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Performance of High-resolution X-band Radar for Rainfall Measureme...

By: H. Leijnse; J. N. M. Stricker; C. Z. Van De Beek; H. W. J. Russchenberg; R. Uijlenhoet

Description: Hydrology and Quantitative Water Management Group, Department of Environmental Sciences, Wageningen University, The Netherlands. This study presents an analysis of 195 rainfall events gathered with the X-band weather radar SOLIDAR and a tipping bucket rain gauge network near Delft, The Netherlands, between May 1993 and April 1994. The aim of this paper is to present a thorough analysis of a climatological dataset using a high spatial (120 m) and temporal...

Andrieu, H., Creutin, J.-D., and Faure, D.: Use of a weather radar for the hydrology of a mountainous area. Part I: Radar measurement interpretation, J. Hydrol., 193, 1–25, 1997.; Aoyagi, J.: A study on the MTI weather radar system for rejecting ground clutter, Papers in Meteor. and Geophy., 33, 187–243, 1983.; Apituley, A., Russchenberg, H. W. J., van der Marel, H., Bosveld, F., Boers, R., ten Brink, H., de Leeuw, G., Uijlenhoet, R., Arbesser-Rastburg, B., and Röckmann,...

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Regional Variations in Diffuse Nitrogen Losses from Agriculture in...

By: H.-e. Andersen; K. Kyllmar; P. Stålnacke; J. Deelstra; N. Vagstad; V. Jansons; R. Tumas; E. Loigu; S. Rekolainen

Description: Jordforsk - Norwegian Centre for Soil aand Environmental Research, Frederik A Dahlsv 20, N-1432 Aas, Norway. This paper describes nitrogen losses from, and the characteristics of, 35 selected catchments (12 to 2000 ha) in the Nordic and Baltic countries. Average annual losses of N in 1994–1997 ranged from 5 to 75 kg ha-1, generally highest and characterised by significant within-country and interannual variations, in Norway and the low...

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Infiltrative Instability Near Topography with Implication for the ...

By: P. Genthon; A. Ormond

Description: Paléotropique, IRD, BP A5 98848 Nouméa, New Caledonia. We present here numerical modeling of infiltration instability near a topographic edge of a water-saturated porous slice by analogy with a limestone formation devoid of initial heterogeneities such as fractures faults or joints and limited by a vertical cliff. In our runs a first dissolution finger develops near the cliff edge, and ends to intersect it above its mid height. Additional fingers develo...

Bekri, S., Thovert, J. F., and Adler, P. M.: Dissolution of porous media, Chem. Eng. Sci., 50, 2765–2791, 1995.; Dreybrodt, W.: Principles of early development of karst conduits under natural and man-made condition revealed by mathematical analysis of numerical models, Water Resour. Res., 32, 2923–2935, 1996.; Daccord, G. and Lenormand, R.: Fractal patterns from chemical dissolution, Nature, 325, 41–43, 1987.; Ford, D. C. and Williams, P. W.: Karst geomorphology and hydr...

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Characteristics of Precipitation System Accompanied with Changma F...

By: M. Jang; S.-m. Jang; D.-i. Lee; H. Uyeda; C.-h. You; T. Shinoda

Description: Atmospheric Environmental Research Institute, Pukyong National University, 599-1 Daeyeon 3-Dong Nam-Gu, Busan, 608-737, South Korea. The rainy season from June to July in the East Asia is called as the Changma in Korea, the Meiyu in China, or the Baiu in Japan. The mesoscale convective systems which occur near a front frequently lead to severe weather phenomenon such as localized gust and heavy rainfall. An intensive field experiment was conducted at Chu...

Armijo, L.: A theory for the determination of wind and precipitation velocities with Doppler radars, J. Atmos. Sci., 26, 570–575, 1969.; Akiyama, T.: The large-scale aspects of the characteristics features of the Baiu front, Pap. Meteor. Geophy., 24, 157–188, 1973.; Biggerstaff, M. I. and Houze Jr., R. A.: Kinematic and precipitation structure of the 10–11 June, 1985 squall line, Mon. Weather. Rev., 119, 3034–3065, 1991.; Choi, Y. J. and Nam, J. C.: Introduction of phase...

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An Original Interpretation of the Surface Temperature-albedo Space...

By: O. Merlin

Description: Centre d'Etudes Spatiales de la Biosphère, CESBIO – UMR5126, 18 avenue Edouard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France. The space defined by the pair surface temperature (T) and surface albedo (α), and the space defined by the pair T and fractional green vegetation cover (fvg) have been extensively used to estimate evaporative fraction (EF) from optical remote sensing data. In both space-based approaches, evapotranspiration ...

