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A Stochastic Approach for the Description of the Water Balance Dyn...

By: S. Manfreda; M. Fiorentino

Description: Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Fisica dell'Ambiente (DIFA), Università degli Studi della Basilicata, via dell'Ateneo Lucano, 10, Potenza, 85100, Italy. The present paper introduces an analytical approach for the description of the soil water balance dynamics over a schematic river basin. The model is based on a stochastic differential equation where the rainfall forcing is interpreted as an additive noise in the soil water balance. This equation can be sol...

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Training Hydrologists to Be Ecohydrologists and Play a Leading Rol...

By: M. Gaviño Novillo; N. Fohrer; M. Zalewski; L. Chícharo; M. E. McClain; W. Windhorst

Description: Department of Water Science and Engineering, UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, P.O. Box 3015, 2601 DA Delft, The Netherlands. Ecohydrology is a relatively new and rapidly growing subject area in the hydrology curriculum. It is a trans-disciplinary science derived from the larger earth systems science movement and examining mutual interactions of the hydrological cycle and ecosystems. It is also an applied science focused on problem solving and pr...

Alber, M.: A conceptual model of estuarine freshwater inflow management, Estuaries, 25, 1246–1261, doi:10.1007/bf02692222, 2002.; Arslan, B. K., Boyd, E. S., Dolci, W. W., Dodson, K. E., Boldt, M. S., and Pilcher, C. B.: Workshops without Walls: Broadening Access to Science around the World, Plos Biology, 9, e1001118, doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001118, 2011.; Arthin...

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Linkages Between Enso/Pdo Signals and Precipitation, Streamflow in...

By: C. Liu; W. Liu; H. Wang; G. Fu; R. Ouyang; L. Hu

Description: Key Laboratory of Water Cycle & Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China. This paper investigates the single and combined impacts of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) on precipitation and streamflow in China over the last century. Results indicate that the precipitation and streamflow overall decrease dur...

Hao, Z. X., Zheng, J. Y., and Ge, Q. S.: Precipitation cycles in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River (1736–2000), J. Geogr. Sci., 18, 17–25, 2008.; Liu, Y. Q. and Ding, Y. H.: Reappraisal of the influence of ENSO events on seasonal precipitation and temperature in China, Sci. Atmos. Sin., 19, 200–208, 1995.; Andreoli, R. V. and Kayano, M. T.: ENSO-related rainfall anomalies in South America and associated circulation features during warm and cold Pacific dec...

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Influence of Solar Forcing, Climate Variability and Modes of Low-f...

By: A. Barrera-escoda; J. C. Peña; A. Badoux; M. Barriendos; L. Schulte

Description: Meteorological Service of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain. The higher frequency of severe flood events in Switzerland in recent decades has given fresh impetus to the study of flood patterns and their possible forcing mechanisms, particularly in mountain environments. This paper presents a new index of summer flood damage that considers severe and catastrophic summer floods in Switzerland between 1800 and 2009, and explores the influence of external forcing...

Abreu, J. A., Beer, J., Steinhilber, F., Christl, M., and Kubik, P. W.: 10Be in Ice Cores and 14C in Tree Rings: Separation of Production and Climate Effects, Space Sci. Rev., 176, 343–349, 2012.; ALP-IMP: Multi-centennial climate variability in the Alps based on Instrumental data, Model simulations and Proxy data, Final report for RTD-project ALP-IMP (EVK-CT-2002-00148), 2006.; Annually resolved 10Be data (Berggren et al., 2009) are available from ...

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Catchments as Space-time Filters – a Joint Spatio-temporal Geostat...

By: J. O. Skøien; G. Blöschl

Description: Institute for Hydraulic and Water Resources Engineering, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13, 1040 Vienna, Austria. In this paper catchments are conceptualised as linear space-time filters. Catchment area A is interpreted as the spatial support and the catchment response time Tis interpreted as the temporal support of the runoff measurements. These two supports are related by T~AΚ which embodies the space-time c...

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Does Wepp Meet the Specificity of Soil Erosion in Steep Mountain R...

By: D. Bänninger; M. Nearing; C. Alewell; N. Konz

Description: Institute of Environmental Geosciences, University of Basel, Bernoullistrasse 30, 4056 Basel, Switzerland. We chose the WEPP model (Water Erosion Prediction Project) to describe soil erosion in the Urseren Valley (central Switzerland) as it seems to be one of the most promising models for steep mountain environments. Crucial model parameters were determined in the field (slope, plant species, fractional vegetation cover, initial saturation level), by lab...

