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Assessing Water Resources Adaptive Capacity to Climate Change Impa...

By: A. F. Hamlet

Description: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Washington, USA. Climate change impacts in Pacific Northwest Region of North America (PNW) are projected to include increasing temperatures and changes in the seasonality of precipitation (increasing precipitation in winter, decreasing precipitation in summer). Changes in precipitation are also spatially varying, with the northwestern parts of the region generally experiencing greater incr...

Whitely Binder, L. C. with contributions from Barcelos, J. K., Booth, D. B., Darzen, M., McGuire Elsner, M., Fenske, R., Graham, T. F., Hamlet, A. F., Hodges-Howell, J., Huppert, D. D., Jackson, J. E., Karr, C., Keys, P. W., Littell, J. S., Mantua, N., Marlow, J., McKenzie, D., Robinson-Dorn, M., Rosenberg, E. A., Stöckle, C. O., and Vano, J. A.: Preparing for Climate Change in Washington State, Climate Change, 102(1–2), 351–376,

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Physically-based Modeling of Topographic Effects on Spatial Evapot...

By: A. Bárdossy; J. Li; Y. Jiang; M. Liu

Description: State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China. In this paper, simulations with the Soil Water Atmosphere Plant (SWAP) model are performed to quantify the spatial variability of both potential and actual evapotranspiration (ET), and soil moisture content (SMC) caused by topography-induced spatial wind and radiation differences. To obtain the spatially distributed ET/SMC patterns, the field ...

Beven, K. J. and Kirkby, M. J.: A physically based , variable contributing area model of basin hydrology, Hydrolog. Sci. Bull., 24, 43–69, 1979.; Andersen, J., Sandholt, I., Jensen, K. H., Refsgaard, J. C., and Gupta, H.: Perspectives in using a remotely sensed dryness index in distributed hydrological models at the river-basin scale, Hydrol. Process., 2987, 2973–2987, doi:10.1002/hyp.1080, 2002.; Baklanov, A., Fay, B., Kami...

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Groundwater Use for Irrigation – a Global Inventory : Volume 14, I...

By: J. Burke; J. M. Faures; P. Döll; K. Frenken; J. Hoogeveen; S. Siebert; F. T. Portmann

Description: Institute of Crop Science and Resource Conservation, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany. Irrigation is the most important water use sector accounting for about 70% of the global freshwater withdrawals and 90% of consumptive water uses. While the extent of irrigation and related water uses are reported in statistical databases or estimated by model simulations, information on the source of irrigation water is scarce and very scattered. Here we present a n...

Ahmed, I. and Umar, R.: Groundwater flow modelling of Yamuna-Krishni interstream, a part of central Ganga Plain Uttar Pradesh, J. Earth Syst. Sci., 118(5), 507–523, 2009.; Allen, R. G., Pereira, L. S., Raes, D., and Smith, M.: Crop evapotranspiration – guidelines for computing crop water requirements, FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 56, FAO, Rome, Italy, 1998.; Bos, M. G. and Nugteren, J.: On irrigation efficiencies, 4th edition, International Institute for Land Reclam...

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Detection of Global Runoff Changes: Results from Observations and ...

By: B. Decharme; L. Marchand; A. Ribes; R. Alkama

Description: CNRM/GAME, Météo-France, CNRS – UMR3589, Toulouse, France. This paper assesses the detectability of changes in global streamflow. First, a statistical detection method is applied to observed (no missing data) and reconstructed (gaps are filled in order to cover a larger area) streamflow. Observations show no change over the 1958–1992 period. Further, extension to 2004 over the same catchment areas using reconstructed data does not provide evidence of...

Adam, J. C. and Lettenmaier, D. P.: Application of new precipitation and reconstructed streamflow products to streamflow trend attribution in northern Eurasia, J. Climate, 21, 1807–1828, doi:10.1175/2007JCLI1535.1, 2008.; Adam J. C., Haddeland, I., Su, F., and Lettenmaier, D. P.: Simulation of reservoir influences on annual and seasonal streamflow changes for the Lena, Yenisei and Ob rivers, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D241...

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Towards Improved Instrumentation for Assessing River-groundwater I...

By: T. Vogt; M. Schirmer; N. Pasquale; P. Schneider; P. Perona; N. Linde; J. A. Doetsch; O. A. Cirpka

Description: Eawag – Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Überlandstr. 133, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland. River restoration projects have been launched over the last two decades to improve the ecological status and water quality of regulated rivers. As most restored rivers are not monitored at all, it is difficult to predict consequences of restoration projects or analyze why restorations fail or are successful. It is thus necessary to implement ...

