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Nonlinear Instability and Sensitivity of a Theoretical Grassland E...

By: B. Wang; M. Mu

Description: LASG, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China. Within a theoretical model context, the sensitivity and instability of the grassland ecosystem to finite-amplitude perturbations are studied. A new approach of conditional nonlinear optimal perturbations (CNOPs) is adopted to investigate this nonlinear problem. It is shown that the linearly stable grassland (desert) states can be nonlinearly unstable with finite...

Birgin, E. G., Mart\'\inez, J. M., and Raydan, M.: Nonmonotone spectral projected gradient methods on convex sets, SIAM Journal on Optimization, 10, 1196–1211, 2000.; Birgin, E. G., Mart\'\inez, J. M., and Raydan, M.: Algorithm 813: SPG–software for convex–constrained optimization, ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software, 27, 340–349, 2001.; Birgin, E. G., Mart\'\inez J. M., and Raydan, M.: Inexact Spectral Projected Gradient Methods on Convex Sets, IMA Journal of Nume...

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Investigation of Correlation of the Variations in Land Subsidence ...

By: H. R. Nankali; F. Tavakoli; A. Mirzaei; K. Moghtased-azar

Description: Khosro Moghtased-Azar, Surveying Department, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Tabriz University, 51666-14766, Tabriz, Iran. Lake Urmia, a salt lake in the north-west of Iran, plays a valuable role in the environment, wildlife and economy of Iran and the region, but now faces great challenges for survival. The Lake is in immediate and great danger and is rapidly going to become barren desert. As a result, the increasing demands upon groundwater resources due...

Barbero, R. and Moron, V.: Seasonal to decadal modulation of the impact of El Niño-Southern Oscillation on New Caledonia (SW Pacific) rainfall (1950-2010), J. Geophys. Res., 116, D23111, doi:10.1029/2011JD016577, 2011.; Cazelles, B., Chavez, M., Magny, G. C., Guégan, J., and Hales, S.: Time-dependent spectral analysis of epidemiological time-series with wavelets, J. Roy. Soc. Int., 4, 625–636,

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Edge Effect Causes Apparent Fractal Correlation Dimension of Unifo...

By: J.-d. Creutin; D. Sempere Torres; J. M. Porrà; R. Uijlenhoet

Description: Chair of Hydrology and Quantitative Water Management, Department of Environmental Sciences, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands. Lovejoy and Schertzer (1990a) presented a statistical analysis of blotting paper observations of the (two-dimensional) spatial distribution of raindrop stains. They found empirical evidence for the fractal scaling behavior of raindrops in space, with potentially far-reaching implications for rainfall microphysics...

Bacchi, B., Ranzi, R., and Borga, M.: Statistical characterization of spatial patterns of rainfall cells in extratropical cyclones, J. Geophys. Res., (D101), 26277–26286, 1996.; Cornford, S G.: Sampling errors in measurements of raindrop and cloud droplet concentrations, Meteorol. Mag., 96, 271–282, 1967.; Cox, D R. and Isham, V.: Point processes, Chapman & Hall, London, 188 pp., 1980.; Cressie, N A C.: Statistics for spatial data, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 936 pp., 1...

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Fractal Analysis for the Ulf Data During the 1993 Guam Earthquake ...

By: Y. Ida; M. Hayakawa

Description: Department of Electronic Engineering, The University of Electro-Communications, 1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Chofu, Tokyo, 182-8585, Japan. An extremely large earthquake (with magnitude of 8.2) happened on 8 August 1993 near the Guam island, and ultra-low-frequency (ULF) (frequency less than 1 Hz) electromagnetic fields were measured by 3-axis induction magnetometers at an observing station (with the epicentral distance of 65 km) with sampling frequency of 1 Hz. In...

Burlaga, L. F. and Klein, L. W.: Fractal structure of the interplanetary magnetic field, J. Geophys. Res., 91, 347–350, 1986.; Hayakawa, M. and Fujinawa, Y. (Eds.): Electromagnetic Phenomena Related to Earthquake Prediction, Terra Sci. Pub. Co., Tokyo, 667p, 1994.; Gotoh, K., Hayakawa, M., and Smirnova, N.: Fractal analysis of the gromagnetic data obtained at Izu peninsula, Japan in relation to the nearby earthquake swarm of June–August 2000, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci...