Alewell, C., Meusburger, K., Brodbeck, M.: Methods to describe and predict soil erosion in mountain regions. Landscape and Urban Planning, 88, 46–53, 2008.; Ambuehl, E.: 100~Jahre Einschneien und ausapern in Andermatt, Sonderausdruck aus dem Quartalsheft 4 Die Alpen, 225–236, 1961.; Appenzeller, C., Beyert, M., Zenklusen, E., and Scherrer, S. C.: Monitoring climate at Jungfraujoch in the high Swiss Alpine region, Science of the total Environment, 391, 262–268, 2008.; Bag...

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Estimating Monthly Rainfall in Rural River Basins Under Climate Ch...

By: J. J. Kaluarachchi; D. L. Jayasekera

Description: Civil and Environmental Engineering Department Utah State University Logan, Utah, 84322-4100, USA. This study extended the work of Kim et al. (2008) to generate future rainfall under climate change using a discrete-time/space Markov chain based on historical conditional probabilities. A bias-correction method is proposed by fitting suitable statistical distributions to transform rainfall from the general circulation model (GCM) scale to w...

Abbaspour, K. C., Faramarzi, M., Ghasemi, S. S., and Yang, H.: Assessing the impact of climate change on water resources in Iran, Water Resour. Res., 45, W10434, doi:10.1029/2008WR007615, 2009.; ADB – Asian Development Bank: Lao People's Democratic Republic: Preparing the Cumulative Impact Assessment for the Nam Ngum 3 Hydropower Project, Technical Assistance Consultant's Report, Project Number 40514, Financed by the Jap...

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On the Nature of Rainfall Intermittency as Revealed by Different M...

By: M. Hellies; R. Deidda; G. Mascaro

Description: Universitá di Cagliari, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale e Architettura, Cagliari, Italy. A general consensus on the concept of rainfall intermittency has not yet been reached and intermittency is often referred to different aspects of rainfall variability, including the fragmentation of the wet-dry rainfall support, the strength of intensity fluctuations and of rainfall bursts, and sometimes also to the memory/correlation of the process. To...

Badas, M. G., Deidda, R., and Piga, E.: Modulation of homogeneous space-time rainfall cascades to account for orographic influences, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 6, 427–437, doi:10.5194/nhess-6-427-2006, 2006.; Bershadskii, A. J. N., Praskovsky, A., and Sreenivasan, K.: Clusterization and intermittency of temperature fluctuations in turbulent convection, Phys. Rev. E, 69, 056314,

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Sampling Frequency Trade-offs in the Assessment of Mean Transit Ti...

By: R. Celleri; L. Timbe; D. Windhorst; H.-g. Frede; J. Feyen; P. Crespo; E. Timbe; L. Breuer

Description: Departamento de Recursos Hídricos y Ciencias Ambientales, Universidad de Cuenca, Cuenca, Ecuador. Precipitation event samples and weekly based water samples from streams and soils were collected in a tropical montane cloud forest catchment for 2 years and analyzed for stable water isotopes in order to understand the effect of sampling frequency in the performance of three lumped-parameter distribution functions (exponential-piston flow, linear-piston flo...

Amin, I. E. and Campana, M. E.: A general lumped parameter model for the interpretation of tracer data and transit time calculation in hydrologic systems, J. Hydrol., 179, 1–21, doi:10.1016/0022-1694(95)02880-3, 1996.; Barnes, C. J. and Bonell, M.: Application of unit hydrograph techniques to solute transport in catchments, Hydrol. Process., 10, 793–802,

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Deriving Global Flood Hazard Maps of Fluvial Floods Through a Phys...

By: H. L. Cloke; E. Dutra; F. Wetterhall; F. Pappenberger

Description: European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, UK. Global flood hazard maps can be used in the assessment of flood risk in a number of different applications, including (re)insurance and large scale flood preparedness. Such global hazard maps can be generated using large scale physically based models of rainfall-runoff and river routing, when used in conjunction with a number of post-processing methods. In this study, the European Centre f...

Ducharne, A., Golaz, C., Leblois, E., Laval, K., Polcher, J., Ledoux, E., and de Marsily, G.: Development of a High Resolution Runoff Routing Model, Calibration and Application to Assess Runoff from the LMD GCM, J. Hydrol., 280, 207–228, doi:10.1016/S0022-1694(03)00230-0, 2003.; Dutra, E., Balsamo, G., Viterbo, P., Miranda, P. M. A., Beljaars, A., Schar, C., and Elder, K.: An Improved Snow Scheme for the ECMWF L...

