems, Phys. Rev., A, 31, 1872–1882, 1983.; Bera Anil, K. and Jarque, C. M.: Efficient tests for normality, homoscedasticity and serial independence of regression residuals, Econ. Lett., 7(4), 313–318, 1981.; C...

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Double Rank-ordering Technique of Roma (Rank-ordered Multifractal ...

By: T. Chang; S. W. Y. Tam

Description: Institute of Space, Astrophysical and Plasma Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. Rank-Ordered Multifractal Analysis (ROMA), a technique capable of deciphering the multifractal characteristics of intermittent fluctuations, was originally applied to the results of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation. Application of ROMA to measured fluctuations in the auroral zone, due to the dominant physical effects changing from kinetic to MHD ...

Burlaga, L.: Intermittent turbulence in the solar wind, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 5847–5851, 1991.; Bruno, R., Carbone, V., Veltri, P., Pietropaolo, E., and Bavassano, B.: Identifying intermittent events in the solar wind, Planet. Space Sci., 49, 1201–1210, 2001.; Chang, T., Tam, S. W. Y., and Wu, C. C.: Complexity induced anisotropic bimodal intermittent turbulence in space plasmas, Phys. Plasmas, 11, 1287–1299, 2004.; Chang, T.: Colloid-like behavior and topological phase ...

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Spectral Properties of Electromagnetic Turbulence in Plasmas : Vol...

By: D. Shaikh; P. K. Shukla

Description: Department of Physics and Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomy Research (CSPAR), The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL-35899, USA. We report on the nonlinear turbulent processes associated with electromagnetic waves in plasmas. We focus on low-frequency (in comparison with the electron gyrofrequency) nonlinearly interacting electron whistlers and nonlinearly interacting Hall-magnetohydrodynamic (H-MHD) fluctuations in a magnetized plasm...

Kingsep, A. S., Chukbar, K. V., and Yan'kov, V. V.: Reviews of Plasma Physics, Consultants Bureau, New York, 16, 243–291, 1990.; Bale, S. D., Kellogg, P. J., Mozer, F. S., Horbury, T. S., and Reme, H.: Measurement of the Electric Fluctuation Spectrum of Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 215002, doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.215002, 2005.; Bespalov, P. A.: Excitation of whistler waves in three spectral bands in the radiation belts of Jupiter and Saturn, Eu...

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Low-frequency Variability of the Kuroshio Extension : Volume 16, I...

By: H. A. Dijkstra; S. Pierini

Description: Dipartimento di Scienze per l'Ambiente, Università di Napoli Parthenope, Naples, Italy. In this paper, we provide a review of recent results targeted at the understanding of the low-frequency variability of the Kuroshio Extension. We provide the background and main arguments of two views which have recently been proposed to explain this variability. In the first view, wind-induced Rossby waves and the effects of mesocale eddies are crucial. The second vi...

Wiggins, S.: Introduction to Applied Nonlinear Dynamical Systems and Chaos, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg-Berlin, Germany, 1990.; Cessi, P. and Ierley, G. R.: Symmetry-breaking multiple equilibria in quasi-geostrophic, wind-driven flows, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25, 1196–1205, 1995.; Chang, K.-I., Ghil, M., Ide, K., and Lai, C.-C. A.: Transition to aperiodic variability in a wind-driven double-gyre circulation model, J. Phys.\ Oceanogr., 31, 1260–1286, 2001.; Dijkstra, H. A.: N...

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Statistical Analysis of Stromboli Vlp Tremor in the Band [0.1–0.5]...

By: M. Palo; M. Falanga; S. De Martino; E. De Lauro

Description: Dipartimento di Fisica, Salerno University, via S. Allende, I-84081 Baronissi (SA), Italy. We analyze time series of Strombolian volcanic tremor, focusing our attention on the frequency band [0.1–0.5] Hz (very long period (VLP) tremor). Although this frequency band is largely affected by noise, we evidence two significant components by using Independent Component Analysis with the frequencies, respectively, of ~0.2 and ~0.4 Hz. We show that these compon...

Acernese, F., Ciaramella, A., De Martino, S., Falanga, M., and Tagliaferri, R.: Neural Networks for blind sources separation of Stomboli explosion quakes, IEEE Trans. Neural Netws., 14, 167–175, 2003.; Acernese, F., Ciaramella, A., De Martino, S., Falanga, M., Godano, C., and Tagliaferri, R.: Polarisation analysis of the independent components of low frequency events at Stromboli volcano (Eolian Island, Italy), J. Volc. Geotherm. Res., Special Issue: an introduction, edi...

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