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Model Simulations of the Modulating Effect of the Snow Cover in a ...

By: T. Jonas; C. Fierz; N. Wever; M. Lehning

Description: WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF, Flüelastrasse 11, 7260 Davos Dorf, Switzerland. In October 2011, the Swiss Alps underwent a marked rain-on-snow (ROS) event when a large snowfall on 8 and 9 October was followed by intense rain on 10 October. This resulted in severe flooding in some parts of Switzerland. Model simulations were carried out for 14 meteorological stations in two affected regions of the Swiss Alps using the detailed physics-...

Badoux, A., Hofer, M., and Jonas, T. (Eds.): Hydrometeorologische Analyse des Hochwasser-ereignisses vom 10. Oktober 2011, Birmensdorf, Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL; Davos, WSL-Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF; Zürich, Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss; Bern, geo7 geowissenschaftliches Büro; Bern, Federal Office for the Environment FOEN, in German, 2013.; Calonne, N., Geindreau, C., Flin, F., Mori...

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Calibration and Evaluation of a Semi-distributed Watershed Model o...

By: C. Ringler; L. Longuevergne; B. Scanlon; H. Xie

Description: International Food Policy Research Institute, 2033 K Street NW, Washington D.C., 20006, USA. Irrigation development is rapidly expanding in mostly rainfed Sub-Saharan Africa. This expansion underscores the need for a more comprehensive understanding of water resources beyond surface water. Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites provide valuable information on spatio-temporal variability of water storage. The objective of this study w...

Lehner, B., Verdin, K., and Jarvis, A.: New global hydrography derived from spaceborne elevation data, Eos Transactions AGU, 89, 93–94, 2008.; Alkama, R., Decharme, B., Douville, H., Becker, M., Cazenave, A., Sheffield, J., Voldoire, A., Tyteca, S., and Le Moigne, P.: Global Evaluation of the ISBA-TRIP Continental Hydrological System, Part I: Comparison to GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Estimates and In Situ River Discharges, J. Hydrometeorol., 11, 583–600, 2010.; Amogu...

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On the Uncertainties Associated with Using Gridded Rainfall Data a...

By: A. S. Kiem; D. C. Verdon-kidd; C. R. Tozer

Description: Environmental and Climate Change Research Group, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science and IT, University of Newcastle, NSW, Australia. Gridded rainfall datasets are used in many hydrological and climatological studies, in Australia and elsewhere, including for hydroclimatic forecasting, climate attribution studies and climate model performance assessments. The attraction of the spatial coverage provided by gridded data is clear, ...

Beesley, C. and Frost, A.: A comparison of the BAWAP and SILO spatially interpolated daily rainfall datasets, 18th World IMACS/MODSIM Congress, Cairns, Australia, 13–17 July 2009, 3886–3892, 2009.; Chiew, F. H. S.: Estimation of rainfall elasticity of streamflow in Australia, Hydrolog. Sci. J., 51, 613–625, 2006.; Chiew, F. H. S., Teng, J., Kirono, D., Frost, A. J., Bathols, J. M., Vaze, J., Viney, N. R., Young, W. J., Hennessey, K. J., and Cai, W. J.: Climate data for h...

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Analyzing Catchment Behavior Through Catchment Modeling in the Gil...

By: Y. Mohamed; A. S. Gragne; S. Uhlenbrook

Description: UNESCO-IHE, Department of Water Engineering, P.O. Box 3015, 2601 DA Delft, The Netherlands. Understanding catchment hydrological processes is essential for water resources management, in particular in data scarce regions. The Gilgel Abay catchment (a major tributary into Lake Tana, source of the Blue Nile) is undergoing intensive plans for water management, which is part of larger development plans in the Blue Nile basin in Ethiopia. To obtain a better ...

El-Khodari, N.: The Nile River: challenges to sustainable development, Presentation to the River symposium, 2003.; Dahmen, E. R. and Hall, M. J.: Screening of Hydrological Data, ILRI, 49, The Netherlands, 1990.; Allen, R. G., Pereira, L. S., Raes, D., and Smith, M.: Crop evapotranspiration: guidelines for computing crop water requirements, United Nations FAO, Irrigation and Drainage Paper~56, Rome, Italy, 300~pp., 1998.; BCEOM: Abay River Basin integrated master plan, ma...

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Catchment Classification Based on Characterisation of Streamflow a...

By: E. Toth

Description: Department DICAM, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy. The formulation of objective procedures for the delineation of homogeneous groups of catchments is a fundamental issue in both operational and research hydrology. For assessing catchment similarity, a variety of hydrological information may be considered; in this paper, gauged sites are characterised by a set of streamflow signatures that include a representation, albeit simplified, of the propert...