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On the Earth’s Magnetic Field and the Hall Effect : Volume 10, Iss...

By: J. E. Allen

Description: University College, Oxford, OX1 4BH, UK. In a recent paper de Paor put forward a new theory of the Earth's magnetic field that depended on the Hall effect as an energy transfer mechanism. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the mechanism invoked is unimportant except in certain gaseous plasmas.

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A Simple Metric to Quantify Seismicity Clustering : Volume 17, Iss...

By: J. A. Vallejos; S. D. McKinnon; K. F. Tiampo; N. F. Cho; R. Dominguez; W. Klein

Description: Department of Earth Sciences, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada. The Thirulamai-Mountain (TM) metric was first developed to study ergodicity in fluids and glasses (Thirumalai and Mountain, 1993) using the concept of effective ergodicity, where a large but finite time interval is considered. Tiampo et al. (2007) employed the TM metric to earthquake systems to search for effective ergodic periods, which are considered to be metastable equilibr...

Baiesi, M. and Paczuski, M.: Scale-free networks of earthquakes and aftershocks, Phys. Rev. E, 69, 066106, doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.69.066106, 2004.; de Oliveira, C. R. and Werlang, T.: Ergodic hypothesis in classical statistical mechanics, Rev. Bras. Ensino. Fis., 29(2), 189–201, 2007.; Dieterich, J.: A constitutive law for rate of earthquake production and its application to earthquake clustering, J. Geophys. Res., 99(B2), 2601–2618, 1994.; Farquhar, I. E.: Ergodic theory ...

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Evaluation of Eta Model Seasonal Precipitation Forecasts Over Sout...

By: J. L. Gomes; J. F. Bustamante; S. C. Chou

Description: Center for Weather Prediction and Climate Studies – CPTEC, National Institute for Space Research, INPE, Brazil. Seasonal forecasts run by the Eta Model over South America were evaluated with respect to precipitation predictability at different time scales, seasonal, monthly and weekly for one-year period runs. The model domain was configured over most of South America in 40km horizontal resolution and 38 layers. The lateral boundary conditions were take...

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Intermittent Particle Dynamics in Marine Coastal Waters : Volume 2...

By: H. Loisel; F. G. Schmitt; P. R. Renosh

Description: University of Lille, UMR 8187, Laboratory of Oceanology and Geosciences, 28 Avenue Foch, 62930 Wimereux, France. Marine coastal processes are highly variable over different space and time scales. In this paper we analyse the intermittency properties of particle size distribution (PSD) recorded every second using a LISST instrument (Laser In-Situ Scattering and Transmissometry). The particle concentrations have been recorded over 32 size classes from 2.5 to...

Agrawal, Y. and Pottsmith, H.: Instruments for particle size and settling velocity observations in sediment transport, Mar. Geol., 168, 89–114, 2000.; Amal, R., Raper, J. A., and Waite, T. D.: Fractal structure of hematite aggregates, J. Colloid Interf. Sci., 140, 158–168, 1990.; Bec, J.: Multifractal concentrations of inertial particles in smooth random flows, J. Fluid Mech., 528, 255–277, 2005.; Boss, E., Pegau, W. S., Gardner, W. D., Zaneveld, J. R. V., Barnard, A. H....

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Obliquely Propagating Electron Acoustic Solitons in Magnetized Pla...

By: H. R. Pakzad; K. Javidan

Description: Department of Physics, Bojnourd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bojnourd, Iran. The problem of small amplitude electron-acoustic solitary waves (EASWs) is discussed using the reductive perturbation theory in magnetized plasmas consisting of cold electrons, hot electrons obeying nonextensive distribution and stationary ions. The presented investigation shows that the presence of nonextensive distributed hot electrons (due to the effects of long-range in...

Mamun, A. A., Shukla, P. K., and Stenflo, L.: Obliquely propagating electron-acoustic solitary waves, Phys. Plasmas, 9, 4 pp., doi:10.1063/1.1462635, 2002.; Amour, R. and Tribeche, M.: Variable charge dust acoustic solitary waves in a dusty plasma with a q-nonextensive electron velocity distribution, Phys. Plasmas, 7 pp., doi:10.1063/1.3428538, 2010.; Anowar, M. G. M. and Mamun, A. A.: Multidimensional instability of electron-acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized plasm...

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Thin Layer Shearing of a Highly Plastic Clay : Volume 13, Issue 6 ...

