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Evaluation of Empirical Mode Decomposition for Quantifying Multi-d...

By: D. P. Chambers

Description: College of Marine Science, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg, FL, USA. The ability of empirical mode decomposition (EMD) to extract multidecadal variability from sea level records is tested using three simulations: one based on a series of purely sinusoidal modes, one based on scaled climate indices of El Niño and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and the final one including a single month with an extreme sea level event. A...

Andrade, A. O., Nasuto, S., Kyberd, P., Sweeney-Reed, C. M., and Van Kanijin, F. R.: EMG signal filtering based on Empirical Mode Decomposition, Biomedical Signal Processing and Control, 1, 44–55, doi:10.1016/j.bspc.2006.03.003, 2006.; Becker, M., Karpytchev, M., and Lennartz-Sassinek, S.: Long-term sea level trends: natural or anthropogenic?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 5571–5580, doi:

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A Note on Chaotic Vs. Stochastic Behavior of the High-latitude Ion...

By: K. C. Yeh; A. W. Wernik

Description: Space Research Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Bartycka 18a, Warsaw, Poland. Four data sets of density fluctuations measured in-situ by the Dynamics Explorer (DE 2) were analyzed in an attempt to study chaotic nature of the high-latitude turbulence and, in this way to complement the conventional spectral analysis. It has been found that the probability distribution function of density differences is far from ...

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Modelling the Outer Radiation Belt as a Complex System in a Self-o...

By: A. J. Coates; N. P. Meredith; R. H. A. Iles; N. B. Crosby

Description: University College London, Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Holmbury St.\ Mary, Dorking, Surrey, RH5 6NT, UK. The dynamic behaviour of the outer electron radiation belt makes this area of geo-space a candidate for the concept of self-organized criticality. It is shown here that frequency distributions of measured outer electron radiation belt data are well-represented by power-laws over two decades. Applying the concept of self-organized criticality to ...

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Model for Vortex Turbulence with Discontinuities in the Solar Wind...

By: B. T. Tsurutani; O. P. Verkhoglyadova; B. Dasgupta

Description: Department of Astronomy and Space Physics, Kiev University, Ukraine. A model of vortex with embedded discontinuities in plasma flow is developed in the framework of ideal MHD in a low b plasma. Vortex structures are considered as a result of 2-D evolution of nonlinear shear Alfvén waves in the heliosphere. Physical properties of the solutions and vector fields are analyzed and the observational aspects of the mode...

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Using Magnetic Fluids to Simulate Convection in a Central Force Fi...

By: W.-g. Früh

Description: School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot Watt University, Riccarton, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK. Large-scale convection in planetary or stellar interiors plays a significant role but it is difficult to reproduce the central force field of those systems in experimental studies. A technique to approximate a central force field through the magnetic field from magnets acting on a magnetic liquid is presented. The thermomagnetic convection in a spheri...

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Analysis of the Geomagnetic Activity of the DSt Index and Self-aff...

By: M. Balikhin; S. A. Billings; H. L. Wei

Description: Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD, UK. The geomagnetic activity of the Dst index is analyzed using wavelet transforms and it is shown that the Dst index possesses properties associated with self-affine fractals. For example, the power spectral density obeys a power-law dependence on frequency, and therefore the Dst index c...

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Transient Behavior in the Lorenz Model : Volume 1, Issue 2 (09/12/...

By: A. A. Tsonis; N. Sugiyama; S. Kravtsov

Description: Department of Mathematical Sciences, Atmospheric Science Group, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, P.O. Box 413, Milwaukee, WI 53201–0413, USA. Dynamical systems like the one described by the three-variable Lorenz model may serve as metaphors for complexity in nature. When natural systems are perturbed by external forcing factors, they tend to relax back to their equilibrium conditions after the forcing has shut off. Here we investigate the behavior ...

Cushing, J. M., Dennis, B., Desharnais, R. A., and Constantino, R. F.: Moving toward an unstable equilibrium: saddle nodes in population systems, J. Anim. Ecol., 67, 298–306, 1998.; Ghil, M. and Childress, S.: Topics in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics: Atmospheric Dynamics, Dynamo Theory, and Climate Dynamics, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1987.; Hastings, A.: Transients: the key to long-term ecological understanding?, Trends Ecol. Evol., 19, 39–46, 2004.; Lorenz, E. N.: Determi...

