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Multi-criteria Validation of Artificial Neural Network Rainfall-ru...

By: R. Modarres

Description: Faculty of Natural Resources, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran. In this study we propose a comprehensive multi-criteria validation test for rainfall-runoff modeling by artificial neural networks. This study applies 17 global statistics and 3 additional non-parametric tests to evaluate the ANNs. The weakness of global statistics for validation of ANN is demonstrated by rainfall-runoff modeling of the Plasjan Basin in the western region of ...

Conover, W. J.: Practical Nonparametric Statistics, 3rd, Wiley, NY, USA, 592 pp., 1999; Blom, G.: Statistical estimates and transformed beta variables, John Wiley and Sons, NY, USA, 174 pp., 1958.; Aksoy, H. and Dahamsheh, A.: Artificial neural network models for forecasting monthly precipitation in Jordan, Stoch. Environ. Res. Risk Assess., doi:10.1007/s00477-008-0267-x (in press and online available), 2009.; Antar, M. A., Elassiouti, I., and Allam, M. N.: Rainfall-runo...

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Study of Frequency Pattern of Coherent Turbulent Flow Over Ripples...

By: H. Nabavi; J. Ball; A. Keshavarzi

Description: Water Department, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran. River channel change and bed scourings are source of major environmental problem for fish and aquatic habitat. The bed form such as ripples and dunes is the result of an interaction between turbulent flow structure and sediment particles at the bed. The structure of turbulent flow over ripples is important to understand initiation of sediment entrainment and its transport. The focus of this study is the...

Bagnold, R. A.: Motion of waves in shallow water: interaction between waves and sand bottoms, P. Roy. Soc. Lond. A, 187, 1–18, 1946.; Arlinghaus, R., Engelhardt, C., Sukhodolov, A., and Wolter, C.: Fish recruitment in a canal with intensive navigation: Implications for ecosystem management, J. Fish Biol., 61, 1386–1402, 2002.; Armstrong, J. D., Kemp, P. S., Kennedy, G. J. A., Ladle, M., and Milner, N. J.: Habitat requirements of Atlantic salmon and brown trout in rivers ...

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Accessible Integration of Agriculture, Groundwater, and Economic M...

By: S. Staggenborg; J. M. Peterson; X. Yang; D. R. Steward; T. Bulatewicz; S. M. Welch

Description: Kansas State University, Dept. of Computing and Information Sciences, Manhattan, Kansas, USA. Policy for water resources impacts not only hydrological processes, but the closely intertwined economic and social processes dependent on them. Understanding these process interactions across domains is an important step in establishing effective and sustainable policy. Multidisciplinary integrated models can provide insight to inform this understanding, though...

Ahrends, H., Mast, M., Rodgers, C., and Kunstmann, H.: Coupled hydrological-economic modelling for optimised irrigated cultivation in a semi-arid catchment of West Africa, Environ. Modell Softw., 23(4), 385–395, 2008.; Bhuyan, S. J., Kalita, P. K., Janssen, K. A., and Barnes, P. L.: Soil loss predictions with three erosion simulation models, Environ. Modell Softw., 17(2), 135–144, 2002.; Bithell, M. and Brasington, J.: Coupling agent-based models of subsistence farming w...

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Comment on Biotic Pump of Atmospheric Moisture as Driver of the Hy...

By: L. A. Bruijnzeel; A. J. Dolman; A. G. C. A. Meesters

Description: Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. In their paper Biotic pump of atmospheric moisture as driver of the hydrological cycle on land, Makarieva and Gorshkov (Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1013–1033, 2007) derive from previously unstudied properties of atmospheric water vapor, the existence of a hitherto unknown evaporative force. From this, a novel physical principle is deduced, according to which ...

Bruijnzeel,~L A.: Hydrological functions of tropical forests: not seeing the soil for the trees?, Agr. Ecosyst. Environ., 104, 185–228, doi:10.1016/j.agee.2004.01.015, 2004.; Costa,~M H.: Large-Scale Hydrological Impacts of Tropical Forest Conversion, in: Forests, Water and People in the Humid Tropics, edited by: Bonell,~M. and Bruijnzeel,~L A., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 590–597, 2004.; Dill,~K A. and Bromberg,~S.: Molecular driving forces, Garland Science, ...

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Comparing Soil Moisture Retrievals from Smos and Ascat Over France...

By: W. Wagner; E. Zakharova; S. Lafont; Y. Kerr; J.-p. Wigneron; J.-c. Calvet; M. Parrens

Description: CNRM-GAME, URA1357, Météo-France, CNRS, Toulouse, France. The first products derived over France in 2010 from the L-band brightness temperatures (Tb) measured by the SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) satellite, launched in November 2009, were compared with the surface soil moisture (SSM) estimates produced by the C-band Advanced Scatterometer, ASCAT, launched in 2006 on board METOP-A. SMOS and ASCAT SSM products were compared wit...

