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Seasonal Stratification and Property Distributions in a Tropical E...

By: C. Revichandran; P. D. Reny; K. R. Muraleedharan; J. Vinita; A. Shivaprasad; K. R. Naveen Kumar; M. P. Deepak

Description: National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, Dr. Salim Ali road, Kochi-18, Kerala, India. The intratidal, spring–neap and seasonal variations in stratification were examined in the Cochin estuary. The observations established a strong connection with the distribution of chemical and biological properties. The influence of tides and river discharge forcing in water column stability was quantified using potential energy anomaly (PEA) and stratifica...

Nepf, H. M. and Geyer, W. R.: Intratidal variations in stratification and mixing in the Hudson estuary, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 12079–12086, 1996.; Balachandran, K. K., Laluraj, C. M., Nair, M., Joseph, T., Sheeba, P., and Venugopal, P.: Heavy metal deposition in a flow-restricted, tropical estuary, Estuar Coast Shelf Sci., 65, 361–370, 2005.; Balachandran, K. K., Reddy, G. S., Revichandran, C., Srinivas, K., Vijayan, P. R., and Thottam, T. J.: Modelling of tidal hydrodyn...

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Drought Risk Assessments of Water Resources Systems Under Climate ...

By: H. W. Tseng; C. M. Kuo; T. C. Yang; P. S. Yu; C. Chen

Description: Department of Hydraulic and Ocean Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Rd., Tainan 701, Taiwan. This study aims at assessing the impact of climate change on drought risk in a water resources system in Southern Taiwan by integrating the weather generator, hydrological model and simulation model of reservoir operation. Three composite indices with multi-aspect measurements of reservoir performance (i.e. reliability, resilience...

Bergström, S.: Development and application of a conceptual runoff model for Scandinavian Catchments, SMHI, Reports RHO. 7, Norrköping, 1976.; Bergström, S.: The HBV model – its structure and applications, SMHI, Reports RHO. 4, Norrköping, 1992.; Coe, R. and Stern, R. D.: Fitting models to rainfall data, J. Appl. Meteorol., 21, 1024–1031, 1982.; Brown, R. M., McClelland, N. I., Deininger, R. A., and O'Connor, M. F.: A Water Quality Index – Crashing the Psychological Barri...

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Precipitation Fields Interpolated from Gauge Stations Versus a Mer...

By: H. Bach; F. Schlenz; W. Mauser; J. T. Dall'Amico

Description: University of Munich, Department of Geography, Munich, Germany. For the validation of coarse resolution soil moisture products from missions such as the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, hydrological modelling of soil moisture is an important tool. The spatial distribution of precipitation is among the most crucial input data for such models. Thus, reliable time series of precipitation fields are required, but these often need to be inter...

Albergel, C., Calvet, J.-C., de Rosnay, P., Balsamo, G., Wagner, W., Hasenauer, S., Naeimi, V., Martin, E., Bazile, E., Bouyssel, F., and Mahfouf, J.-F.: Cross-evaluation of modelled and remotely sensed surface soil moisture with in situ data in southwestern France, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 2177–2191, doi:10.5194/hess-14-2177-2010, 2010.; Bach, H., Braun, M., Lampart, G., and Mauser, W.: Use of remote sensing f...

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On the Reliability of Analytical Models to Predict Solute Transpor...

By: C. Cherubini; C. I. Giasi; N. Pastore

Description: HydrISE, Institut Polytechnique LaSalle Beauvais, 19 rue Pierre Waguet, 60026 Beauvais Cedex, France. In hydrogeology, the application of reliable tracer transport model approaches is a key issue to derive the hydrodynamic properties of aquifers.

Laboratory and field-scale tracer dispersion breakthrough curves (BTC) in fractured media are notorious for exhibiting early time arrivals and late-time tailing that are not captured by the classic...

Bauget, F. and Fourar, M.: Non-Fickian dispersion in a single fracture, J. Contam. Hydrol., 100, 137–148, doi:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2008.06.005, 2008.; Bear, J.: Dynamics of Fluids in Porous Media, Elsevier, New York, 1972.; Berkowitz, B.: Characterizing flow and transport in fractured geological media: a review, Adv. Water Resour., 25, 861–884, 2002.; Bear, J. and Berkowitz, B.: Groundwater flow and pollution in fr...