BAFU: Hydrologischer Atlas der Schweiz, Bundeamt für Umwelt, Bern, Switzerland, 2010.; Barrenetxea, G., Ingelrest, F., Schaefer, G., and Vetterli, M.: The Hitchhiker's Guide to Successful Wireless Sensor Network Deployments, Sensys'08: Proceedings of the 6th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, 43–56, 2008.; Battin, T. J. and Sengschmitt, D.: Linking sediment biofilms, hydrodynamics, and river bed clogging: evidence from a large river, Microb. Ecol., 37, ...

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Modelling Runoff at the Plot Scale Taking Into Account Rainfall Pa...

By: J.-b. Charlier; R. Moussa; P. Cattan; Y.-m. Cabidoche; M. Voltz

Description: CIRAD, UPR Systèmes bananes et ananas, Capesterre-Belle-Eau, Guadeloupe, 97130, France. Rainfall partitioning by vegetation modifies the intensity of rainwater reaching the ground, which affects runoff generation. Incident rainfall is intercepted by the plant canopy and then redistributed into throughfall and stemflow. Rainfall intensities at the soil surface are therefore not spatially uniform, generating local variations of runoff production that are ...

Abbott, M. B., Bathurst, J. C., Cunge, J. A., O'Connell, P. E. and Rasmussen, J.: An introduction to the European Hydrological System – Systeme Hydrologique Europeen, SHE, 2: Structure of a physically-based, distributed modelling system, J. Hydrol., 87(1–2), 61–77, 1986.; Ajayi, A. E., Van de Giesen, N., and Vlek, P.: A numerical model for simulating Hortonian overland flow on tropical hillslopes with vegetation elements, Hydrol. Process., 22(8), 1107–1118, 2008.; Belk, ...

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Modelling Acidification, Recovery and Target Loads for Headwater C...

By: P. J. Dillon; S. A. Watmough; J. Aherne; C. J. Whitfield

Description: Watershed Ecosystems, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada. The response of twenty acid-sensitive headwater catchments in Nova Scotia to acidic deposition was investigated for the period 1850–2100 using a dynamic hydrochemical model (MAGIC: Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments). To ensure robust model simulation, MAGIC was calibrated to the long-term chemical trend in annual lake observations (13–20 years). Model simulations in...

Aherne, J. and Farrell, E. P.: Deposition of sulphur, nitrogen and acidity in precipitation over Ireland: chemistry, spatial variation and long-term trends, Atmos. Environ., 36(8), 1379–1389, 2002.; Aherne, J., Dillon, P. J., and Cosby, B. J.: Acidification and recovery of aquatic ecosystems in south central Ontario, Canada: regional application of the MAGIC model, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 7, 561–573, 2003.; Aherne, J., Larssen, T., Dillon, P. J., and Cosby, B. J.: Effe...

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A View of Water Quality from the Plynlimon Watershed : Volume 1, I...

By: C. Neal

Description: Institute of Hydrology, Maclean Building, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, UK.. A summary of hydrochemical research in the Plynlimon catchments from 1983 to the present is related to identifying water flow pathways within catchments and the modelling of soil and stream water acidification. The study reveals a highly heterogeneous system that barely conforms with current understanding of hydrology and acidification theory. The role of hydrochemical mixing ...

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Analysis of Landslide Triggering Conditions in the Sarno Area Usin...

By: G. Capparelli; P. Versace

Description: Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informatica e Sistemistica, Università della Calabria, Via P. Bucci, 41C, Arcavacata di Rende, CS, Italy. Rainfall is recognized as a major precursor of many types of slope movements. The technical literature reports both study cases and models of landslides induced by rainfall. Subsurface hydrology has a dominant role since changes in the soil water content significantly affect the soil shear strength. The analytical approac...

Cascini, L., Cuomo, S., and Guida, D.:Typical source areas of May 1998 flow-like mass movements in the Campania region, Southern Italy, Eng. Geol., 96, 107–125, 2008.; Arnone, E., Noto, L. V., Lepore, C., and Bras, R. L.: Physically-based and distributed approach to analyze rainfall-triggered landslides at watershed scale, Geomorphology, 133, 121–131, doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2011.03.019, 2011.; Baum, R. L., Sava...

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Predicting Long-term Recovery of a Strongly Acidified Stream Using...

By: J. Horecký; E. Stuchlík; J. Kopáček; D. W. Hardekopf

Description: Institute for Environmental Studies, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Benátská 2, 12801, Prague 2, Czech Republic. Two branches forming the headwaters of a stream in the Czech Republic were studied. Both streams have similar catchment characteristics and historical deposition; however one is rain-fed and strongly affected by acid atmospheric deposition, the other spring-fed and only moderately acidified. The MAGIC model was used to recon...