Burn, D. H.: Cluster analysis as applied to regional floood frequency, J. Water Resour. Pl.-ASCE, 115, 567–582, 1989.; Burn, D. H. and Goel, N. K.: The formation of groups for regional flood frequency analysis, J. Hydrol. Sci., 45, 97–112, 2000.; Bhaskar, N. R. and O'Connor, C. A. : Comparison of method of residuals and cluster analysis for flood regionalization, J. Water Resour. Pl.-ASCE, 115, 793–808, 1989.; Atkinson, S. E., Woods, R. A., and Sivapalan, M.: Climate, so...

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Analysis of Virtual Water Flows Associated with the Trade of Maize...

By: P. J. Ashton; E. Masekoameng; J. M. Dabrowski

Description: CSIR, Natural Resources and Environment, PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa. The concept of virtual water encourages a country to view agricultural crops in terms of the amount of water required to produce those crops, with a view to implementing trading policies that promote the saving of scarce water resources. Recently, increased attention has focussed on partitioning the virtual water content of crops into green and blue water (derived from ra...

Wichelns, D.: The role of virtual water in efforts to achieve food security and other national goals, with an example from Egypt, Agr. Water Manage., 49, 131–151, 2001.; Yang, H., Wang, L., Abbaspour, K. C., and Zehnder, A. J. B.: Virtual water trade: an assessment of water use efficiency in the international food trade, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 10, 443–454, 2006.; Aldaya, M. M., Hoekstra, A. Y., and Allan, J. A.: Strategic importance of green water in international cro...

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Transferring Model Uncertainty Estimates from Gauged to Ungauged C...

By: V. Andréassian; C. Perrin; F. Bourgin; L. Oudin

Description: Irstea, UR HBAN, 1 rue Pierre-Gilles de Gennes, CS 10030, 92761 Antony Cedex, France. Predicting streamflow hydrographs in ungauged catchments is a challenging issue, and accompanying the estimates with realistic uncertainty bounds is an even more complex task. In this paper, we present a method to transfer model uncertainty estimates from gauged to ungauged catchments and we test it over a set of 907 catchments located in France. We eval...

Andréassian, V., Lerat, J., Loumagne, C., Mathevet, T., Michel, C., Oudin, L., and Perrin, C.: What is really undermining hydrologic science today?, Hydrol. Process., 21, 2819–2822, doi:10.1002/hyp.6854, 2007.; Beven, K. and Freer, J.: Equifinality, data assimilation, and uncertainty estimation in mechanistic modelling of complex environmental systems using the GLUE methodology, J. Hydrol., 249, 11–29, 2001.; Beven, K. J. an...

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Coupled Decadal Variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation, Reg...

By: S. Fabbrocino; F. Manna; V. Allocca; P. De Vita

Description: Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra – University of Naples Federico II, Italy. Thus far, studies on climate change have focused mainly on the variability of the atmospheric and surface components of the hydrologic cycle, investigating the impact of this variability on the environment, especially with respect to the risks of desertification, droughts and floods. Conversely, the impacts of climate change on the recharge of aquifers and on the variability ...

Allocca, V., Celico, F., Celico, P., De Vita, P., Fabbrocino, S., Mattia, S., Monacelli, G., Musilli, I., Piscopo, V., Scalise, A. R., Summa, G., and Tranfaglia, G.: Illustrative Notes of the Hydrogeological Map of Southern Italy, Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato, ISBN 88-448-0215-5, 1–211, 2007.; Allocca, V., Celico, F., Celico, P., De Vita, P., Fabbrocino, S., Mattia, C., Monacelli, G., Musilli, I., Piscopo, V., Scalise, A. R., Summa, G., and Tranfaglia, G.: La...

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Assessment of Strip Tillage Systems for Maize Production in Semi-a...

By: H. H. G. Savenije; J. Rockstrom; W. B. Hoogmoed; M. Temesgen

Description: UNESCO-IHE, Delft, The Netherlands. The traditional tillage implement, the Maresha plow, and the tillage systems that require repeated and cross plowing have caused poor rainfall partitioning, land degradation and hence low water productivity in Ethiopia. Conservation tillage could alleviate these problems. However, no-till can not be feasible for smallholder farmers in semi-arid regions of Ethiopia because of difficulties in maintaining soil cov...

Freitas, V. H.: Soil Management and Conservation for Small Farms. Strategies and Methods of Introduction, Technologies and Equipment. FAO Soils Bulletin 77. 31p, 2000.; Guzha, A. C.: Effects of tillage on soil microrelief, surface depression storage and soil water storage, Soil and Till. Res. 76, 105–114, 2004.; Akinyemi, J. O., Akinpelu, O. E., and Olaleye, A. O.: Performance of cowpea under three tillage systems on an Oxic Paleustalf in southwestern Nigeria, Soil Till....

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Improving Soil Moisture Profile Reconstruction from Ground-penetra...

