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Recurrence and Interoccurrence Behavior of Self-organized Complex ...

By: R. Shcherbakov; D. L. Turcotte; J. B. Rundle; S. G. Abaimov

Description: Department of Geology, University of California, Davis, California, 95616, USA. The sandpile, forest-fire and slider-block models are said to exhibit self-organized criticality. Associated natural phenomena include landslides, wildfires, and earthquakes. In all cases the frequency-size distributions are well approximated by power laws (fractals). Another important aspect of both the models and natural phenomena is the statistics of interval times. These...

Altmann, E. G., da Silva, E. C., and Caldas, I. L.: Recurrence time statistics for finite size intervals, Chaos, 14, 975–981, 2004.; Altmann, E. G. and Kantz, H.: Recurrence time analysis, long-term correlations, and extreme events, Phys. Rev. E, 71, 056106, doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.71.056106, 2005.; Bak, P., Christensen, K., Danon, L., and Scanlon, T.: Unified scaling law for earthquakes, Phys. Rev. Lett., 88, 178501, doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.88.178501, 2002.; Bak, P., Tang...

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A Simple Conceptual Model to Interpret the 100 000 Years Dynamics ...

By: P. Balenzuela; H. Braun; D. R. Chialvo; C. S. Quiroga Lombard

Description: Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellón 1, Ciudad Universitaria (1428), Buenos Aires, Argentina. Spectral analyses performed on records of cosmogenic nuclides reveal a group of dominant spectral components during the Holocene period. Only a few of them are related to known solar cycles, i.e., the De Vries/Suess, Gleissberg and Hallstatt cycles. The origin of the others remains uncertain. On t...

Balenzuela, P. and Garc\'ia-Ojalvo, J.: Neural mechanism for binaural pitch perception via ghost stochastic resonance, Chaos, 15, 023903–023910, 2005.; Bond, G. C., Showers, W., Elliot, M., Evans, M., Lotti, R., Hajdas, I., Bonani, G., and Johnson, S.: Mechanisms of Global Climate Change at Millennial Time Scales, AGU, Washington, DC, Geophys. Monogr., 112, 35–58, 1999.; Braun, H., Christl, M., Rahmstorf, S., Ganopolski, A., Mangini, A., Kubatzki, C., Roth, K., and Krome...

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Time Scale of the Largest Imaginable Magnetic Storm : Volume 20, I...

By: V. M. Vasyliūnas

Description: Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, 37191 Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany. The depression of the horizontal magnetic field at Earth's equator for the largest imaginable magnetic storm has been estimated (Vasyliūnas, 2011a) as −Dst ~ 2500 nT, from the assumption that the total pressure in the magnetosphere (plasma plus magnetic field perturbation) is limited, in order of magnitude, by the minimum pressure of Earth's dipole field at the location of ...

Gonzalez, W. D.: A unified view of solar wind-magnetosphere coupling functions, Planet. Space Sci., 38, 627–632, 1990.; Carovillano, R. L. and Siscoe, G. L.: Energy and momentum theorems in magnetospheric dynamics, Rev. Geophys. Space Phys., 11, 289–353, 1973.; Dal Lago, A., Gonzalez, W. D., Balmaceda, L. A., Vieira, L. E. A., Echer, E., Guarnieri, F. L., Santos, J., da Silva, M. R., de Lucas, A., Clúa de Gonzalez, A. L., Schwenn, R., and Schuch, N. J.: % The 17–22 Octob...

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Data Assimilation of Two-dimensional Geophysical Flows with a Vari...

By: A. Bibov; I. Amour; T. Kauranne; Z. Mussa

Description: Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta, Finland. The Variational Ensemble Kalman Filter (VEnKF), a recent data assimilation method that combines a variational assimilation of the Bayesian estimation problem with an ensemble of forecasts, is demonstrated in two-dimensional geophysical flows using a Quasi-Geostrophic (QG) model and a shallow water model. Using a synthetic experiment, a two layer QG model with model bias is solved on a cylindr...

Bertino, L., Evensen, G., and Wackernagel, H.: Sequential data assimilation techniques in oceanography, Int. Stat. Rev., 71, 223–241, 2003.; Amour, I., Mussa, Z., Bibov, A., and Kauranne, T.: Using ensemble data assimilation to forecast hydrological flumes, Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 20, 955–964, doi:10.5194/npg-20-955-2013, 2013.; Auvinen, H., Bardsley, J., Haario, H., and Kauranne, T.: The variational Kalman filter...

