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A Generic System Dynamics Model for Simulating and Evaluating the ...

By: S. Carey; N. Keshta; A. Elshorbagy

Description: Centre for Advanced Numerical Simulation (CANSIM), Dept. of Civil and Geological Engineering, University of
Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5A9, Canada. A generic system dynamics watershed (GSDW) model is developed and applied to five reconstructed watersheds located in the Athabasca mining basin, Alberta, Canada, and one natural watershed (boreal forest) located in Saskatchewan, Canada, to simulate various hydrological processes in reconstructed and...

Arnold, J. G. and Fohrer, N.: SWAT2000: Current capabilities and research opportunities in applied watershed modeling, Hydrol. Process., 19(3), 563–572, 2005.; Arnold, J. G., Potter, K. N., King, K. W., and Allen, P. M.: Estimation of soil cracking and the effect on surface runoff in a Texas Blackland Prairie watershed, Hydrol. Process. 19(3), 589–603, 2005.; Arnold, J. G., Srinivasan, R., Muttiah, R. S., and Williams, J. R.: Large-area hydrologic modeling and assessment...

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Just Two Moments! a Cautionary Note Against Use of High-order Mome...

By: D. Koutsoyiannis; S. M. Papalexiou; E. Volpi; F. Lombardo

Description: Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Via Vito Volterra, 62–00146 Rome, Italy. The need of understanding and modelling the space-time variability of natural processes in hydrological sciences produced a large body of literature over the last thirty years. In this context, multifractal framework provides parsimonious models which can be applied to a wide scale range of hydrological processes, and are based on the empirical det...

Bak, P., Tang, C., and Wiesenfeld, K.: Self-organized criticality: an explanation of 1/f noise, Phys. Rev. Lett., 59, 381–384, 1987.; Forbes, C., Evans, M., Hastings, N., and Peacock, B.: Statistical Distributions, 4th Edn., John Wiley & Sons, 212 pp., 2011.; El Adlouni, S., Bobée, B., and Ouarda, T. B. M. J.: On the tails of extreme event distributions in hydrology, J. Hydrol., 355, 16–33, 2008.; Fraedrich, K. and Larnder, C.: Scaling regimes of composite rainfall time ...

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Dynamic Neural Networks for Real-time Water Level Predictions of S...

By: Meng-jung Tsai; Li-chiu Chang; Yen-ming Chiang; Fi-john Chang; Yi-fung Wang

Description: Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan. In this research, we propose recurrent neural networks (RNNs) to build a relationship between rainfalls and water level patterns of an urban sewerage system based on historical torrential rain/storm events. The RNN allows signals to propagate in both forward and backward directions, which offers the network dynamic memories. Besides, the information at the cur...

Ackerman, D. and Schiff, K.: Modeling storm water mass emissions to the southern California bight, J. Environ. Eng-Asce, 129(4), 308–317, 2003.; Akhtar, M. K., Corzo, G. A., van Andel, S. J., and Jonoski, A.: River flow forecasting with artificial neural networks using satellite observed precipitation pre-processed with flow length and travel time information: case study of the Ganges river basin, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 13, 1607–1618, doi:10.5194/hess-13-1607-2009, 20...

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Development of Idf-curves for Tropical India by Random Cascade Mod...

By: V. Jothiprakash; L. Bengtsson; J. Olsson; A. Rana

Description: Department of Water Resources Engineering, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, Lund, 22100, Sweden. Efficient design of urban drainage systems is based on statistical analysis of past rainfall events at fine time scales. However, fine time scale rainfall data are usually lacking in many parts of the world. A possible way forward is to develop methods to derive fine time scale rain intensities from daily observations. This paper applied cascade-based disaggreg...

Bo, Z. Q., Islam, S., and Eltahir, E. A. B.: Aggregation-Disaggregation Properties of a Stochastic Rainfall Model, Water Resour. Res., 30, 3423–3435, 1994.; Connolly, R. D., Schirmer, J., and Dunn, P. K.: A daily rainfall disaggregation model, Agr. Forest Meteorol., 92, 105–117, 1998.; Cowpertwait, P. S. P., O'Connell, P. E., Metcalfe, A. V., and Mawdsley, J. A.: Stochastic point process modelling of rainfall. II. Regionalisation and disaggregation, J. Hydrol., 175, 47–6...

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Spatial Patterns in Timing of the Diurnal Temperature Cycle : Volu...