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Conditional Nonlinear Optimal Perturbations of the Double-gyre Oce...

By: H. A. Dijkstra; A. D. Terwisscha Van Scheltinga

Description: Institute for Marine and Atmospheric research Utrecht, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands. In this paper, we study the development of finite amplitude perturbations on linearly stable steady barotropic double-gyre flows in a rectangular basin using the concept of Conditional Nonlinear Optimal Perturbation (CNOP). The CNOPs depend on a time scale of evolution te and an initial perturbation th...

Crisciani, F. and Mosetti, R.: On the stability of wind-driven flows in oceanic basins, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 20, 1787–1790, 1990.; Crisciani, F., Cavallini, F., and Mosetti, R.: Stability of analytical solutions of Stommel-Veronis ocean circulation models, J. Phys.\ Oceanogr., 24, 155–158, 1994.; Crisciani, F., Cavallini, F., and Mosetti, R.: Nonlinear asymptotic stability of Munk's solution of the general circulation problem, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25, 1723–1729, 1995.; Dij...

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Influence of Thresholding in Mass and Entropy Dimension of 3-d Soi...

By: J. M. Antón; R. J. Heck; J. B. Grau; M. E. Sanchez; J. Fabregat; A. M. Tarquis

Description: C.E.I.G.R.A.M. E.T.S. Ing. Agrónomos (E.T.S.I.A.), Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (U.P.M.), Ciudad Universitaria, s.n. 28040 Madrid, Spain. With the advent of modern non-destructive tomography techniques, there have been many attempts to analyze 3-D pore space features mainly concentrating on soil structure. This analysis opens a challenging opportunity to develop techniques for quantifying and describe pore space properties, one of them being fractal ...

Anderson, S. H., Gantzer, C. J., Boone, J. M., and Tully, R. J.: Rapid nondestructive bulk density and soil-water content determination by computed tomography, Soil. Sci. Soc. A. J., 52, 35–40, 1988.; Anderson, A. N., McBratney, A. B., and FitzPatrick, E. A.: Soil Mass, Surface, and Spectral Fractal Dimensions Estimated from Thin Section Photographs, Soil. Sci. Soc. A. J., 60, 962–969, 1996.; Anderson, S. H., Wang, H., Peyton, R. L., and Gantzer, C. J.: Estimation of por...

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Width Dependent Collisionless Electron Dynamics in the Static Fiel...

By: M. A. Balikhin; M. Gedalin

Description: Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva, Israel. We study the collisionless dynamics of electrons in the shock ramp using the numerical trajectory analysis in the model electric and magnetic fields of the shock. Even with very modest assumptions about the cross-shock potential the electron trajectories are very sensitive to the width of the ramp. The character of electron motion changes from the fully adiabatic (with conservation of v2  ...

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Characterizing the Evolution of Climate Networks : Volume 21, Issu...

By: J. Kurths; K. Rehfeld; N. Molkenthin; V. Stolbova; N. Marwan; L. Tupikina

Description: PIK Potsdam Institute of Climate Impact Research, P.O. Box 601203, 14412 Potsdam, Germany. Complex network theory has been successfully applied to understand the structural and functional topology of many dynamical systems from nature, society and technology. Many properties of these systems change over time, and, consequently, networks reconstructed from them will, too. However, although static and temporally changing networks have been studied extensi...

Albert, R. and Barabasi, A.: Topology of evolving networks: local events and universality, Phys. Rev. Lett., 85, 5234–5237, 2000.; Barreiro, M., Marti, A., and Masoller, C.: Inferring long memory processes in the climate network via ordinal pattern analysis, Chaos, 21, 013101, doi:10.1063/1.3545273, 2011.; Barthélemy, M.: Spatial networks, Phys. Rep., 499, 1–100, doi:1...

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Physical Simulation of Resonant Wave Run-up on a Beach : Volume 20...

By: E. Pelinovsky; N. Abcha; A. Ezersky

Description: CNRS, UMR6143 – Morphodynamique Continentale et Côtière (M2C), Université Caen Basse, Normandie, 24 rue des Tilleuls, 14000 Caen, France. Nonlinear wave run-up on the beach caused by a harmonic wave maker located at some distance from the shore line is studied experimentally. It is revealed that under certain wave excitation frequencies, a significant increase in run-up amplification is observed. It is found that this amplification is due to the excitati...