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Evaluation of Land Surface Model Simulations of Evapotranspiration...

By: V. Desfonds; N. Bertrand; A. Chanzy; S. Moulin; O. Marloie; E. Martin; S. Garrigues; A. Olioso; D. Renard; J.-c. Calvet; S. Lafont

Description: EMMAH (UMR1114), INRA, Avignon, France. Evapotranspiration has been recognized as one of the most uncertain term in the surface water balance simulated by land surface models. In this study, the SURFEX/ISBA-A-gs simulations of evapotranspiration are assessed at local scale over a 12 year Mediterranean crop succession. The model is evaluated in its standard implementation which relies on the use of the ISBA pedotransfer estimates of the soil propertie...

Bhumralkar, C. M.: Numerical experiments on the computation of ground surface temperature in an atmospheric general circulation model, J. Appl. Meteorol., 14, 1246–1258, 1975.; Blackadar, A. K.: Modeling the Nocturnal Boundary Layer, Preprints, Third Symp. on Atmospheric Turbulence, Diffusion and Air Quality, Raleigh, NC, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 46–49, 1976.; Bonan, G. B. and Santanello, J. A.: Modelling the land–atmosphere interface across scales: from atmospheric science t...

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Runoff and Sediment Load of the Yan River, China: Changes Over the...

By: W. Zhang; R. Hessel; X. Mu; R. Li; C. Ritsema; F. Wang

Description: Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China. Runoff and sediment load changes are affected by climate change and human activities in an integrated way. Historical insight into these effects can not only improve the knowledge of river processes, but also promote more effective land and water management. In this study, we looked at runoff and sediment change in the Yan River Basin, Loess Plateau, ...

China Meteorological Administration: Specifications for surface meteorological observation, Beijing, China Meteorol. Press, 35–44, 60–67, 93–116, 2003 (in Chinese).; Douglas, I.: Land degradation, soil conservation and the sediment load of the Yellow River, China: review and assessment, Land Degrad Dev., 1, 141–151, doi:10.1002/ldr.3400010206, 1989.; Fang, X., Wang, Z., and Kuang, S.: Mechanism and effect of check-dam ...

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Quantifying the Impact of Land-use Changes at the Event and Season...

By: S. Uhlenbrook; B. Ott

Description: Bayerisches Landesamt für Wasserwirtschaft, Wasserwirtschaftsamt Bamberg, Kasernstraße 4, 96047 Bamberg, Germany. For optimal protection and integrated management of water resources, it is essential to quantify the impact of land-use change on hydrological regimes at various scales. Using the process-based catchment model TACD (tracer aided catchment model, distributed) two land-use scenarios were analysed for the rural and mount...

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Mapping Model Behaviour Using Self-organizing Maps : Volume 13, Is...

By: H. V. Gupta; M. C. Casper; M. Herbst

Description: Department of Physical Geography, University of Trier, Germany. Hydrological model evaluation and identification essentially involves extracting and processing information from model time series. However, the type of information extracted by statistical measures has only very limited meaning because it does not relate to the hydrological context of the data. To overcome this inadequacy we exploit the diagnostic evaluation concept of Signature Indices, i...

Abramowitz, G., Gupta, H. V., Pitman, A., Wang, Y., Leuning, R., Cleugh, H., and Hsu, K.-l.: Neural Error Regression Diagnosis (NERD): A Tool for Model Bias Identification and Prognostic Data Assimilation, J. Hydrometeorol., 7, 160–177, doi:10.1175/JHM479.1, 2006.; Abramowitz, G. and Gupta, H. V.: Toward a model space and model independence metric, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L05705, doi:10.1029/2007GL032834, 2008.; Abramowitz, G., Leuning, R., Clark, M., and Pitman, A.: Ev...

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Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Land Surface Fluxes from Remotely...