By: G. Gudehus; M. Külzer; A. B. Libreros Bertini; K. Balthasar

Description: Institut für Bodenmechanik und Felsmechanik, Universität Karlsruhe, Germany. Shearing tests with a thin layer of clay between filter slabs render possible large and cyclic deformations with drainage. In the pressure range of 100 kPa they serve to validated visco-hypoplastic constitutive relations. This theory is also confirmed by tests with up to 14 MPa and super-imposed anti-plane cycles. After this kind of seismic disturbance the clay stabilizes if the...

Bauer, E.: Calibration of a comprehensive hypoplastic model for granular materials, Soils and Foundations (Jap. Soc. of Soil Mech. and Foundation Eng.), 36(1), 13–26, 1996.; Bernaix, J.: New laboratory methods of studying the mechanical properties of Rocks, Int. J. Rock Mechanics and Mining Science, 6, 43–90, 1969.; Bertini, A. B L.: Hypo- und viskohypoplastische Modellierung von Kriech- und Rutschbewegungen, besonders infolge Starkbeben, Veröffentlichungen des Institute...

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Asymmetric Multifractal Model for Solar Wind Intermittent Turbulen...

By: W. M. MacEk; A. Szczepaniak

Description: Space Research Centre, Polish Academy of Science, Bartycka 18A, 00-716 Warsaw, Poland. We consider nonuniform energy transfer rate for solar wind turbulence depending on the solar cycle activity. To achieve this purpose we determine the generalized dimensions and singularity spectra for the experimental data of the solar wind measured in situ by Advanced Composition Explorer spacecraft during solar maximum (2001) and minimum (2006) at 1 AU. By determin...

Marsch, E. and Tu, C.-Y.: Intermittency, non-Gaussian statistics and fractal scaling of MHD fluctuations in the solar wind, Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 4, 101–124, 1997.; Marsch, E., Tu, C.-Y., and Rosenbauer, H.: Multifractal scaling of the kinetic energy flux in solar wind turbulence, Ann. Geophys., 14, 259–269, 1996.; Meneveau, C. and Sreenivasan, K. R.: Simple multifractal cascade model for fully developed turbulence, Phys. Rev. Lett., 59, 1424–1427, 1987.; Meneveau,...

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Observing Extreme Events in Incomplete State Spaces with Applicati...

By: K. P. Georgakakos; A. A. Tsonis

Description: Department of Mathematical Sciences, Atmospheric Sciences Group, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201-0413, USA. Reconstructing the dynamics of nonlinear systems from observations requires the complete knowledge of its state space. In most cases, this is either impossible or at best very difficult. Here, by using a toy model, we investigate the possibility of deriving useful insights about the variability of the system from only a part ...

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Toward Enhanced Understanding and Projections of Climate Extremes ...

By: A. Banerjee; D. Kumar; S. Chatterjee; A. Choudhary; E. A. Kodra; S. Chatterjee; W. Hendrix; S. Boriah; D. Das; R. Oglesby; K. Hayhoe; S. Ghosh; J. Kawale; D. Wuebbles; K. Steinhaeuser; D. Wang; K. Salvi; Q. Fu; R. Mawalagedara; S. Liess; A. R. Ganguly; J. Faghmous; P. Ganguli; C. Hays; V. Mithal; P. K. Snyder; V. Kumar

Description: Sustainability and Data Sciences Laboratory, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA. Extreme events such as heat waves, cold spells, floods, droughts, tropical cyclones, and tornadoes have potentially devastating impacts on natural and engineered systems, and human communities, worldwide. Stakeholder decisions about critical infrastructures, natural resources, emergency preparedness and humanitarian ai...

Armbrust, M., Fox, A., Griffith, R., Joseph, A. D., Katz, R., Konwinski, A., Lee, G., Patterson, D., Rabkin, A., Stoica, I., and Zaharia, M.: A view of cloud computing, Commun. ACM, 53, 50–58, doi:10.1145/1721654.1721672, 2010.; Benjamini, Y. and Hochberg, Y.: Controlling the false discovery rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing, J. R. Stat. Soc. Ser. B, 57, 289–300, 1995.; Berriman, G. B., Juve,...

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Multivariate Autoregressive Modelling of Sea Level Time Series fro...