Anderson, M. C., Norman, J. M., Mecikalski, J. R., Otkin, J. A., and Kustas, W. P.: A climatological study of evapotranspiration and moisture stress across the continental United States based on thermal remote sensing: 1. Model formulation, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D10117, doi:10.1029/2006JD007506, 2007.; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M., Menenti, M., Feddes, R. A., and Holtslag, A. A. M.: A remote sensing surface energy balance alg...

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Groundwater as an Emergency Source for Drought Mitigation in the C...

By: S. Uhlenbrook; F. E. F. Mussá; S. Maskey; I. Masih; Y. Zhou

Description: UNESCO-IHE, Institute for Water Education, P.O. Box 3015, 2601 DA Delft, the Netherlands. Global climate change has received much attention worldwide in the scientific as well as in the political community, indicating that changes in precipitation, extreme droughts and floods may threaten increasingly many regions. Drought is a natural phenomenon that may cause social, economical and environmental damages to the society. In this study, we assess the dr...

Alliance, T. L.: Longleaf pine root system, available at: http://www.longleafalliance.org/longleaf-pine/physiology/longleaf-pine-roots/?searchterm=pine; Baron, J., Seward, P., and Seymour, A.: The Groundwater Harvest Potential Map of the Republic of South Africa, Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Pretoria, Gh 3917, 1998.; Baykan, N. O. and Özçelik, C.: Man...

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Topographic Controls on Soil Moisture Scaling Properties in Polygo...

By: W. J. Riley; G. Bisht

Description: Earth Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720, USA. Microtopographic features, such as polygonal ground, are characteristic sources of landscape heterogeneity in the Alaskan Arctic coastal plain. Here, we analyze the hypothesis that microtopography is a dominant controller of soil moisture in polygonal landscapes. We perform multi-year surface–subsurface isothermal flow simulations using...

Bridgham, S. D., Updegraff, K., and Pastor, J.: Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous mineralization in northern wetlands, Ecology, 79, 1545–1561, doi:10.1890/0012-9658(1998)079[1545:CNAPMI]2.0.CO;2, 1998.; Brocca, L., Melone, F., Moramarco, T., and Morbidelli, R.: Spatial–temporal variability of soil moisture and its estimation across scales, Water Resour. Res., 46, W02516,

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Regional Modelling of Acidification in Wales; Calibration of a Spa...

By: A. Jenkins; R. Collins

Description: Institute of Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxon., UK.. The Model of Acidification of Groundwater In Catchments (MAGIC) has been calibrated to 94 catchments in Wales, enabling the quantification of regional response to reduced emissions under the second sulphur protocol and incorporating the potential impact of future changes in afforestation. To calibrate the model the methodology utilises, for each site, the best available data derived from databases which a...

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Historic Maps as a Data Source for Socio-hydrology: a Case Study o...

By: G. Timár; A. Zlinszky

Herget, J.: Holocene development of the River Lippe Valley, Germany: A case study of anthropogenic influence, Earth Surf. Proc. Land., 25, 293–305, doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-9837(200003)25:3<293::AID-ESP63>3.0.CO;2-F, 2000.; Herget, J., Bremer, E., Coch, T., Dix, A., Eggenstein, G., and Ewald, K.: Engineering impact on river channels in the river Rhine catchment, Erdkunde, 59, 294–320, 2005.; Hobo, N., Makaske, B., Middelkoop, H., and Wallinga, J.: Reconstruction of floodpl...

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Impacts of High Inter-annual Variability of Rainfall on a Century ...

By: G. Skrzypek; C. Turney; S. Dogramaci; A. Rouillard; P. F. Grierson

Description: West Australian Biogeochemistry Centre and Ecosystems Research Group, School of Plant Biology, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia. Long-term hydrologic records provide crucial reference baselines of natural variability that can be used to evaluate potential changes in hydrologic regimes and their impacts. However, there is a dearth of studies of the hydrologic regimes for tropical drylands where intraseasonal and interannual...

Aitchison, G. P.: I've Had a Good Life Phil's Story: The Autobiography of a Pilbara Pioneer, Western Australia, Hesperian Press, Carlisle, 48 pp., 2006.; Bai, J., Chen, X., Li, J., Yang, L., and Fang, H.: Changes in the area of inland lakes in arid regions of central Asia during the past 30 years, Environ. Monit. Assess., 178, 247–256, 2011.; Bates, P. D.: Integrating remote sensing data with flood inundation models: how far have we got?, Hydrol. Process., 26, 2515–2521,...

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Chloride Concentrations in Lake Tanganyika: an Indicator of the Hy...

