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Effects of Snow Ratio on Annual Runoff Within the Budyko Framework...

By: G. Ni; D. Yang; D. Zhang; S. Hu; Z. Cong

Description: State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 10084, China. A warmer climate may lead to less precipitation falling as snow in cold seasons. Such a switch in the state of precipitation not only alters temporal distribution of intra-annual runoff but also tends to yield less total annual runoff. Long-term water balance for 282 catchments across China is investigated, showing that a ...

Allamano, P., Claps, P., and Laio, F.: Global warming increases flood risk in mountainous areas, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L24404, doi:10.1029/2009GL041395, 2009.; Allen, R. G., Pereira, L. S., Raes, D., and Smith, M.: Crop evapotranspiration-Guidelines for computing crop water requirements, FAO Irrigation and drainage paper 56, FAO, Rome, Italy, 1998.; Anderson, E. A.: Development and testing of snow pack energy balance ...

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Improving the Rainfall Rate Estimation in the Midstream of the Hei...

By: T. Zhang; Z. Wu; J. Li; R. Chu; G. Zhao; J. Shen

Description: Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000, China. During the intensive observation period of the Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (WATER), a total of 1074 raindrop size distribution were measured by the Parsivel disdrometer, the latest state-of-the-art optical laser instrument. Because of the limited observation data in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the modelling behaviou...

Atlas, D., Ulbrich, C. W., and Meneghini, R.: The multi-parameter remote measurement of rainfall, Radio Sci., 19, 3–22, 1984.; Atlas, D., Ulbrich, C. W., and Meneghini, R.: The multi-parameter remote measurement of rainfall, Radio Sci., 19, 3–22, 1984.; Andsager, K., Beard, K. V., and Laird, N. F.: Laboratory measurements of axis ratios for large drops, J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 2673–2683, 1999.; Battan, L. J.: Radar observation of the atmosphere, Univ. Chicago Press, 324 pp.,...

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Estimates of Future Discharges of the River Rhine Using Two Scenar...

By: W. Van Deursen; A. Buishand; G. Lenderink

Description: Simulations with a hydrological model for the river Rhine for the present (1960–1989) and a projected future (2070–2099) climate are discussed. The hydrological model (RhineFlow) is driven by meteorological data from a 90-years (ensemble of three 30-years) simulation with the HadRM3H regional climate model for both present-day and future climate (A2 emission scenario). Simulation of present-day discharges is realistic provided that (1) the HadRM3H temperatur...

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Estimating Strategies for Multiparameter Multivariate Extreme Valu...

By: G. Salvadori; C. De Michele

Description: Dipartimento di Matematica, Università del Salento, Provinciale Lecce-Arnesano, P.O. Box 193, 73100 Lecce, Italy. Multivariate Extreme Value models are a fundamental tool in order to assess potentially dangerous events. Exploiting recent theoretical developments in the theory of Copulas, new multiparameter models can be easily constructed. In this paper we suggest several strategies in order to estimate the parameters of the selected copula, acco...

Joe, H.: Multivariate concordance, J. Multivariate Anal., 35, 12–30, 1990.; Black, A. R. and Fadipe, D.: Use of historic water level records for re-assessing flood frequency: case study of the Spey catchment, Water Environ. J., 23, 23–31, 2009.; Butler, A., Heffernan, J. E., Tawn, J. A., and Flather, R. A.: Trend estimation in extremes of synthetic North Sea surges, J. Roy. Stat. Soc.-App., 56, 395–414, 2007.; Cap{é}ra{à}, P., Foug{è}res, A.-L., and Genest, C.: A stochas...

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Fluorescent Particle Tracers for Surface Flow Measurements: a Proo...

By: A. Petroselli; M. C. Rulli; S. Grimaldi; F. Tauro; M. Porfiri

Description: Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Polytechnic Institute of New York University, Brooklyn, NY 11201, USA. In this paper, a proof of concept experiment is conducted to assess the feasibility of tracing overland flow on a semi-natural hillslope plot via a novel fluorescent particle tracer. Runoff on the experimental plot is artificially simulated by using a custom-built rainfall system. Experiments are performed by using beads of diameters...