Albergel, C., Rüdiger, C., Pellarin, T., Calvet, J.-C., Fritz, N., Froissard, F., Suquia, D., Petitpa, A., Piguet, B., and Martin, E.: From near-surface to root-zone soil moisture using an exponential filter: an assessment of the method based on in-situ observations and model simulations, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 12, 1323–1337, doi:10.5194/hess-12-1323-2008, 2008.; Albergel, C., Rüdiger, C., Carrer, D., Calvet, J.-...

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Errata : Volume 8, Issue 5 (30/11/-0001)

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Transport at Basin Scales: 2. Applications : Volume 10, Issue 1 (0...

By: E. Bertuzzo; M. Marani; A. Uccelli; G. Botter; A. Rinaldo; T. Settin

Description: International Centre for Hydrology “Dino Tonini and Dipartimento IMAGE, Università di Padova, via Loredan 20, 35 131 Padova, Italy. In this paper, the second of a series, we apply the models discussed in Part 1 to a significant case study. The nature of the catchment under study, the transport phenomena investigated (i.e. nitrates moving as solutes within runoff waters) and the scales involved in space and time, provide an elaborate test for theory and ...

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Geodynamical Processes in the Channel Connecting the Two Lobes of ...

By: V. Khan; P. Zavialov; M. A. Muñiz; E. Roget

Description: Environmental Physics Group, Department of Physics, University of Girona, Catalonia, Spain. Reasons for the existence of the channel connecting the two lobes of the present Large Aral Sea are discussed. In situ measurements in 2005 show that differences between the measured depths and those contained in the available digital bathymetry of the lake are considerably different at the channel (7.5±0.9 m, at nine measurement stations along it) and at the nort...

Allen, M. R.: Possible or probable?, Nature, Sept. 18, 425, 6955, p. 242, 2003.; Blumberg, A. F. and Mellor, G. L.: A description of a three-dimensional coastal ocean circulation model, in: Three-Dimensional Coastal Ocean Models edited by: Heaps, N., American Geophysical Union, 1–16, 1987.; Bortnik, V. N. and Chistyaeva, S. P.: Hydrometeorology and Hydrochemistry of the seas of the USSR, The Aral Sea, Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 7, 194 pp., 1990 (in Russian).; Chase, T. ...

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Calibration of a Crop Model to Irrigated Water Use Using a Genetic...

By: S. Lauwo; W. Jin; S. Staggenborg; D. R. Steward; D. Andresen; M. Miller; T. Bulatewicz; S. M. Welch; S. Das; J. Peterson

Description: Kansas State University, Department of Computing and Information Sciences, USA. Near-term consumption of groundwater for irrigated agriculture in the High Plains Aquifer supports a dynamic bio-socio-economic system, all parts of which will be impacted by a future transition to sustainable usage that matches natural recharge rates. Plants are the foundation of this system and so generic plant models suitable for coupling to representations of other compo...

Aigner, D. J. and Goldfeld, S. M.: Estimation and prediction from aggregate data when aggregates are measured more accurately than their components, Econometrica, 42, 113–134, 1974.; Arbi, N., Smith, D., and Bingham, E. T.: Dry matter and morphological responses to temperatures of alfalfa strains with differing ploidy levels, Agron. J., 71, 573–577, 1979.; Bekele, E. G. and Nicklow, J. W.: Multi-objective automatic calibration of SWAT using NSGA-II, J. Hydrol., 341(3–4),...

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Uncertainty Analysis of Hydrological Ensemble Forecasts in a Distr...

By: I. D. Cluckie; Y. Wang; Y. Xuan

Description: Dept. of Hydroinformatics and Knowledge Management, UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, 2611 AX, Delft, The Netherlands. Advances in mesoscale numerical weather predication make it possible to provide rainfall forecasts along with many other data fields at increasingly higher spatial resolutions. It is currently possible to incorporate high-resolution NWPs directly into flood forecasting systems in order to obtain an extended lead time. It is recog...

Bell, V. A. and Moore, R. J.: Short period forecasting of catchment-scale precipitation. Part II: a water-balance storem model for short-term rainfall and flood forecasting, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 4, 635–651, 2000.; Cluckie, I. D., Griffith, R. J., Lane, A. and Tilford, K. A.: Radar hydrometeorology using a vertically pointing weather radar, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 4, 565–580, 2000; Cluckie, I. D., Rico-Ramirez, M. A., Xuan, Y., and Szalinska, W.: An experiment of r...