By: L. Bergonzini; Ph. Branchu

Description: GEOTOP-UQAM-McGill, CP 8888, suc. Centre-Ville, Montréal (Québec) H3C 3P8, Canada. On a historical time scale, this paper investigates the effect of hydroclimatic variations on the surface water salinity of Lake Tanganyika, the largest African lake and an open freshwater reservoir. Through annual water and chemical budgets, based on original and bibliographic data, a tracer of the water regime is proposed. Chloride, an inert and conse...

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The Relevance of Glacier Melt in the Water Cycle of the Alps: the ...

By: W. Schöner; G. R. Koboltschnig

Description: International Research Society INTERPRAEVENT, % Dept. of Water Management, Provincial Government of Carinthia, Klagenfurt, Austria. This paper quantifies the contribution of glacier melt to river runoff from compilation and statistical interpretation of data from available studies based on observations or glacio- hydrological modelling for the region of Austria (Austrian Salzach and Inn river basin). A logarithmic fit between the glacier melt contributio...

Zappa, M. and Kan, C.: Extreme heat and runoff extremes in the Swiss Alps, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 7, 375–389, 2007.; Beniston, M.: The 2003 heat wave in Europe: A shape of things to come?, An analysis based on Swiss climatological data and model simulations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L02202, doi:10D1029/2003GL018857, 2004.; BMLFUW: Digital Hydrological Atlas of Austria, available at: http://www.boku.ac.at/iwhw/hao/, 2007...

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Use of Several Indices of Event Severity for Floods and Droughts :...

By: D. A. Jones

Description: Centre of Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB, UK. An examination is made of the true return periods associated with certain types of composite indices for the rareness of events. In particular, return periods are evaluated separately for several different ways of describing how bad an event was, and the composite index, or apparent return period, is defined as the largest of these component return periods. Such a...

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A Comparative Analysis of Two Wind Velocity Retrieval Techniques b...

By: D.-i. Lee; H.-c. Lim

Description: School of Mechanical Engineering, PuKyong National University, San 100, Yongdang-Dong, Nam-Gu, Busan, 608-739, South Korea. This study compares the theoretical basis of the two wind velocity retrieval methods, Velocity Azimuth Display (VAD) and Velocity Area Display (VARD) by using data obtained by a single Doppler radar. Two pre-assumed shapes of the wind velocity distribution with altitude are considered, uniform and parabolic. The former presents an ap...

Anderson, T.: VAD winds from C band {E}ricsson {D}oppler Weather Radars, Meteor. Z., 7, 309–319, 1998.; Armstrong, G. and Jr., R. D.: Plan shear indicator for realtime {D}oppler radar identification of hazardous storms, J. Appl. Meteor., 8, 376–383, 1969.; Blane, M. and Lei, Z.: The 3{L} Algorithm for Fitting Implicit Polynomial Curves and Surfaces to Data, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 22, 298–313, 2000.; Browning, K. and Wexler, R.: T...

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Downscaling of Surface Moisture Flux and Precipitation in the Ebro...

By: A. Ezcurra; G. Ibarra-berastegi; I. Errasti; J. Diaz Argandoña; J. Saénz; A. Elías

Description: Dept. of Fluid Mechanics and Nuclear Engineering, University of the Basque Country, Spain. In this paper, reanalysis fields from the ECMWF have been statistically downscaled to predict from large-scale atmospheric fields, surface moisture flux and daily precipitation at two observatories (Zaragoza and Tortosa, Ebro Valley, Spain) during the 1961–2001 period. Three types of downscaling models have been built: (i) analogues, (ii) analogues followed by rand...

Adler, R. F., Huffman, G. J., Chang, A., Ferraro, R., Xie, P., Janowiak, J., Rudolf, B., Schneider, U., Curtis, S., Bolvin, D., Gruber, A., Susskind, J., Arkin, P., Nelkin, E.: The Version 2 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Monthly Precipitation Analysis (1979–Present), J. Hydrometeor., 4, 1147–1167, 2003.; Benestad, R. E.: A Simple Test for Changes in Statistical Distributions, Eos, 89(41), 389–390, 2008.; Berbery, E. H. and Rasmusson, E. M.: Mississippi ...

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Evaluation of the Surface Energy Balance System (Sebs) Applied to ...

By: A. Gieske; L. Jia; Z. Su; W. Timmermans; J. Van Der Kwast; S. De Jong; A. Olioso; J. Elbers; D. Karssenberg

Description: Department of Physical Geography, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Accurate quantification of the amount and spatial variation of evapotranspiration is important in a wide range of disciplines. Remote sensing based surface energy balance models have been developed to estimate turbulent surface energy fluxes at different scales. The objective of this study is to evaluate the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) model o...