Atlas, D., Srivastava, R. C., and Sekhon, R. S.: Doppler radar characteristics of precipitation at vertical incidence, Rev. Geophys. Space Phys., 11, 1–35, 1973.; Berger, C., Schulze, M., Rieke-Zapp, D., and Schlunegger, F.: Rill development and soil erosion: a laboratory study of slope and rainfall intensity, Earth Surf. Proc. Land., 35, 1456–1467, 2010. \clearpage; Berman, E. S. F., Gupta, M., Gabrielli, C., Garland, T., and McDonnell, J. J.: High-frequency field-deplo...

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An Integrated Simulation Method for Flash-flood Risk Assessment: 2...

By: R. Rosso; M.C. Rulli

Description: Dipartimento di Ingegneria Idraulica, Ambientale, Infrastrutture Viarie e Rilevamento, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. da Vinci, 32 I-20133 Milano, Italy. The influence of land use changes on flood occurrence and severity in the Bisagno River (Thyrrenian Liguria, N.W. Italy is investigated using a Monte Carlo simulation approach (Rulli and Rosso, 2002). High resolution land-use maps for the area were reconstructed and scenario simulations were made for ...

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Downscaling Rainfields in Space and Time, Using the String of Bead...

By: A. N. Clothier; G. G. S. Pegram

Description: Civil Engineering, University of Natal, Durban, 4041,South Africa. The String of Beads model is a space-time model of rainfields measured by weather radar. It is here driven by two auto-regressive time series models, one at the image scale, the other at the pixel scale, to model the temporal correlation structure of the wet-period process. The marginal distribution of the pixel scale intensities on a given radar-rainfall image is described by a log-nor...

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Technical Note: Towards a Continuous Classification of Climate Usi...

By: A. J. Teuling

Description: Hydrology and Quantitative Water Management Group, Wageningen University, The Netherlands. Climate is often defined in terms of discrete classes. Here I use bivariate colour mapping to show that the global distribution of Köppen-Geiger climate classes can largely be reproduced by combining the simple means of two key states of the climate system (i.e., air temperature and relative humidity). This allows for a classification that is not only continuous in...

Albani, M., Medvigy, D., Hurtt, G. C., and Moorcroft, P. R.: The contributions of land-use change, CO2 fertilization, and climate variability to the Eastern US carbon sink, Glob. Change Biol. 12(12), 2370–2390, 2006.; Cannon, A. J.: Köppen versus the computer: an objective comparison between the K�ppen-Geiger climate classification and a multivariate regression tree, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 8, 2345–2372,

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Does Discharge Time Source Correspond to Its Geographic Source in ...

By: Y. Yokoo

Description: Faculty of Symbiotic Systems Science, Fukushima University, 1 Kanayagawa, Fukushima city, Fukushima 960-1296, Japan. This study compared a time source hydrograph separation method to a geographic source separation method, to assess if the two methods produced similar results. The time source separation of a hydrograph was performed using a numerical filter method and the geographic source separation was performed using an end-member mixing analysis ...

Barnes, B. S.: Discussion of analysis of run-off characteristics by O. M. Meyer, Trans. Am. Soc. Civ. Eng., 105, 104–106, 1940.; Bergström, S. and Forsman, A.: Development of a conceptual deterministic rainfall–runoff model, Nord. Hydrol., 4, 147–170, doi:10.2166/nh.1973.012, 1973.; Berman, E. S. F., Gupta, M., Gabrielli, C., Garland, T., and McDonnell, J. J.: High-frequency field-deployable isotope analyzer for hydrologi...

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Influences on Flood Frequency Distributions in Irish River Catchme...

By: M. Bruen; J. J. O'Sullivan; S. Ahilan

Description: School of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland. This study explores influences on flood frequency distributions in Irish rivers. A Generalised Extreme Value (GEV) type I distribution is recommended in Ireland for estimating flood quantiles in a single site flood frequency analysis. This paper presents the findings of an investigation that identified the GEV statistical distributions that best fit the...