By: S. W. Franks; J. D. Kalma; M. F. McCabe

Description: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, 08544, USA. Characterising the development of evapotranspiration through time is a difficult task, particularly when utilising remote sensing data, because retrieved information is often spatially dense, but temporally sparse. Techniques to expand these essentially instantaneous measures are not only limited, they are restricted by the general paucity of infor...

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Thresholds, Switches and Hysteresis in Hydrology from the Pedon to...

By: D. Flynn; J. P. O’kane

Description: Hysteresis is a rate-independent non-linearity that is expressed through thresholds, switches, and branches. Exceedance of a threshold, or the occurrence of a turning point in the input, switches the output onto a particular output branch. Rate-independent branching on a very large set of switches with non-local memory is the central concept in the new definition of hysteresis. Hysteretic loops are a special case. A self-consistent mathematical description o...

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Distributed Hydrological Modelling of Total Dissolved Phosphorus T...

By: W. D. Hively; P. Gérard-marchant; T. S. Steenhuis

Description: Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. Successful implementation of best management practices for reducing non-point source (NPS) pollution requires knowledge of the location of saturated areas that produce runoff. A physically-based, fully-distributed, GIS-integrated model, the Soil Moisture Distribution and Routing (SMDR) model was developed to simulate the hydrologic behavior of small rural uplan...

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Hydrologic Responses of the Zwalm Catchment Using the Rew Model: I...

By: A. El Ouazzani Taibi; A. Elfeki; G. P. Zhang

Description: Deveraux & Deloitte Partnership, Environmental Expert Group, Emile Wauters Street, 121, 1020 Brussels, Belgium. The research presented in this paper focuses on an application of a newly developed physically-based watershed model approach, which is called Representative Elementary Watershed (REW) approach. The study stressed the effects of uncertainty of input parameters on the watershed responses (i.e. simulated discharges). The approach was applied to t...

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Integrated Response and Transit Time Distributions of Watersheds b...

By: M. C. Roa-garcía; M. Weiler

Description: Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, 2357 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada. We present a new modeling approach analyzing and predicting the Transit Time Distribution (TTD) and the Response Time Distribution (RTD) from hourly to annual time scales as two distinct hydrological processes. The model integrates Isotope Hydrograph Separation (IHS) and the Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph (IUH) approach as a tool to provide a more realis...

Bariac, T., Millet, A., Ladouche, B., Mathieu, R., Grimaldi, C., Grimaldi, M., Hubert, P., Molicova, H., Bruckler, L., Bertuzzi, P., Boulegue, J., Brunet, Y., Tournebize, R., and Granier, A.: Stream hydrograph separation on two Guianese catchments, Tracer Technologies for Hydrological Systems (Proceedings of a Boulder Symposium), International Association of Hydrological Sciences, IAHS Publ. No. 229, 193–209, July 1995.; Bonell, M.: Selected challenges in runoff generati...

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How Over 100 Years of Climate Variability May Affect Estimates of ...

By: L. M. Tallaksen; J. H. Stagge; J. P. M. Witte; R. P. Bartholomeus

Description: KWR Watercycle Research Institute, P.O. Box 1072, 3430 BB Nieuwegein, the Netherlands. Hydrological modeling frameworks require an accurate representation of evaporation fluxes for appropriate quantification of e.g. the soil moisture budget, droughts, recharge and groundwater processes. Many frameworks have used the concept of potential evaporation, often estimated for different vegetation classes by multiplying the evaporation from a reference surface ...

Witte, J. P. M., Runhaar, J., van Ek, R., van der Hoek, D. C. J., Bartholomeus, R. P., Batelaan, O., van Bodegom, P. M., Wassen, M. J., and van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.: An ecohydrological sketch of climate change impacts on water and natural ecosystems for the Netherlands: bridging the gap between science and society, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 3945–3957, doi:10.5194/hess-16-3945-2012, 2012.; Yamanouchi, T.: Earl...

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Imperfect Scaling in Distributions of Radar-derived Rainfall Field...

By: N. E. C. Verhoest; M. J. Van Den Berg; L. Delobbe

Description: Laboratory of Hydrology and Water Management, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, 9000 Ghent, Belgium. Fine-scale rainfall observations for modelling exercises are often not available, but rather coarser data derived from a variety of sources are used. Effectively using these data sources in models often requires the probability distribution of the data at the applicable scale. Although numerous models for scaling distributions exist, these are often ba...