By: M. Vanclooster; S. Lambot; A. P. Tran

Description: Environmental Sciences, Earth and Life Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Croix du Sud 2, P.O. Box L7.05.02, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. The vertical profile of shallow unsaturated zone soil moisture plays a key role in many hydro-meteorological and agricultural applications. We propose a closed-loop data assimilation procedure based on the maximum likelihood ensemble filter algorithm to update the vertical soil moisture profile from time-l...

Crow, W. T., Kustas, W. P., and Prueger, J. H.: Monitoring root-zone soil moisture through the assimilation of a thermal remote sensing-based soil moisture proxy into a water balance model, Remote Sens. Environ., 112, 1268–1281, 2008.; Dagenbach, A., Buchner, J. S., Klenk, P., and Roth, K.: Identifying a parameterisation of the soil water retention curve from on-ground GPR measurements, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 611–618,

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Aggregation in Environmental Systems: Seasonal Tracer Cycles Quant...

By: J. W. Kirchner

Description: ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland. Environmental heterogeneity is ubiquitous, but environmental systems are often analyzed as if they were homogeneous instead, resulting in aggregation errors that are rarely explored and almost never quantified. Here I use simple benchmark tests to explore this general problem in one specific context: the use of seasonal cycles in chemical or isotopic tracers (such as Cl, δ18O, or δ2H) ...

Asano, Y. and Uchida, T.: Flow path depth is the main controller of mean base flow transit times in a mountainous catchment, Water Resour. Res., 48, W03512, doi:10.1029/2011wr010906, 2012.; Aubert, A. H., Kirchner, J. W., Gascuel-Odoux, C., Facheux, M., Gruau, G., and Merot, P.: Fractal water quality fluctuations spanning the periodic table in an intensively farmed watershed, Environ. Sci. Technol., 48, 930–937, doi:

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Drought Evolution Characteristics and Precipitation Intensity Chan...

By: G. Y. Yang; D. H. Yan; D. Wu; L. N. Wang; R. Huang

Description: State Key Laboratory of Simulation and Regulation of River Basin Water Cycle, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research (IWHR), Beijing, 100038, China. Abrupt drought–flood change events caused by atmospheric circulation anomalies have occurred frequently and widely in recent years, which has caused great losses and casualties in China. In this paper, we focus on investigating whether there will be a rainfall occurrence with higher inten...

Cancelliere, A., Mauro, G. D., Bonaccorso, B., and Rossi, G.: Drought forecasting using the Standardized Precipitation Index, Water Resour. Manage., 21, 801–819, 2007.; Cheng, Z., Xu, M., Luo, L. S., and Ding, X. J.: Climate characteristics of drought-flood abrupt change events in Huai River basin, J. China Hydrol., 32, 73–79, 2012 (in Chinese).; Dai, A., Trenberth, K. E., and Qian, T. T.: A global dataset of Palmer Drought Severity Index for 1870–2002: relationship with...

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Model Study of the Impacts of Future Climate Change on the Hydrolo...

By: K. Takeuchi; N. Hanasaki; M. Masood; P. J.-f. Yeh

Description: International Centre for Water Hazard and Risk Management (ICHARM), PWRI, Tsukuba, Japan. The intensity, duration, and geographic extent of floods in Bangladesh mostly depend on the combined influences of three river systems, the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM). In addition, climate change is likely to have significant effects on the hydrology and water resources of the GBM basin and may ultimately lead to more serious floods in Bangladesh. However,...

Abrams, P.: River Ganges, available at: http://www.africanwater.org/ganges.htm (last access date: 13 July 2014), 2003.; Biemans, H., Speelman, L. H., Ludwig, F., Moors, E. J., Wiltshire, A. J., Kumar, P., Gerten, D., and Kabat, P.: Future water resources for food production in five South Asian river basins and potential for adaptation – A modeling study, Sci. Total Environ., 468–469, Supplement, S117–S131,

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An Integrated Model for the Assessment of Global Water Resources –...

By: T. Oki; N. Shirakawa; S. Kanae; N. Hanasaki

Description: National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan. To assess global water resources from the perspective of subannual variation in water resources and water use, an integrated water resources model was developed. In a companion report, we presented the global meteorological forcing input used to drive the model and two natural hydrological cycle modules, namely, the land surface hydrology module and the river routing module. Here, we present the remai...

Alcamo, J., Florke, M., and Marker, M.: Future long-term changes in global water resources driven by socio-economic and climatic changes, Hydrol. Sci. J., 52, 247–275, 2007.; Arnell, N. W.: Climate change and global water resources: SRES emissions and socio-economic scenarios, Global Environ. Chang., 14, 31–52, 2004.; Baumgartner, A. and Reichel, E.: The world water balance, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, 182 p., 1975.; Gridded Population of the World Version 3 ...