Acreman, M. C. and Sinclair, C. D.: Classification of drainage basin according to their physical characteristics; an application for flood frequency analysis in Scotland, J. Hydrol., 84, 365–380, 1986.; Ahmad, M. I., Sinclair, C. D., and Spurr, B. D.: Assessment of Flood Frequency Models Using Empirical Distribution Function Statistics, Water Resour. Res., 24, 1323–1328, 1988.; Archer, D.: Flood wave attenuation due to channel and floodplain storage and effects on flood ...

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A Regional Application of the Magic Model in Wales: Calibration an...

By: A. Jenkins; C. E. M. Sefton

Description: Institute of Hydrology, Wallingford, OX10 8BB, UK.. A survey and resurvey of 77 headwater streams in Wales provides an opportunity for assessing changes in streamwater chemistry in the region. The Model of Acidification of Groundwater In Catchment (MAGIC) has been calibrated to the second of two surveys, taken in 1994-1995, using a Monte-Carlo methodology. The first survey, 1983-1984, provides a basis for model validation. The model simulates a signific...

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Observed Drought and Wetness Trends in Europe: an Update : Volume ...

By: K. Fraedrich; A. Sutera; I. Bordi

Description: Department of Physics, University of Rome La Sapienza, Italy. Linear and nonlinear trends of drought and wetness are analysed in terms of the gridded Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) determined from monthly precipitation in Europe (NCEP/NCAR). In characterizing the meteorological and hydrological aspects, the index is computed on a seasonal and on a bi-annual time scale. Two datasets are compared: one from 1949 to 1997 and the other one includes t...

Wilhite, D. A.: Combating Drought through Preparedness, Nat. Resour. Forum, 26, 275–285, 2002.; Blender, R. and Fraedrich, K.: Long term memory of the hydrological cycle and river runoffs in China in a high resolution climate model, Int. J. Climatol., 26, 1547–1565, 2006.; Bordi, I. and Sutera, A.: Fifty years of precipitation: some spatially remote teleconnnections, Water Resour. Manag., 15, 247–280, 2001.; Bordi, I. and Sutera, A.: An analysis of drought in Italy in th...

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Statistical Atmospheric Downscaling for Rainfall Estimation in Kyu...

By: K. Jinno; O. Morita; K. Nishiyama; J. Olsson; A. Kawamura; N. Koreeda; C. Bertacchi Uvo; T. Nakashima

Description: Department of Water Resources Engineering, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund, Sweden.. The present paper develops linear regression models based on singular value decomposition (SVD) with the aim of downscaling atmospheric variables statistically to estimate average rainfall in the Chikugo River Basin, Kyushu Island, southern Japan, on a 12-hour basis. Models were designed to take only significantly correlated areas into account in the downscaling ...

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River Flow Forecasting with Artificial Neural Networks Using Satel...

By: G. A. Corzo; S. J. Van Andel; A. Jonoski; M. K. Akhtar

Description: UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Dept. of Hydroinformatics and Knowledge management, P.O. Box 3015, 2601 Delft, The Netherlands. This paper explores the use of flow length and travel time as a pre-processing step for incorporating spatial precipitation information into Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models used for river flow forecasting. Spatially distributed precipitation is commonly required when modelling large basins, and it is usually inc...

Abrahart, R. J. and See, L.: Comparing neural network and autoregressive moving average techniques for the provision of continous river flow forecasts in two contrasting catchments, Hydrol. Process., 14, 2157–2172, 2000.; Abrahart, R. J., Heppenstall, A. J., and See, L. M.: Timing error correction procedure applied to neural network rainfall-runoff modelling, Hydrolog. Sci. J., 52, 414–431, 2007.; %Akhtar, M.: Flood Forecasting for Bangladesh with Satellite Data, UNESCO-...

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Reconnoitering the Effect of Shallow Groundwater on Land Surface T...

By: G. N. Flerchinger; Z. Su; F. Alkhaier

Description: Department of water resources, Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands. The possibility of observing shallow groundwater depth and areal extent using satellite measurements can support groundwater models and vast irrigation systems management. Besides, these measurements help bringing groundwater effect on surface energy balance within land surface models and climate studies. To inspect th...