By: C. Hain; T. R. H. Holmes; W. T. Crow

Description: USDA-ARS Hydrology and Remote Sensing Lab, Beltsville, MD, USA. This paper investigates the structural difference in timing of the diurnal temperature cycle (DTC) over land resulting from choice of measuring device or model framework. It is shown that the timing can be reliably estimated from temporally sparse observations acquired from a constellation of low Earth-orbiting satellites given record lengths of at least three months. Based on a year of ...

Anderson, M. C., Norman, J. M., Diak, G. R., Kustas, W. P., and Mecikalski, J. R.: A two-source time-integrated model for estimating surface fluxes using thermal infrared remote sensing, Remote Sens. Environ., 60, 195–216, 1997.; Anderson, M. C., Hain, C., Wardlow, B., Pimstein, A., Mecikalski, J. R., and Kustas, W. P.: Evaluation of drought indices based on thermal remote sensing of evapotranspiration over the continental United States, J. Climate, 24, 2025–2044,

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A Comparison of Regionalisation Methods for Catchment Model Parame...

By: R. Merz; G. Blöschl; J. Parajka

Description: Institute for Hydraulic and Water Resources Engineering, Vienna University of Technology, Austria. In this study we examine the relative performance of a range of methods for transposing catchment model parameters to ungauged catchments. We calibrate 11 parameters of a semi-distributed conceptual rainfall-runoff model to daily runoff and snow cover data of 320 Austrian catchments in the period 1987-1997 and verify the model for the period 1976-1986. We e...

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Suitability of Soil Bioengineering Techniques in Central America: ...

By: A. Petrone; F. Preti

Description: Department of agriculture and forestry engineering, University of Florence, Florence, Italy. In the last few years D. I. A. F. (Department of Agriculture and Forestry Engineering of Florence University), has been testing the effectiveness of Soil Bio-Engineering techniques in Central America. The focus of the present study was to find out which native plants were most suited for soil bio-engineering purposes, particularly in the realization of riverbank ...

Regione Lazio, Assessorato per l'Ambiente: Manuale di Ingegneria Naturalistica applicabile al settore idraulico,. Ed. Punto Stampa s.r.l., Roma., 421 pp, 2002; Ferrari, R., Petrone, A., and Preti, F.: La Riscoperta dell'America, ACER (5), 5, 74–79, 2005.; Florineth, F.: in: Stabilization of gullies with soil – bio-engineering methods in the Alps and in Nepal, edited by: Yong, Li, Poisen, J., and Valentin, C., Gully Erosion under Global Change, 315–339, Sichuan Science an...

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Implementing Small Scale Processes at the Soil-plant Interface – t...

By: J.-o. Delfs; S. Attinger; A. Hildebrandt; C. L. Schneider

Description: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Department of Computational Hydrosystems, Leipzig, Germany. In this paper, we present a stand alone root water uptake model called aRoot, which calculates the sink term for any bulk soil water flow model taking into account water flow within and around a root network. The boundary conditions for the model are the atmospheric water demand and the bulk soil water content. The variable determining the plant...

\v Sim{\r u}nek, J. and Hopmans, J. W.: Modeling compensated root water and nutrient uptake, Ecol. Model., 220, 505–520, doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2008.11.004, 2009.; Sperry, J. S., Stiller, V., and Hacke, U. G.: Xylem hydraulics and the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum: Opportunities and Unresolved Issues, Agron. J., 95(6), 1362–1370, http://agr...

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Assessment of Surface Water Resources Availability Using Catchment...

By: S. Uhlenbrook; S. Maskey; A. Mukubwa; O. Munyaneza; J. Wenninger

Description: University of Rwanda, School of Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, P.O. Box 3900, Kigali, Rwanda. In the present study, we developed a catchment hydrological model which can be used to inform water resources planning and decision making for better management of the Migina Catchment (257.4 km2). The semi-distributed hydrological model HEC-HMS (Hydrologic Engineering Center – the Hydrologic Modelling System) (version 3.5) was used wit...

Abdulla, F. A., Amayreh, J. A., and Hossain, A. H.: Single event watershed model for simulating runoff hydrograph in desert regions, Water Resour. Manage., 16, 221–238, 2002.; Abushandi, E. H.: Rainfall–Runoff Modeling in Arid Areas, PhD Thesis, Faculty for Geosciences, Geotechnique and Mining of the Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Freiberg, Germany, 2011.; Al-Adamat, R., Diabat, A., and Shatnawi, G.: Combining GIS with multicriteria decision making for sil...

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Mapping Surface Soil Moisture Over the Gourma Mesoscale Site (Mali...