Anderson, M C., Kustas, W P., and Norman, J M.: Upscaling and downscaling – A regional view of the Soil-Plant-Atmsophere continuum, Agron. J., 95, 1408–1423, 2003.; Avissar, R. and Pielke, R A.: A parameterization of heterogeneous land surfaces for atmospheric numerical models and its impact on regional meteorology, Mon. Weather Rev., 117, 2113–2136, 1989.; Bastiaanssen, W. G M., Pelgrum, H., Wang, J., Ma, Y., Moreno, J F., Roering, G J., and van~der Wal, T.: A remote se...

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Relationships Between Environmental Governance and Water Quality i...

By: N. R. Netusil; S. M. Bollens; P. Thiers; J. A. Yeakley; H. Chang; G. Rollwagen-bollens; S. Singh

Description: Department of Geography, Portland State University, Portland, OR, USA. We investigate relationships between environmental governance and water quality in two adjacent growing metropolitan areas in the western US. While the Portland, Oregon and Vancouver, Washington metro areas share many common biophysical characteristics, they have different land development histories and water governance structures, providing a unique opportunity for examining how dif...

Abbot, C., Howe, D. A., and Adler, S.: Planning the Oregon way: a twenty year evaluation. Oregon State Univ. Press, Corvallis, OR, 1994.; Allen, J. D.: Stream ecology: Structure and function of running waters, Chapman & Hall, New York, 1995.; Bin, O. and Czajkowski, J.: The Impact of Technical and Non-technical Measures of Water Quality on Coastal Waterfront Property Values in South Florida, Mar. Resour. Econ., 28, 43–63, 2013.; Boeder, M. and Chang, H.: Multi-scale anal...

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Mapping Irrigation Potential from Renewable Groundwater in Africa ...

By: K. G. Villholth; Y. Altchenko

Description: International Water Management Institute, Pretoria, South Africa. Groundwater provides an important buffer to climate variability in Africa. Yet groundwater irrigation contributes only a relatively little share of cultivated land, approximately 1% (about 2 million hectares) as compared to 14% in Asia. While groundwater is over-exploited for irrigation in many parts in Asia, previous assessments indicate an under-utilized potential in parts of Afr...

Adelana, S. M. A. and MacDonald, A. M.: Groundwater research issues in Africa, in: Applied Groundwater Studies in Africa, edited by: Adelana, S. M. A. and MacDonald, A. M., IAH Selected Papers on Hydrogeology, no. 13, ch. 1, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, London, UK, 507 pp., 2008.; Awulachew, S. B., Erkossa, T., and Namara, R. E.: Irrigation Potential in Ethiopia – Constraints and Opportunities for Enhancing the System, International Water Management Institute, avai...

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Estimation of Evapotranspiration from Toa Radiances in the Poyang ...

By: X. Zhao; A. Loew; J. Peng; Y. Liu

Description: State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China. Routine and rapid estimation of ET (evapotranspiration) at regional scale is of great significance for agricultural, hydrological and climatic studies. A simplified single-source energy balance parameterization scheme, known as the LST/NDVI (Land Surface Temperature/Vegetation Index) triangle method, ha...

Batra, N., Islam, S., Venturini, V., Bisht, G., and Jiang, L.: Estimation and comparison of evapotranspiration from MODIS and AVHRR sensors for clear sky days over the Southern Great Plains, Remote Sens. Environ., 103, 1–15, 2006.; Bhattacharya, B. K., Mallick, K., Patel, N. K., and Parihar, J. S.: Regional clear sky evapotranspiration over agricultural land using remote sensing data from Indian geostationary meteorological satellite, J. Hydrol., 387, 65–80, 2010.; Bisht...

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Adaptation of Water Resource Systems to an Uncertain Future : Volu...

By: H. J. Fowler; A. Burton; S. Blenkinsop; C. L. Walsh; R. J. Dawson; L. J. Manning; C. G. Kilsby; V. Glenis

Description: Centre for Earth Systems Engineering Research, School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. Globally, water resources management faces significant challenges from changing climate and growing populations. At local scales, the information provided by climate models is insufficient to support the water sector in making future adaptation decisions. Furthermore, projections of change in local water resources are...

EA – Environment Agency: Thames catchment abstraction licensing strategy, Environment Agency, Bristol, 2014.; Blanc, J., Hall, J. W., Roche, N., Dawson, R. J., Cesses, Y., Burton, A., and Kilsby, C. G.: Enhanced efficiency of pluvial flood risk estimation in urban areas using spatial-temporal rainfall simulations, J. Flood Risk Manage., 5, 143–152, doi:10.1111/j.1753-318X.2012.01135.x, 2012.; Blenkinsop S., H...

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