Deidda, R.: Rainfall downscaling in a space-time multifractal framework, Water Resour. Res., 36, 1779–1794, 2000.; Davis, A., Marshak, A., Wiscombe, W., and Cahalan, R.: Multifractal characterizations of nonstationarity and intermittency in geophysical fields: Observed, retrieved, or simulated, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 8055–8072, 1994.; De Jongh, I. L. M., Verhoest, N. E. C., and De Troch, F. P.: Analysis of a 105-year time series of precipitation observed at Uccle, Belgium...

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Simulation of the Long-term Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Dutch ...

By: H. Kros; W. De Vries; B.-j. Groenenberg

Description: DLO Winand Staring Centre for Integrated Land, Soil and Water Research, P.O. Box 125, 6700 AC Wageningen, Netherlands.. Dynamics of C and N in forest soils in the Nutrient Cycling and Soil Acidification Model (NUCSAM) are described by the transformation and decomposition of three organic matter compartments, litter, fermented material and humic material. These three compartments are allocated to the morphological distinguishable L, F and H horizons of the or...

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The Benefit of High-resolution Operational Weather Forecasts for F...

By: S. Anquetin; J. Thielen; J. Younis

Description: Institute for Environment and Sustainability, European Commission DG Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy. In Mediterranean Europe, flash flooding is one of the most devastating hazards in terms of loss of human life and infrastructures. Over the last two decades, flash floods have caused damage costing a billion Euros in France alone. One of the problems of flash floods is that warning times are very short, leaving typically only a few hours for civil pr...

Anquetin S., Creutin, J. D., Delrieu, G., Ducrocq, V., Gaume, E., and Ruin, L.: Increasing the forecasting lead-time of Weather driven flash floods, Report on http://natural-hazards.jrc.it./downloads/public/2004report_FeasibilityStudyOnFlash floods.pdf, 2004.; Anquetin, S., Yates, E., Ducrocq, V., Samouillan, S., Chancibault, K., Gozzini, B., Pasi, F., Pasqui, M., Garcia, M., Martorell, M., Romero, R., Silvio, D., Accadia, C., Casaidi, M., Mariani, S., Ficca, G., and Che...

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Context and Aims : Volume 11, Issue 3 (27/04/2007)

By: C. G. Kilsby
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Estimation of Actual Evapotranspiration of Mediterranean Perennial...

By: C. Cammalleri; C. Agnese; F. Blanda; G. D'Urso; M. Minacapilli; G. Ciraolo; M. Iovino; G. Rallo; G. Provenzano; D. Pumo

Description: Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Tecnologie Agro-Forestali (ITAF), Università di Palermo, Italy. Actual evapotranspiration from typical Mediterranean crops has been assessed in a Sicilian study area by using surface energy balance (SEB) and soil-water balance models. Both modelling approaches use remotely sensed data to estimate evapotranspiration fluxes in a spatially distributed way. The first approach exploits visible (VIS), near-infrared (NIR) and therma...

Wesseling, J. G., Elbers, J. A., Kabat, P., and Van den Broek, B. J.: SWATRE: instructions for input. Internal note, Winand Staring Centre (alterra), Wageningen, The Netherlands. International Waterlogging and Salinity Research Institute, Lahore, Pakistan, 29 pp., 1991.; Allen, R. G., Pereira, L. S., Raes, D., and Smith, M.: Crop evapotranspiration. Guidelines for computing crop water requirements, FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper (56), Rome, Italy, 1998.; Anderson, M. ...

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The Dominant Role of Structure for Solute Transport in Soil: Exper...

By: I. Cousin; P. Bastian; O. Ippisch; H.-j. Vogel

Description: Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Heidelberg, Germany. A classical transport experiment was performed in a field plot of 2.5 m2 using the dye tracer brilliant blue. The measured tracer distribution demonstrates the dominant role of the heterogeneous soil structure for solute transport. As with many other published experiments, this evidences the need of considering the macroscopic structure of soil to predict flow and transport...

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