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Technical Note: First Evidence of a Structured and Dynamic Spatial...

By: K. Bidin; N. A. Chappell

Description: School of Science and Technology, University Malaysia Sabah, 88999 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. In a study of the spatial variability of rainfall across a network of 46 raingauges in a 4 km2 rainforest catchment in the interior of northeastern Borneo, seasonal rainfall totals were correlated with raingauge separation distance, aspect and relief. A very high degree of spatial variability in seasonal totals across a very s...

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Technical Note: Alternative In-stream Denitrification Equation for...

By: A. Lepistö; M. R. Burchell II; F. Birgand; K. Granlund; J. R. Etheridge; K. Rankinen

Description: North Carolina State University, Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering Campus Box 7625, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA. The Integrated Catchment model for Nitrogen (INCA-N) is a semi-distributed, process based model that has been used to model the impacts of land use, climate, and land management changes on hydrology and nitrogen loading. An observed problem with the INCA-N model is reproducing low nitrate-nitrogen concentrations during the...

Birgand, F., Skaggs, R. W., Chescheir, G. M., and Gilliam, J. W.: Nitrogen removal in streams of agricultural catchments – a literature review, Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Tec., 37, 381–487, 2007.; Etheridge, J. R., Lepistö, A., Granlund, K., Rankinen, K., Birgand, F., and Burchell, M. R.: Reducing uncertainty in the calibration and validation of the INCA-N model by using soft data, Hydrol. Res., doi:10.2166/nh.2013.039, in ...

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Multi-scale Analysis of Bias Correction of Soil Moisture : Volume ...

By: C.-h. Su; D. Ryu

Description: Department of Infrastructure Engineering, University of Melbourne, 3010 Victoria, Australia. Remote sensing, in situ networks and models are now providing unprecedented information for environmental monitoring. To conjunctively use multi-source data nominally representing an identical variable, one must resolve biases existing between these disparate sources, and the characteristics of the biases can be non-trivial due to spatio-temporal variability of t...

Chang, S. G., Yu, B., and Yeterli, M.: Adaptive wavelet thresholding for imaging denoising and compression, IEEE T. Image Process., 9, 1532–1546, doi:10.1109/83.862633, 2000.; Albergel, C., De Rosnay, P., Gruhier, C., Muñoz-Sabater, J., Hasenauer, S., Isaksen, L., Kerr, Y., and Wagner, W.: Evaluation of remotely sensed and modelled soil moisture products using global ground-based in situ observations, Remote Sens. Environ.,...

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The Skill of Seasonal Ensemble Low-flow Forecasts in the Moselle R...

By: A. Y. Hoekstra; M. J. Booij; M. C. Demirel

Description: Water Engineering and Management, Faculty of Engineering Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, the Netherlands. This paper investigates the skill of 90-day low-flow forecasts using two conceptual hydrological models and one data-driven model based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for the Moselle River. The three models, i.e. HBV, GR4J and ANN-Ensemble (ANN-E), all use forecasted meteorological inputs (precipitation P

Adamowski, J., Chan, H. F., Prasher, S. O., Ozga-Zielinski, B., and Sliusarieva, A.: Comparison of multiple linear and nonlinear regression, autoregressive integrated moving average, artificial neural network, and wavelet artificial neural network methods for urban water demand forecasting in Montreal, Canada, Water Resour. Res., 48, W01528, doi:10.1029/2010wr009945, 2012.; Archer, D. R. and Fowler, H. J.: Using meteorol...

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Stochastic Simulation Experiment to Assess Radar Rainfall Retrieva...

By: R. Uijlenhoet; A. Berne

Description: Hydrology and Quantitative Water Management Group, Department of Environmental Sciences, Wageningen University, The Netherlands. As rainfall constitutes the main source of water for the terrestrial hydrological processes, accurate and reliable measurement and prediction of its spatial and temporal distribution over a wide range of scales is an important goal for hydrology. We investigate the potential of ground-based weather radar to provide such measure...

Andrieu, H. and Creutin, J.-D.: Identification of vertical profiles of radar reflectivity for hydrological applications using an inverse method. Part I: Formulation, J. Appl. Meteorol., 34, 225–239, 1995.; Atlas, D.: Radar calibration – Some simple approaches, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 83, 1313–1316, 2002.; Andrieu, H., Delrieu, G., and Creutin, J.-D.: Identification of vertical profiles of radar reflectivity for hydrological applications using an inverse method. Part II: S...

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Using Variograms to Detect and Attribute Hydrological Change : Vol...