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Dynamics of Turbulence Under the Effect of Stratification and Inte...

By: L. A. Ostrovsky; O. A. Druzhinin

Description: The Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Acad. Sci., Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. The objective of this paper is to study the dynamics of small-scale turbulence near a pycnocline, both in the free regime and under the action of an internal gravity wave (IW) propagating along a pycnocline, using direct numerical simulation (DNS). Turbulence is initially induced in a horizontal layer at some distance above the pycnocline. The velocity and density fields of I...

Anis, A. and Moum, J. N.: Surface wave-turbulence interactions: scaling ϵ(z) near the sea surface, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25, 2025–2045, 1995.; Carruthers, D. J. and Hunt, J. C. R.: Velocity fluctuations near an interface between a turbulent region and a stably stratified layer, J. Fluid Mech., 165, 475–501, 1986.; Druzhinin, O. A., Ostrovsky, L. A., and Zilitinkevich, S. S.: The study of the effect of small-scale turbulence on internal gravity waves propa...

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Spatial Analysis of Oil Reservoirs Using Detrended Fluctuation Ana...

By: L. S. Lucena; U. L. Fulco; M. V. M. Mata; G. Corso; R. A. Ribeiro

Description: Centro Universitário-FACEX-UNIFACEX, Rua Orlando Silva, 2897, Capim Macio, CEP 59080 020, Natal, RN, Brazil. We employ the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) technique to investigate spatial properties of an oil reservoir. This reservoir is situated at Bacia de Namorados, RJ, Brazil. The data correspond to well logs of the following geophysical quantities: sonic, gamma ray, density, porosity and electrical resistivity, measured in 56 wells. We tested t...

Andrade, R. F., Oliveira, O., Cardoso, A. L., Lucena, L. S., Leite, F. E. A., Porsani, M. J., and Maciel, R. C.: Exploring self-affine properties in seismograms, Comput. Geosci., 13, 155–163 2009.; Asquith, G. and Krygowski, D.: Basic Well Log Analysis, American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 2004.; Chun-Feng, L. I. and Liner, C.: Singularity Exponent from Wavelet-Based Multiscale Analysis: A New Seismic Attribute, Chin. J. Geophys., 48, 953–959, 2...

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Low-order Models of Wave Interactions in the Transition to Barocli...

By: W.-g. Früh

Description: Sub-Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Planetary Physics. A hierarchy of low-order models, based on the quasi-geostrophic two-layer model, is used to investigate complex multi-mode flows. The different models were used to study distinct types of nonlinear interactions, namely wave- wave interactions through resonant triads, and zonal flow-wave interactions. The coupling strength of individual triads is estimated u...

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Development of Internal Solitary Waves in Various Thermocline Regi...

By: T. Gerkema

Description: Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, The Netherlands. A numerical analysis is made on the appearance of oceanic internal solitary waves in a multi-modal setting. This is done for observed profiles of stratification from the Sulu Sea and the Bay of Biscay, in which thermocline motion is dominated by the first and third mode, respectively. The results show that persistent solitary waves occur only in ...

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Influence of a Discontinuity on the Spectral and Fractal Analysis ...

By: R. P. H. Berton

Description: ONERA, Chemin de la Hunière, F-91761 Palaiseau Cedex, France. The analysis of a data area or segment containing steep transitions between regions with different textures (for example a cloud and its background) leads to addressing the problem of discontinuities and their impact on texture analysis. In that purpose, an original one-dimensional analytical model of spectrum and roughness function has been worked out, with a discontinuity between two fracta...

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Long-term Predictability of Mean Daily Temperature Data : Volume 1...

By: M. Thiel; M. C. Romano; W. Von Bloh

Description: Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, PO Box 60 12 03, 14412 Potsdam, Germany. We quantify the long-term predictability of global mean daily temperature data by means of the Rényi entropy of second order K2. We are interested in the yearly amplitude fluctuations of the temperature. Hence, the data are low-pass filtered. The obtained oscillatory signal has a more or less constant frequency, depending on the geographical coordina...

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A Delay Differential Model of Enso Variability: Parametric Instabi...

By: S. Thompson; I. Zaliapin; M. Ghil

Description: Dépt. Terre-Atmosphère-Océan and Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, Ecole Normale Supérieure, Paris, France. We consider a delay differential equation (DDE) model for El-Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability. The model combines two key mechanisms that participate in ENSO dynamics: delayed negative feedback and seasonal forcing. We perform stability analyses of the model in the three-dimensional space of its physically relevant parameters. Ou...