Braukmann, U.: Stream acidification in South Germany – chemical and biological assessment methods and trends, Aquat. Ecol., 35, 207–232, 2001.; \vCáka, J.: St\vrední Brdy – krajina neznámá, Mladá fronta, Praha, 159 pp., 1998.; Cosby, B. J., Ferrier, R. C., Jenkins, A., and Wright, R. F.: Modelling the effects of acid deposition: refinements, adjustments and inclusion of nitrogen dynamics in the MAGIC model, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 5, 499–518, 2001.; Driscoll, C T.: A p...

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Modeling Root Reinforcement Using Root-failure Weibull Survival Fu...

By: M. Schwarz; F. Giadrossich; D. Cohen

Description: Bern University of Applied Sciences (BFH), Länggasse 85, 3052 Zollikofen, Switzerland. Root networks contribute to slope stability through complicated interactions that include mechanical compression and tension. Due to the spatial heterogeneity of root distribution and the dynamic of root turnover, the quantification of root reinforcement on steep slope is challenging and consequently the calculation of slope stability as well. Although ...

Ammann, M., Böll, A., Rickli, C., Speck, T., and Holdenrieder, O.: Significance of tree root decomposition for shallow landslides, For. Snow Landsc. Res., 82, 79–94, 2009.; Bischetti, G. B., Chiaradia, E. A., Simonato, T., Speziali, B., Vitali, B., Vullo, P., and Zocco, A.: Root strength and root area ratio of forest species in Lombardy (Northern Italy), Plant Soil, 278, 11–22, 2005.; Cohen, D., Schwarz, M., and Or, D.: An analytical fiber bundle model for pullout mechan...

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Observed Drought and Wetness Trends in Europe: an Update : Volume ...

By: K. Fraedrich; A. Sutera; I. Bordi

Description: Department of Physics, University of Rome La Sapienza, Italy. Linear and nonlinear trends of drought and wetness are analysed in terms of the gridded Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) determined from monthly precipitation in Europe (NCEP/NCAR). In characterizing the meteorological and hydrological aspects, the index is computed on a seasonal and on a bi-annual time scale. Two datasets are compared: one from 1949 to 1997 and the other one includes t...

Wilhite, D. A.: Combating Drought through Preparedness, Nat. Resour. Forum, 26, 275–285, 2002.; Blender, R. and Fraedrich, K.: Long term memory of the hydrological cycle and river runoffs in China in a high resolution climate model, Int. J. Climatol., 26, 1547–1565, 2006.; Bordi, I. and Sutera, A.: Fifty years of precipitation: some spatially remote teleconnnections, Water Resour. Manag., 15, 247–280, 2001.; Bordi, I. and Sutera, A.: An analysis of drought in Italy in th...

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Taxation Records as a Source of Information for the Study of Histo...

By: Z. Stachoň; L. Řezníčková; H. Valášek; K. Chromá; L. Dolák; R. Brázdil; E. Soukalová; P. Dobrovolný

Description: Institute of Geography, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic. Since the second half of the 17th century, tax relief has been available to farmers and landowners to offset flood damage to property (buildings) and land (fields, meadows, pastures, gardens) in South Moravia, Czech Republic. Historically, the written applications for this were supported by a relatively efficient bureaucratic process that left a clear data trail of documentation, prese...

Barriendos, M. and Coeur, D.: Flood data reconstruction in historical times from non-instrumental sources in Spain and France, in: Systematic, Palaeoflood and Historical Data for the Improvement of Flood Risk Estimation. Methodological Guidelines, edited by: Benito, G. and Thorndycraft, V. R., Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales, Madrid, Spain, 29–42, 2004.; Barriendos, M. and Rodrigo, F. S.: Study of historical flood events on Spanish rivers using documentary data, Hydr...

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A Rainfall Design Method for Spatial Flood Risk Assessment: Consid...

By: X. Jiang; H. Tatano

Description: Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011, Japan. Information about the spatial distribution of flood risk is important for integrated urban flood risk management. Focusing on urban areas, spatial flood risk assessment must reflect all risk information derived from multiple flood sources: rivers, drainage, coastal flooding etc. that may affect the area. However, conventional flood risk assessment deals w...

Aas, K. and Berg, D.: Models for construction of multivariate dependence – a comparison study, Eur. J. Financ., 15, 639–659, 2009.; Aas, K., Czado, C., and Frigessi, A.: Pair-copula constructions of multiple dependence, Insur. Math. Econ., 44, 182–198, 2009.; Bouyé, E., Durrleman, V., Nikeghbali, A., Riboulet, G., and Roncalli, T.: Copulas for finance – a reading guide and some applications, SSRN Working Paper Series, available at: SSRN 1032533, 2000.; Choro\'s, B., Ibra...