By: M. J. Fernandes; M. E. Silva; S. M. Barbosa

Description: Department of Applied Mathematics, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Portugal. This work addresses the autoregressive modelling of sea level time series from TOPEX/Poseidon satellite altimetry mission. Datasets from remote sensing applications are typically very large and correlated both in time and space. Multivariate analysis methods are useful tools to summarise and extract information from such large space-time datasets. Multivariate autoregre...

AVISO: AVISO User Handbook for Merged TOPEX/POSEIDON Products, AVI-NT-02-101-CN ed. 3.0, 1996.; Barbosa, S M., Fernandes, M J., and Silva, M E.: Space-time analysis of sea level in the North Atlantic from TOPEX/Poseidon satellite altimetry, International Association of Geodesy Symposia, 129, 248-253, Springer, 2005.; Berwin, R.: Topex/Poseidon Sea Surface Height Anomaly Product. User's Reference Manual, NASA JPL Physical Oceanography DAAC, Pasadena, CA., 2003.; Chambers,...

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Lagrangian Velocity Statistics of Directed Launch Strategies in a ...

By: A. C. Poje; M. Toner

Description: College of Marine Studies, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, USA. The spatial dependence of Lagrangian displacement and velocity statistics is studied in the context of a data assimilating numerical model of the Gulf Mexico. In the active eddy region of the Western Gulf, a combination of Eulerian and Lagrangian measures are used to locate strongly hyperbolic regions of the flow. The statistics of the velocity field sampled by sets of drifters la...

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Forecasting Characteristic Earthquakes in a Minimalist Model : Vol...

By: A. F. Pacheco; J. B. Gómez; M. Vázquez-prada; Á. González

Description: Departamento de Física Teórica and BIFI, Universidad de Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain. Using error diagrams, we quantify the forecasting of characteristic-earthquake occurrence in a recently introduced minimalist model. Initially we connect the earthquake alarm at a fixed time after the ocurrence of a characteristic event. The evaluation of this strategy leads to a one-dimensional numerical exploration of the loss function. This first str...

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On the Predictability of Ice Avalanches : Volume 12, Issue 6 (30/0...

By: C. Birrer; W. A. Stahel; M. Funk; A. Pralong

Description: Laboratory of Hydraulics, Hydrology and Glaciology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, 8092 Zürich, Switzerland. The velocity of unstable large ice masses from hanging glaciers increases as a power-law function of time prior to failure. This characteristic acceleration presents a finite-time singularity at the theoretical time of failure and can be used to forecast the time of glacier collapse. However, the non-linearity of the power-law function mak...

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Evolution of Magnetic Helicity Under Kinetic Magnetic Reconnection...

By: J. Büchner; T. Wiegelmann

Description: School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, KY16 9SS, United Kingdom. We investigate the evolution of magnetic helicity under kinetic magnetic reconnection in thin current sheets. We use Harris sheet equilibria and superimpose an external magnetic guide field. Consequently, the classical 2D magnetic neutral line becomes a field line here, causing a B ≠ 0 reconnection. While without a guide field, the ...

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Preface Nonlinear and Scaling Processes in Hydrology and Soil Scie...

By: Q. Cheng; J. L. M. P. De Lima; W. F. Krajewski; A. M. Tarquis; H. Gaonac'H

Description: CEIGRAM, E.T.S. Ing. Agrónomos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain. No abstract available.

Biswas, A., Si, B. C., and Walley, F. L.: Spatial relationship between $\delta^15$N and elevation in agricultural landscapes, Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 15, 397–407, http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/npg-15-397-2008doi:10.5194/npg-15-397-2008, 2008.; Cheng, Q., Li, L., and Wang, L.: Characterization of peak flow events with local singularity method, Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 16, 503–513, http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/npg-16-503-2009doi:10.5194/npg-16-503-2009, 2009.; de Lima, M. ...

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New Types of Stable Nonlinear Whistler Waveguides : Volume 9, Issu...

By: Yu. A. Zaliznyak; T. A. Davydova; A. I. Yakimenko

Description: Plasma Theory Department, Institute for Nuclear Research, Nauki Ave. 47, Kiev 03680, Ukraine. The stationary self-focusing of whistler waves with frequencies near half of the electron-cyclotron frequency in the ionospheric plasma is considered in the framework of a two-dimensional generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation including fourth-order dispersion effects and nonlinearity saturation. New types of soliton-like (with zero topologic...

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