Andronov, A. A. and Pontryagin, L. S.: Systèmes grossiers, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 14, 5, 247–250, 1937.; Baker, C. T. H.: Retarded differential equations, J. Comp. Appl. Math., 125, 309–335, 2000.; Baker, C. T. H., Paul, C. A. H., and Willé, D. R.: A bibliography on the numerical solution of delay differential equations, Numerical Analysis Report, 269, Manchester Centre for Computational Mathematics, Manchester, England, 1995.; Battisti, D. S.: The dynamics and thermodyn...

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A Model of Coupled Oscillators Applied to the Aerosol–cloud–precip...

By: I. Koren; G. Feingold

Description: Chemical Sciences Division, NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL), 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80305, USA. We simulate the aerosol–cloud–precipitation system as a collection of cloud elements, each coupled through physically based interactions with adjacent clouds. The equations describing the individual clouds follow from the predator–prey model of Koren and Feingold (2011) with the addition of coupling terms that derive from the flow of air ...

Agee, E. M.: Observations from space and thermal convection: a historical perspective, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 65, 938–949, 2.0.CO;2>doi:10.1175/1520-0477(1984)065<0938:OFSATC>2.0.CO;2, 1984.; Blasius, B., Huppert, A., and Stone, L.: Complex dynamics and phase synchronization in spatially extended ecological systems, Nature, 399, 354–359, doi:10.1038/20676, 199...

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Spatial Random Downscaling of Rainfall Signals in Andean Heterogen...

By: A. Posadas; C. Jones; H. Heidinger; R. Quiroz; M. Carbajal; C. Yarlequé; L. A. Duffaut Espinosa; L. Carvalho

Description: Production Systems and the Environment Division, International Potato Center (CIP), Lima, Peru. Remotely sensed data are often used as proxies for indirect precipitation measures over data-scarce and complex-terrain areas such as the Peruvian Andes. Although this information might be appropriate for some research requirements, the extent at which local sites could be related to such information is very limited because of the resolution of the available ...

Aceituno, P. and Montecinos, A.: Circulation anomalies associated with dry and wet periods in the South American Altiplano, Proc. Fourth Int. Conf. on Southern Hemisphere Meteorology, Hobart, Australia, Am. Meteor. Soc., 330–331, 1993.; ANUSPLIN: The ANUSPLIN package, Version 4.4, http://fennerschool.anu.edu.au/research/products/anusplin-vrsn-44 (last access: 6 July 2015), 2007.; Baron, C., Sul...

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North Atlantic Climate Variability in Coupled Models and Data : Vo...

By: P. S. Berloff; M. Ghil; W. K. Dewar; J. C. McWilliams; S. K. Kravtsov

Description: Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, P. O. Box 413, Milwaukee, WI 53201, USA. We show that the observed zonally averaged jet in the Northern Hemisphere atmosphere exhibits two spatial patterns with broadband variability in the decadal and inter-decadal range; these patterns are consistent with an important role of local, mid-latitude ocean–atmosphere coupling. A key aspect of this behaviour is the fundamentally nonlinea...

Allen, R. M. and Smith, L. A.: Monte Carlo SSA: Detecting irregular oscillations in the presence of colored noise, J. Climate, 9, 3373–3404, 1996.; Allen, M. R. and Robertson, A. W.: Distinguishing modulated oscillations from coloured noise in multivariate data sets, Clim. Dynam., 12, 775–784, doi:10.1007/s003820050142, 1996.; Broomhead, D. S. and King, G. P.: Extracting qualitative dynamics from experimental data, Physica D, 20, 217–236, 1986.; Berloff, P.: On rectifica...

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Inferring Origin of Mercury Inclusions in Quartz by Multifractal A...

By: T. Echigo; T. Shibata; T. Maruoka

Description: Geological Survey of Hokkaido, Hokkaido Research Organization, N19 W12, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0819, Japan. In order to refine our understanding of how fluid inclusions were trapped in the host minerals, we non-destructively observed mercury inclusions (liquid Hg0) in quartz samples using X-ray computed tomography (CT) technique. The X-ray CT apparatus can observe internal structures of the samples and give cross-sectional images from ...