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Climate Change and Sectors of the Surface Water Cycle in Cmip5 Pro...

By: Z. Wang; G. Fang; A. Milton; P. A. Dirmeyer; P. Yadav

Description: George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, MS 6C5, Fairfax VA 22030, USA. Results from 10 global climate change models are synthesized to investigate changes in extremes, defined as wettest and driest deciles in precipitation, soil moisture and runoff based on each model's historical 20th century simulated climatology. Under a moderate warming scenario, regional increases in drought frequency are found with little increase in floods. For more sever...

Dankers, R., Arnell, N. W., Clark, D. B., Falloon, P. D., Fekete, B. M., Gosling, S. N., Heinke, J., Kim, H., Masaki, Y., Satoh, Y., Stacke, T., Wada, Y., and Wisser, D.: First look at changes in flood hazard in the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project ensemble, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 111, 3257–3261, doi:10.1073/pnas.1302078110, 2014.; Karl, T. R. and Knight, R. W.: Secular trends of precipitation amou...

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Assessing Impacts of Climate Change, Sea Level Rise, and Drainage ...

By: G. Goncear; T. O. Sonnenborg; K. Hinsby; P. Rasmussen

Description: Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, GEUS, Copenhagen, Denmark. Groundwater abstraction from coastal aquifers is vulnerable to climate change and sea level rise because both may potentially impact saltwater intrusion and hence groundwater quality depending on the hydrogeological setting. In the present study the impacts of sea level rise and changes in groundwater recharge are quantified for an island located in the Western Baltic Sea. The low-ly...

Anderman, E. R. and Hill, M. C.: MODFLOW-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model – Documentation of the Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow (HUF) package, US Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-342, US Geological Survey, Reston, VA, 2000.; Auken, E., Violette, S., d'Ozouville, N., Deffontaines, B., Sorensen, K. I., Viezzoli, A., and de Marsily, G.: An integrated study of the hydrogeology of volcanic islands using helicopter borne transient electromagnetic: Appl...

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Development of a High Resolution Grid-based River Flow Model for U...

By: R. G. Jones; R. J. Moore; V. A. Bell; A. L. Kay

Description: A grid-based approach to river flow modelling has been developed for regional assessments of the impact of environmental change on hydrologically sensitive systems. The approach also provides a means of assessing, and providing feedback on, the hydrological performance of the land-surface component of a regional climate model (RCM). When combined with information on the evolution of climate, the model can give estimates of the impact of future climate change...

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Temporal Stability of Soil Moisture Spatial Variability at Two Sca...

By: Q. Zhu; H. Lin; X. Zhou

Description: Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. Soil moisture spatial distribution is a key component in characterizing and modeling water movement at multiple scales. The temporal stability of soil moisture spatial distribution at multiple depths was investigated at the 7.9-ha Shale Hills Catchment in central Pennsylvania with a year-round monitoring of 77 sites distributed across the catchment. F...

Berg, T. M., Geyer, A. R., Edmunds, W. E., et al.: Geological map of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Geological Survey, 4th ser., Map 1. Harrisburg, PA, 1980.; Chappell, N. A. and Ternan, J. L.: Flow path dimensionality and hydrological modeling, Hydrol. Proc., 6, 327–345, 1992.; Cosh, M. H., Jackson, T. J., Bindlish, R., and Prueger, J. H.: Watershed scale temporal and spatial stability of soil moisture and its role in validating satellite estimates, Rem. Sens. Env., 92, 427...

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Comment on a Praxis-oriented Perspective of Streamflow Inference f...

By: A. D. Koussis

Description: National Observatory of Athens, Institute for Environmental Research & Sustainable Development, Palea Penteli, Athens, 15236, Greece. The estimation of transient streamflow from stage measurements is indeed important and the study of Dottori, Martina and Todini (2009) (henceforth DMT) is useful, however, DMT seem to miss certain of its practical aspects. The goal is to infer the discharge from measurements of the stage conveniently and with acc...

Anonymous Referee No 2, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 6, C3168�C3172, www.hydrol-earth-syst-sci-discuss.net/6/C3168/2010/, 2010.; Bowen, J. D., Koussis, A. D., and Zimmer, D. T.: Storm Drain Design – Diffusive Flood Routing for PCs, J. Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, 115(8), 1135–1150, 1989.; BGS. Dokumentation des EDV-Programmsystems: WASPLA, Version 5.2, Brandt-Gerdes-Sitzmann Wasserwirtschaft GmbH, Darm...

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Teaching Groundwater Flow Processes: Connecting Lecture to Practic...