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The Response of Iberian Rivers to the North Atlantic Oscillation :...

By: J. C. González-hidalgo; J. I. López-moreno; S. M. Vicente-serrano; E. Morán-tejeda; J. Lorenzo-lacruz

Description: Instituto Pirenaico de Ecología, CSIC (Spanish Research Council), Campus de Aula Dei, P.O. Box 202, Zaragoza 50080, Spain. In this study we analyzed the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on the streamflow in 187 sub-basins of the Iberian Peninsula. Monthly and one-month lagged correlations were conducted to assess the spatio-temporal extent of the NAO influence on Iberian river discharges. Analysis of the persistence of the winter NAO thr...

Esteban-Parra, M. J., Rodrigo, F. S., and Castro-Díez, Y.: Spatial and temporal patterns of precipitation in Spain for the period 1880–1992, Int. J. Climatol., 18, 1557–1574, 1998.; Folland, C. K., Knight, J., Linderholm, H. W., Fereday, D., Ineson, S., and Hurrel, J. W.: The Summer North Atlantic Oscillation: Past, Present, and Future, J. Climate, 22, 1082–1103, 2008.; Gámiz-Fortis, S. R., Esteban-Parra, M. J., Trigo, R. M., and Castro-Díez, Y.: Potential predictability...

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Multi-model Data Fusion for River Flow Forecasting: an Evaluation ...

By: L. See; R. J. Abrahart

Description: School of Geography, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD. This paper evaluates six published data fusion strategies for hydrological forecasting based on two contrasting catchments: the River Ouse and the Upper River Wye. The input level and discharge estimates for each river comprised a mixed set of single model forecasts. Data fusion was performed using: arithmetic-averaging, a probabilistic method in which the best model from the last time s...

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Hydrological Change: Reaping Prosperity and Pain in Australia : Vo...

By: F. X. Dunin; O. T. Denmead; C. J. Smith

Description: The adage: “There is no such thing as a free lunch”, is relevant to land-use hydrology in Australia. Changes in land use to achieve greater productivity of food and fibre may have an adverse effect on the water balance and hence on the natural resource capital of a catchment. An altered regime of catchment outflow accompanies those land-use changes which, together with land degradation, impairs available water resources in quantity and quality and thr...

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Recovery from Acidification of Lakes in Finland, Norway and Sweden...

By: T. Andersen; A. Wilander; B. L. Skjelkvåle; J. Mannio

Description: Norwegian Institute for Water Research, PB 173 Kjelsås, N-0411 Oslo, Norway. Sulphate deposition has decreased by about 60% in the Nordic countries since the early 1980s. Nitrogen deposition has been roughly constant during the past 20 years, with only a minor decrease in the late 1990s. The resulting changes in the chemistry of small lakes have been followed by national monitoring programmes initiated in the 1980s in Finland (163 lakes), Norway (100 l...

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Scs-cn Parameter Determination Using Rainfall-runoff Data in Heter...

By: J. D. Valiantzas; K. X. Soulis

Description: Agricultural University of Athens, Department of Natural Resources Management and Agricultural Engineering, Division of Water Resources Management, Athens, Greece. The Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) approach is widely used as a simple method for predicting direct runoff volume for a given rainfall event. The CN parameter values corresponding to various soil, land cover, and land management conditions can be selected from tables, but it is...

Abon, C. C., David, C. P. C., and Pellejera, N. E. B.: Reconstructing the Tropical Storm Ketsana flood event in Marikina River, Philippines, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 1283–1289, doi:10.5194/hess-15-1283-2011, 2011.; Adornado, H. A. and Yoshida, M.: GIS-based watershed analysis and surface run-off estimation using curve number ({CN}) value, J. Environ. Hydrol., 18, 1–10, 2010.; Baltas, E. A., Dervos, N. A., and M...

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A Spatial Neural Fuzzy Network for Estimating Pan Evaporation at U...

By: F.-j. Chang; Y.-m. Chiang; C.-h. Chung

Description: Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC. Evaporation is an essential reference to the management of water resources. In this study, a hybrid model that integrates a spatial neural fuzzy network with the kringing method is developed to estimate pan evaporation at ungauged sites. The adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) can extract the nonlinear relationship of observations,...

Allen, R. G., Pereira, S. L., Raes, D., and Smith, M.: Crop evapotranspiration, Guidelines for computing crop water requirements, Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 56, FAO, Rome, 1998.; Antar, M. A., Elassiouti, I., and Allam, M. N.: Rainfall-runoff modelling using artificial neural networks technique: a Blue Nile catchment case study, Hydrol. Process., 20, 1201–1216, 2006.; Chang, F.-J. and Chang, Y.-T.: Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system for prediction of water leve...

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