Abramoff, M. D., Magalhaes, P. J., and Ram, S. J.: Image processing with ImageJ, Biophotonics International, 11, 36–42, 2004.; Bird, N., Díaz, M. C., Saa, A., and Tarquis, A. M.: Fractal and multifractal analysis of pore-scale images of soil, J. Hydrol., 322, 211–219, 2006.; Burke, E. A. J.: Raman microspectrometry of fluid inclusions, Lithos, 55, 139–158, 2001.; Dunning, G. E., Hadley, T. A., Magnasco, J., Christy, A. G., and Cooper Jr., J. F.: The clear Creek mine, San...

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Stress States and Moment Rates of a Two-asperity Fault in the Pres...

By: M. Dragoni; E. Lorenzano

Description: Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna, Viale Carlo Berti Pichat 8, 40127 Bologna, Italy. A fault containing two asperities with different strengths is considered. The fault is embedded in a viscoelastic shear zone, subject to a constant strain rate by the motions of adjacent tectonic plates. The fault is modelled as a discrete dynamical system where the average values of stress, friction and slip on each as...

Carter, N. L.: Steady state flow of rocks, Rev. Geophys. Space Ge., 14, 301–353, 1976.; Amendola, A. and Dragoni, M.: Dynamics of a two-fault system with viscoelastic coupling, Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 20, 1–10, doi:10.5194/npg-20-1-2013, 2013.; Bürgmann, R. and Dresen, G.: Rheology of the lower crust and upper mantle: evidence from rock mechanics, geodesy, and field observation, Annu. Rev. Earth Pl. Sc., 36, 531–567...

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Magnetic Reconnection as an Element of Turbulence : Volume 18, Iss...

By: A. Greco; P. A. Cassak; M. Wan; P. Dmitruk; S. Donato; W. H. Matthaeus; M. A. Shay; S. Servidio; V. Carbone

Description: Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, 87036 Cosenza, Italy. In this work, recent advances on the study of reconnection in turbulence are reviewed. Using direct numerical simulations of decaying incompressible two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), it was found that in fully developed turbulence complex processes of reconnection locally occur (Servidio et al., 2009, 2010a). In this complex scenario, reconnection is spontaneous but local...

Borgogno, D., Grasso, D., Porcelli, F., Califano, F., Pegoraro, F., and Farina, D.: Aspects of three-dimensional magnetic reconnection, Phys. Plasmas, 12, 032309, doi:10.1063/1.1857912, 2005.; Borovsky, J.: Eddy viscosity and flow properties of the solar wind: Co-rotating interaction regions, coronal-mass-ejection sheaths, and solar-wind/magnetosphere coupling, Phys. Plasmas, 13, 056505,

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The Global Characteristics of the Three-dimensional Thermal Convec...

By: J. Arkani-hamed

Description: Earth and Planetary Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The Rayleigh number-Nusselt number, and the Rayleigh number-thermal boundary layer thickness relationships are determined for the three-dimensional convection in a spherical shell of constant physical parameters. Several models are considered with Rayleigh numbers ranging from 1.1 x 102 to 2.1 x 105 times the...

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Evaluation on the Analogy Between the Dynamic Magnetosphere and a ...

By: A. T. Y. Lui

Description: The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Maryland 20723, USA. The dissipation power and size of auroral blobs are investigated in detail to examine the possible analogy between the dynamic magnetosphere and a forced and/or self-organized critical system. The distributions of these auroral parameters are sorted in terms of different levels of activity, namely substorms, pseudo-breakups, and quiet conditions. A power...

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Multifractality, Imperfect Scaling and Hydrological Properties of ...

By: F. Serinaldi

Description: Dipartimento di Geologia e Ingegneria Meccanica, Naturalistica e Idraulica per il Territorio – GEMINI, Università della Tuscia, Via S. Camillo de Lellis snc, 01100 Viterbo, Italy. Discrete multiplicative random cascade (MRC) models were extensively studied and applied to disaggregate rainfall data, thanks to their formal simplicity and the small number of involved parameters. Focusing on temporal disaggregation, the rationale of these models is based on m...

Dhanya, C. T. and Nagesh Kumar, D.: Nonlinear ensemble prediction of chaotic daily rainfall, Adv. Water Resour., 33, 327–347, 2010.; de Lima, M. I. P. and de Lima, J. L. M. P.: Investigating the multifractality of point precipitation in the Madeira archipelago, Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 16, 299–311, doi:10.5194/npg-16-299-2009, 2009.; de Lima, M. I. P. and Grasman, J.: Multifractal analysis of 15-min and daily rainfall from a semi-arid region in Portugal, J. Hydrol., 2...

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