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Large-scale Analysis of Changing Frequencies of Rain-on-snow Event...

By: K. Stahl; D. Freudiger; I. Kohn; M. Weiler

Description: Chair of Hydrology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany. In January 2011 a rain-on-snow (RoS) event caused floods in the major river basins in central Europe, i.e. the Rhine, Danube, Weser, Elbe, Oder, and Ems. This event prompted the questions of how to define a RoS event and whether those events have become more frequent. Based on the flood of January 2011 and on other known events of the past, threshold values for potentially flood-generating R...

Bastian, D., Göbel, K., Klump, W., Kremer, M., Lipski, P., and Löns-Hanna, C.: Das Januar-Hochwasser 2011 in Hessen, Hydrologie in Hessen, Heft 6, Hessische Landesamt für Umwelt und Geologie, Wiesbach, Germany, 2011 (in German).; Bavay, M., Grünewald, T., and Lehning, M.: Response of snow cover and runoff to climate change in high Alpine catchments of Eastern Switzerland, Adv. Water Resour., 55, 4–16, 2013.; Beniston, M.: Is snow in the Alps receding or disappearing?, WI...

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Using a Thermal-based Two Source Energy Balance Model with Time-di...

By: M. C. Anderson; W. P. Kustas; H. Nieto; R. Guzinski; I. Sandholt

Description: Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 10, 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark. The Dual Temperature Difference (DTD) model, introduced by Norman et al. (2000), uses a two source energy balance modelling scheme driven by remotely sensed observations of diurnal changes in land surface temperature (LST) to estimate surface energy fluxes. By using a time-differential temperature measurement as in...

Brutsaert, W.: Hydrology, An Introduction, Cambridge University Press, 2005.; Agam, N., Kustas, W., Anderson, M., Norman, J., Colaizzi, P., Howell, T., Prueger, J., Meyers, T., and Wilson, T.: Application of the Priestley-Taylor approach in a two-source surface energy balance model, J. Hydrometeorol., 11, 185–198, 2010.; Anderson, M. C., Norman, J., Diak, G., Kustas, W., and Mecikalski, J.: A two-source time-integrated model for estimating surface fluxes using thermal in...

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Globalization of Agricultural Pollution Due to International Trade...

By: D. A. Seekell; P. D'Odorico; J. Carr; C. O'Bannon

Description: Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA. Almost 90% of freshwater resources consumed globally are used to produce plant and animal commodities. Water-scarce countries can balance their water needs by importing food from other countries. This process, known as virtual water transfer, represents the externalization of water use. The volume and geographic reach of virtual water transfers is increasing, bu...

Allan, J. A.: Virtual Water: A Strategic Resource. Global to regional deficits, Ground Water, 36, 545–546, 1998.; Carr, J. A., D'Odorico, P., Laio, F., Ridolfi, L., and Seekell, D.: Inequalities in the Networks of Virtual Water Flow, EOS T. Am. Geophys. Un., 93, 309–310, 2012a.; Baron, J. S., Poff, N. L., Angermeier, P. L., Dahm, C. N., Gleick, P. H., Hairston, N. G., Jackson, R. B., Johnston, C. A., Richter, B. D., and Steinman, A. D.: Meeting ecological and societal ne...

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Throughfall and Temporal Trends of Rainfall Redistribution in an O...

By: J. M. Moraes; H. Elsenbeer; S. Germer

Description: Institute of Geoecology, University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany. Throughfall volumes and incident rainfall were measured between 23 August and 2 December 2004 as well as from 6 January to 15 April 2005 for individual rain events of differing intensities and magnitudes in an open tropical rainforest in Rondônia, Brazil. Temporal patterns of throughfall spatial variability were examined. Estimated interception was compared to modeled interception obtain...

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Mapping Mean and Variance of Runoff in a River Basin : Volume 10, ...

By: E. Sauquet; E. Leblois; I. Krasovskaia; L. Gottschalk

Description: Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo, P.O.~Box~1022 Blindern, 0315 Oslo, Norway. The study presents an approach to represent the two first order moments of temporal runoff variability as a function of catchment area and aggregation time interval, and to map them in space. The problem is divided into two steps. First, the first order moment (the long term value) is analysed and mapped applying an interpolation procedure for river runoff. In a sec...

Beldring, S., Roald, L. A. and Voksø, A.: Avrenningskart for Norge (Runoff map of Norway, in Norwegian), Norwegian Water and Energy Directorate Report, 2, 2002, Oslo, Norway, 2002.; Gandin, L. S. and Kagan, P. L.: Statisticheskie metody dlya interpretatsii meteorologicheskykh dannykh. (Statistical methods for interpretation of meteorological data, in Russian), Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 1976.; Ghosh, B.: Random distances within a rectangle and between two rectangles, Bu...

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Preface : Volume 7, Issue 4 (30/11/-0001)

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