Antuono, M. and Brocchini, M.: Solving the nonlinear shallow-water equations in physical sense, J. Fluid Mech., 643, 207–232, 2010.; Carrier, G. F. and Greenspan, H. P.: Water waves of finite amplitude on a sloping beach, J. Fluid Mech., 4, 97–109, 1958.; Carrier, G. F., Wu, T. T., and Yeh, H.: Tsunami run-up and draw-down on a plane beach, J. Fluid Mech., 475, 79–99, 2003.; Denissenko, P., Didenkulova, I., Pelinovsky, E., and Pearson, J.: Influence of the nonlinearity o...

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Flip-mhd-based Model Sensitivity Analysis : Volume 21, Issue 2 (24...

By: M. E. Innocenti; L. Bettarini; G. Lapenta; F. Crespon; J. Lamouroux; C. Skandrani

Description: NOVELTIS, Space and Remote Sensing Department, Space Weather Unit, rue du Lac 153, 31670 Labège, France. The state of the art in the forecast of the background solar wind speed and of the interplanetary magnetic field at Earth is based on the use as boundary conditions for heliospheric models of the input data provided by solar observations. Magnetogram synoptic maps are used to obtain information on the magnetic field configuration at the solar source ...

Baker, D. N.: What is space weather?, Adv. Space Res., 22, 7–16, 1998.; Barrero Mendoza, O., De Moor, B., and Bernstein, D. S.: Data assimilation for magnetohydrodynamics systems, J. Comput. Appl. Mathe., 189, 242–259, 2006.; Beck, A., Innocenti, M. E., Lapenta, G., and Markidis, S.: Multi-level multi-domain algorithm implementation for two-dimensional multiscale particle in cell simulations, doi:10.1016/j.jcp.2013.12.0...

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Application of Singularity Theory and Logistic Regression Model fo...

By: X. Wang; Q. Cheng; Q. Xia; Y. Liu

Description: State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China. Geo-anomalies with complex structures in the earth's crust may be defined as preferable hydrothermal ore-forming targets. The separation and explanation of anomaly from geological background have a profound influence on the analysis of geological evolution and the ore-forming process. Usually one of the key steps to identify favorable...

Agterberg, F. P.: Application of image analysis and multivariate analysis to mineral resource appraisal, Econom. Geol., 76, 1016–1031, 1981.; Agterberg, F. P. and Divi, S. R.: A statistical model for the distribution of copper, lead, and zinc in the Canadian Appalachian region, Econ. Geol., 73, 230–245, 1978.; Agterberg, F. P., Cheng, Q., Brown, A., and Good, D.: Multifractal modeling of fractures in the Lac du Bonnet Batholith, Manitoba. Comput. Geosci., 22, 497–507, 19...

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Frequency Distributions: from the Sun to the Earth : Volume 18, Is...

By: N. B. Crosby

Description: Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, Avenue Cirulaire 3, 1180 Brussels, Belgium. The space environment is forever changing on all spatial and temporal scales. Energy releases are observed in numerous dynamic phenomena (e.g. solar flares, coronal mass ejections, solar energetic particle events) where measurements provide signatures of the dynamics. Parameters (e.g. peak count rate, total energy released, etc.) describing these phenomena are found to hav...

Aschwanden, M. J.: Physics of the Solar Corona, Springer Praxis Books Subseries: Geophysical Sciences, XIX, 858 pp., Hardcover ISBN:3-540-22321-5, 2004.; Aschwanden, M. J.: Self-Organized Criticality in Astrophysics, Springer Praxis Books, Subseries: Geophysical Sciences, XIX, 858 pp., Hardcover ISBN: ISBN: 978-3-642-15000-5, 2011.; Aschwanden, M. J. and Parnell, C. E.: Nanoflare Statistics from First Principles: Fractal Geometry and Temperature Synthesis, Astrophys. J.,...

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Multifractal Analysis of Solar Flare Indices and Their Horizontal ...

By: V. Anh; D.-l. Wang; R. Eastes; Z. G. Yu

Description: Hunan Key Laboratory for Computation & Simulation in Science & Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105, China. The multifractal properties of the daily solar X-ray brightness, Xl and Xs, during the period from 1 January 1986 to 31 December 2007 which includes two solar cycles are examined using the universal multifractal approach and multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. Then we convert these time series...