Alkhaier, F.: Soil Salinity Detection Using Satellite Remote Sensing, M.Sc. thesis, International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation, The Netherlands, 2003.; Alkhaier, F., Su, Z., and Flerchinger, G. N.: The effect of shallow groundwater on land surface temperature and surface energy balance under the conditions of bare soil: Modeling and Description, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sc. Discuss., 8, 1–32, 2011.; Badola, A.: Validation of Surface Energy Balan...

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A Multi-level Approach to Flood Frequency Regionalisation : Volume...

By: R. Rosso; C. De Michele

Description: DIIAR, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci, 32, I-20133 Milano MI, Italy. A multi-level approach to flood frequency regionalisation is given. Based on observed flood data, it combines physical and statistical criteria to cluster homogeneous groups in a geographical area. Seasonality analysis helps identify catchments with a common flood generation mechanism. Scale invariance of annual maximum flood, as parameterised by basin area, is used to...

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Parameterization of a Coupled Co2 and H2O Gas Exchange Model at th...

By: Y. H. Su; X. Li; C. L. Huang; G. F. Zhu

Description: Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China. The following two models were combined to simultaneously predict CO2 and H2O gas exchange at the leaf scale of Populus euphratica: a Farquhar et al. type biochemical sub-model of photosynthesis (Farquhar et al., 1980) and a Ball et al. type stomatal conductance sub-model (Ball et al., 1987). The photosyn...

Baldocchi, D. and Meyers, T.: On using eco-physiological, micrometeorological and biogeochemical theory to evaluate carbon dioxide, water vapor and trace gas fluxes over vegetation: a perspective, Agr. Forest Meteorol., 90, 1–25, 1998.; Barth, N. H.: Oceanographic experiment design II: Genetic algorithms, J. Amtos. Oceanic. Technol., 9, 434–443, 1992.; Ball, J. T., Woodrow, I. E., and Berry, J. A.: A model predicting stomatal conductance and its contribution to the contr...

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Time Scales of Regional Circulation of Saline Fluids in Continenta...

By: C. Le Carlier; A. Armandine Les Landes; P. Davy; V. Vergnaud; L. Aquilina

Description: Geosciences Rennes (CNRS – UMR 6118), University of Rennes 1, Bâtiment 14B, Campus Beaulieu, 263 Avenue du Général Leclerc, 35042 Rennes, France. In recent decades, saline fluids have been sampled worldwide at great depths in continental basements. Although some of them have been attributed to marine transgressions the mechanisms allowing their circulation is not understood. In this paper, we describe the horizontal and vertical distribution ...

Aquilina, L., Pauwels, H., Genter, A., and Fouillac, C.: Water-rock interaction processes in the Triassic sandstone and the granitic basement of the Rhine Graben: geochemical investigation of a geothermal reservoir, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 61, 4281–4295, doi:10.1016/S0016-7037(97)00243-3, 1997.; Aquilina, L., Armandine Les Landes, A., Ayraud-Vergnaud, V., Labasque, T., Roques, C., Davy, P., Pauwels, H., and Pe...

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Identifying a Parameterisation of the Soil Water Retention Curve f...

By: K. Roth; J. S. Buchner; P. Klenk; A. Dagenbach

Description: Institute of Environmental Physics, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany. We show the potential of on-ground Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) to identify the parameterisation of the soil water retention curve, i.e. its functional form, with a semi-quantitative analysis based on numerical simulations of the radar signal. An imbibition and drainage experiment has been conducted at the ASSESS-GPR site to establish a fluctuating water table, while an on-...

Iden, S., Durner, W., and Schelle, H.: Combined transient method for determining soil hydraulic properties in a wide pressure head range, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 75, 1681–1693, 2011.; Ippisch, O., Vogel, H., and Bastian, P.: Validity limits for the van Genuchten-Mualem model and implications for parameter estimation and numerical simulation, Adv. Water Resour., 29, 1780–1789, 2006.; Lambot, S., Rhebergen, J., Van den Bosch, I., Slob, E., and Vanclooster, M.: Measuring the...

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Assessment of Recovery of European Surface Waters from Acidificati...

By: R. F. Wright; W. Schöpp; R. C. Ferrier; H. Barth; A. Jenkins

Description: Macaulay Institute, Aberdeen, Scotland AB15 8QH, UK. No Abstract.

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