By: S. Pistre; N. Mazzilli; H. Jourde; V. Hakoun

Description: Département d'Enseignement des Sciences de la Terre, de l'Eau et de l'Environnement de Montpellier, Hydrosciences Montpellier, UMR5569, CNRS, Université Montpellier 2, 34000 Montpellier, France. Preparing future hydrogeologists to assess local and regional hydrogeological changes and issues related to water supply is a challenging task that creates a need for effective teaching frameworks. The educational literature suggests that hydrogeology courses shou...

Johnston, L. and Miles, L.: Assessing contributions to group assignments, Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 29, 751–768, 2004.; Chiang, W. and Kinzelbach, W.: PMPATH, An advective transport model for Processing Modflow and Modflow, Geological Survey of Hamburg, Germany, 1994.; Chiang, W. and Kinzelbach, W.: 3D-groundwater modeling with PMWIN, Springer, 2001.; Chiang, W., Kinzelbach, W., and Rausch, R.: Aquifer simulation model for Windows: groundwater flow and...

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Uncertainties in Calculating Precipitation Climatology in East Asi...

By: S. K. Park; J. Kim

Description: Joint Institute for Regional Earth System Science and Engineering, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA. This study examines the uncertainty in calculating the fundamental climatological characteristics of precipitation in the East Asia region from multiple fine-resolution gridded analysis datasets based on in-situ rain gauge observations. Five observation-based gridded precipitation datasets are used to derive the long-term means, standard deviations in lieu of inter...

Adler, R. F., Huffman, G. J., Chang, A., Ferraro, R., Xie, P.-P., Janowiak, J., Rudolf, B., Schneider, U., Curtis, S., Bolvin, D., Gruber, A., Susskind, J., Arkin, P., and Nelkin, E.: The version-2 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) monthly precipitation analysis (1979–Present), J. Hydrometeorol., 4, 1147–1167, 2003.; Covey, C., AchutaRao, K., Cubasch, U., Jones, P., Lambert, S., Mann, M., Phillips, T., and Taylor, K.: An overview of results from the Coupled...

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Precipitation Observation Using Microwave Backhaul Links in the Al...

By: W. Qiu; J. Seltmann; D. Nienaber; A. Gmeiner; T. Eibert; S. Hipp; U. Siart; C. Chwala; J. Fritz; M. Pohl; H. Kunstmann

Description: Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research (IMK-IFU), Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany. Measuring rain rates over complex terrain is afflicted with large uncertainties, because rain gauges are influenced by orography and weather radars are mostly not able to look into mountain valleys. We apply a new method to estimate near surface rain rates exploiting attenuation data from commercial microwave...

Atlas, D.: Advances in radar meteorology, Adv. Geophys., 10, p. 385, 1964.; Andrieu, H., Creutin, J. D., Delrieu, G., and Faure, D.: Use of a weather radar for the hydrology of a mountainous area. Part I: Radar measurement interpretation, J. Hydrol., 193, 1–25, 1997.; Atlas, D. and Ulbrich, C. W.: Path- and area-integrated rainfall measurement by microwave attenuation in the 1–3 cm band, J. Appl. Meteorol., 16, 1322–1331, 1977.; Bartels, H., Weigl, E., Reich, T., Lang, P...

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Optimal Estimator for Assessing Landslide Model Performance : Volu...

By: S. J. Kao; J. C. Huang

Description: Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan. The commonly used success rate (SR) in evaluating cell-based landslide model performance is based on the ratio of successfully predicted landslide sites over total actual landslide sites without considering the performance in predicting stable cells. We proposed a modified SR (MSR), in which the performance of stable cell prediction is included. The advantage of MSR is to avoid ...

Ayalew, L. and Yamagishi, H.: The application of GIS-based logistic regression for landslide susceptibility mapping in the Kakuda-Yahiko Mountains, Central Japan, Geomorphology, 65, 15–31, 2005.; Borga, M., Fontana, G. D., and Marchi, L.: Shallow landslide hazard assessment using a physically based model and digital elevation data, Environ. Geol., 32, 81–88, 1998.; Borga, M., Dalla Fontana, G., Gregoretti, C., and Marchi, L.: Assessment of shallow landsliding by using a ...

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Variability in Stream Discharge and Temperature: a Preliminary Ass...

By: C. Gibbins; I. A. Malcolm; A. F. Youngson; P. J. Bacon; S. Langan; C. Soulsby; D. Tetzlaff

Description: Department of Geography and Environment, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UF, UK. This study focuses on understanding the temporal variability in hydrological and thermal conditions in a small mountain stream and its potential implication for two life stages of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) – stream resident juveniles and returning adult spawners. Stream discharge and temperature in the Girnock Burn, NE Scotland, were characterised over ten ...

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