By: J. Hannaford; I. Holman; R. Corstanje; T. M. Hess; C. Prudhomme; J. P. Bloomfield; A. Chiverton

Description: Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Wallingford, UK. There have been many published studies aiming to identify temporal changes in river flow time-series, most of which use monotonic trend tests such as the Mann–Kendall test. Although robust to both the distribution of the data and incomplete records, these tests have important limitations and provide no information as to whether a change in variability mirrors a change in magnitude. This study devel...

Bradford, R. and Marsh, T.: Defining a network of benchmark catchments for the UK, Water Maritim. Eng., 156, 109–116, 2003.; Burnham, K. P., and Anderson, D. R.: Model Selection and Multimodel Inference: A Practice Ractical Informatic-Theoretic Approach, Springer Verlag, New York, 2002.; Burn, D. H., Hannaford, J., Hodgkins, G. A., Whitfield, P. H., Thorne, R., and Marsh, T.: Reference hydrologic networks II. Using reference hydrologic networks to assess climate-driven c...

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Novel Evaporation Experiment to Determine Soil Hydraulic Propertie...

By: O. Ippisch; K. Roth; K. Schneider

Description: Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany. A novel experimental approach to determine soil hydraulic material properties for the dry and very dry range is presented. Evaporation from the surface of a soil column is controlled by a constant flux of preconditioned air and the resulting vapour flux is measured by infrared absorption spectroscopy. The data are inverted under the assumptions that (i) the simultaneous mo...

Eching, S. O., Hopmans, J. W., and Wendroth, O.: Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity from transient multistep outflow and soil water pressure data, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 58, 687–695, 1994.; Gardner, W. R. and Miklich, F. J.: Unsaturated conductivity and diffusity measurements by a constant flux method, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 93, 271–274, 1962.; Ippisch, O., Vogel, H.-J., and Bastian, P.: Validity limits for the van Genuchten-Mualem model and implications for parameter es...

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Evidence for Enhanced Infiltration of Ion Load During Snowmelt : V...

By: J. W. Pomeroy; G. Lilbæk

Description: Centre for Hydrology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. Meltwater ion concentration and infiltration rate into frozen soil both decline rapidly as snowmelt progresses. Their temporal association is highly non-linear and a covariance term must be added in order to use time-averaged values of snowmelt ion concentration and infiltration rate to calculate chemical infiltration. The covariance is labelled enhanced infiltration

Dominé, F., Thibert, E., Van Landeghem, F., Silvente, E., and Wagnon, P.: Diffusion and solubility of H.Cl in ice: preliminary results, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, 601–604, 1994.; Granger, R. J., Gray, D. M., and Dyck, G. E.: Snowmelt infiltration to frozen prairie soils, Can. J. Earth Sci., 23, 669–677, 1984.; Gray, D. M., Granger, R. J., and Dyck, G. E.: Overwinter soil moisture changes, T. Am. Soc. Agr. Eng., 28, 442–447, 1985.; Gray, D. M., Toth, B., Zhao, L. T., Pomero...

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The Fractionation of the Elements in River Waters with Respect to ...

By: C. Neal

Description: Centre of Ecology and Hydrology (Wallingford), Maclean Building, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, OXON, OX10 8BB, UK. The fractionation in chemical elements for UK river waters is described relative to the continental crust based on data collected within studies of upland acidic catchments in mid-Wales and major eastern-UK rivers. Four types of river are examined (upland, rural, agricultural and industrial/urban) together with an average for the UK based...

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Seasonal Prediction of Winter Extreme Precipitation Over Canada by...

By: A. Shabbar; W. W. Hsieh; W. R. Burrows; Z. Zeng

Description: Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada. For forecasting the maximum 5-d accumulated precipitation over the winter season at lead times of 3, 6, 9 and 12 months over Canada from 1950 to 2007, two nonlinear and two linear regression models were used, where the models were support vector regression (SVR) (nonlinear and linear versions), nonlinear Bayesian neural network (BNN) and...

Barnston, A. G.: Linear statistical short-term climate predictive skill in the Northern Hemisphere, J. Climate, 7, 1513–1564, 1994.; Anandhi, A., Srinivas, V. V., Nanjundiah, R. S., and Kumar, D. N.: Downscaling precipitation to river basin in India for IPCCSRES scenarios using support vector machine, Int. J. Climatol., 28, 401–420, 2008.; Bishop, C. M.: Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning, Springer, New York, 2006.; Bonsai, B. R., Prowse, T. D., Duguay, C. R., and ...

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