Abramenko, V. I.: Multifractal analysis of solar magnetograms, Solar Phys., 228, 29–42, 2005.; Anh, V. V., Tieng, Q. M., and Tse, Y. K.: Cointegration of stochastic multifractals with application to foreign exchange rates, Int. Trans. Opera. Res., 7, 349–363, 2000.; Anh, V. V., Lau, K. S., and Yu, Z. G.: Multifractal characterisation of complete genomes, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen., 34, 7127–7139, 2001.; Anh, V. V., Lau, K. S., and Yu, Z. G.: Recognition of an organism from f...

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Evidence of Structured Brownian Dynamics from Temperature Time Ser...

By: S. Potestà; V. Pelino; A. Pasini

Description: Servizio Meteorologico dell' Aeronautica, 2ºCMR-Aeroporto De Bernadi, Via de Pratica di Mare, I-00040 Pratica di Mare (Roma), Italy. An analysis of time series of monthly mean temperatures ranging from 1895 to 1989 is performed through application of Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) to data of several places in the USA. A common dynamics in the reconstructed spaces is obtained, with the evidence of a non-trivial and structured coupling of two Brownian mo...

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Percolation on Anisotropic Media, the Bethe Lattice Revisited. App...

By: M. Ayt Ougoudal; M. Canals

Description: CREGU, BP23, 5401 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy cedex, France. A bond-percolation model based on the Bethe Lattice is presented. This model handles anisotropic and multiscale situations where, typically, the bond probability is non unique and depends on the sites it connects. The model is governed by a set of non-linear equations which are solved numerically. As a result, the structure of the network is obtained: strength...

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Internal Solitary Waves: Propagation, Deformation and Disintegrati...

By: O. Kurkina; E. Pelinovsky; T. Talipova; R. Grimshaw

Description: Department of Mathematical Sciences, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, UK. In coastal seas and straits, the interaction of barotropic tidal currents with the continental shelf, seamounts or sills is often observed to generate large-amplitude, horizontally propagating internal solitary waves. Typically these waves occur in regions of variable bottom topography, with the consequence that they are often modeled by nonlinear evolution equations of th...

Apel, J., Ostrovsky, L. A., Stepanyants, Y. A., and Lynch, J. F.: Internal solitons in the ocean and their effect on underwater sound, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 121, 695–722, 2007.; Benjamin, T. B.: Internal waves of finite amplitude and permanent form, J. Fluid Mech., 25, 241–270, 1966.; Benney, D. J.: Long non-linear waves in fluid flows, J. Math. Phys., 45, 52–63, 1966.; Bourgault, D., Blokhina, M. D., Mirchak, R., and Kelly, D. E.: Evolution of a shoaling internal solitar...

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Toward Enhanced Understanding and Projections of Climate Extremes ...

By: A. Banerjee; D. Kumar; S. Chatterjee; A. Choudhary; E. A. Kodra; S. Chatterjee; W. Hendrix; S. Boriah; D. Das; R. Oglesby; K. Hayhoe; S. Ghosh; J. Kawale; D. Wuebbles; K. Steinhaeuser; D. Wang; K. Salvi; Q. Fu; R. Mawalagedara; S. Liess; A. R. Ganguly; J. Faghmous; P. Ganguli; C. Hays; V. Mithal; P. K. Snyder; V. Kumar

Description: Sustainability and Data Sciences Laboratory, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA. Extreme events such as heat waves, cold spells, floods, droughts, tropical cyclones, and tornadoes have potentially devastating impacts on natural and engineered systems, and human communities, worldwide. Stakeholder decisions about critical infrastructures, natural resources, emergency preparedness and humanitarian ai...

Armbrust, M., Fox, A., Griffith, R., Joseph, A. D., Katz, R., Konwinski, A., Lee, G., Patterson, D., Rabkin, A., Stoica, I., and Zaharia, M.: A view of cloud computing, Commun. ACM, 53, 50–58, doi:10.1145/1721654.1721672, 2010.; Benjamini, Y. and Hochberg, Y.: Controlling the false discovery rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing, J. R. Stat. Soc. Ser. B, 57, 289–300, 1995.; Berriman, G. B., Juve,...

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