By: F. Frappart; P. Hiernaux; P. De Rosnay; E. Mougin; P. L. Frison; M. Zribi; F. Baup; J. Viarre

Description: CESBIO (Centre d'Etudes Spatiales de la Biosphère, UMR 5126, UPS-CNRS-CNES-IRD), 18 avenue Edouard Belin, 31401 Toulouse cedex 9, France. The potentialities of ENVISAT ASAR (Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar) multi-angle data for mapping surface soil moisture (SSM) in Sahelian rangelands are investigated at medium scale (30 000 km2). The Wide Swath data are selected to take advantage of their high temporal repetitivity (about 8 days at the con...

Baup, F., Mougin, E., D. Rosnay, P., Timouk, F., Lavenu, F., and Chênerie, I.: Surface soil moisture estimation over the AMMA sahelian site in Mali using ENVISAT/ASAR data, Remote Sens. Environ., 109, 473–481, 2007a.; Baup, F., Mougin, E., Hiernaux, P., Lopes, A., De Rosnay, P., and Chênerie, I.: Radar signatures of Sahelian surfaces in Mali using ENVISAT-ASAR data, IEEE T. Geosci. Remote., 45, 2354–2363, 2007b.; Berger, M., Camps, A., Font, J., Kerr, Y., Miller, J., Joh...

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Groundwater Compartmentalisation: a Geochemical Analysis of the St...

By: R. H. Worden; E. A. Mohamed

Description: Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Liverpool, 4, Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L69 3GP, UK. The study was initiated to assess the local groundwater flow, the extent of seawater invasion and the controls on recharge in the aquifer and to try to understand whether the aquifer is broken into discrete compartments. The study area is located in the northwest of England and encompasses the urban area of Liverpool and surrounding countryside an...

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A Geohydrologic Framework for Characterizing Summer Streamflow Sen...

By: M. G. Kramer; B. Staab; G. E. Grant; S. L. Lewis; M. Safeeq

Description: College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA. Summer streamflows in the Pacific Northwest are largely derived from melting snow and groundwater discharge. As the climate warms, diminishing snowpack and earlier snowmelt will cause reductions in summer streamflow. Most assessments of the impacts of a changing climate to streamflow make use of downscaled temperature and precipitation projections from...

Arnold, J. G., Allen, P. M., Muttiah, R., and Bernhardt, G.: Automated base flow separation and recession analysis techniques, Ground Water, 33, 1010–1018, 1995.; Battin, J., Wiley, M. W., Ruckelshaus, M. H., Palmer, R. N., Korb, E., Bartz, K. K., and Imaki, H.: Projected impacts of climate change on salmon habitat restoration, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104, 6720–6725, 2007.; Carroll, T., Cline, D., Fall, G., Nilsson, A., Li, L., and Rost, A.: NOHRSC operations and the si...

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A Comparison of Methods for Determining Field Evapotranspiration: ...

By: F. Tian; P. Yang; H. Hu; Z. Zhang

Description: State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China. A multi-scale, multi-technique study was conducted to measure evapotranspiration and its components in a cotton field under mulched drip irrigation conditions in northwestern China. Three measurement techniques at different scales were used: a photosynthesis system (leaf scale), sap flow (plant scale), and eddy covarianc...

ADC Bioscientific Ltd.: LCi Portable Photosynthesis System: Instruction Manual, ADC BioScientific Ltd., Hoddesdon, UK, 2004.; Alfieri, J. G., Kustas, W. P., Prueger, J. H., Hipps, L. E., Evett, S. R., Basara, J. B., Neale, C. M. U., French, A. N., Colaizzi, P., Agam, N., Cosh, M. H., Chavez, J. L., and Howell, T. A.: On the discrepancy between eddy covariance and lysimetry-based surface flux measurements under strongly advective conditions, Adv. Water Resour., 50, 62–78,...

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Impacts of Forestry on Nitrogen in Upland and Lowland Catchments: ...

By: C. Neal; T. J. Hill; P. G. Whitehead

Description: Aquatic Environment Research Centre, Department of Geography, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6AB, UK. The impacts of afforestation at Plynlimon in the Severn catchment, mid-Wales, and in the Bedford Ouse catchment in south-east England are evaluated using the INCA model to simulate Nitrogen (N) fluxes and concentrations. The INCA model represents the key hydrological and N processes operating in catchments and simulates t...

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Integrated Hydrological Modeling of the North China Plain and Impl...

By: C. Zheng; H. Qin; M. O. Rasmussen; J. C. Refsgaard; M. Kristensen; X. He; J. Liu; G. Cao; Y. Shu

Description: Center for Water Research, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China. Groundwater overdraft has caused fast water level decline in the North China Plain (NCP) since the 1980s. Although many hydrological models have been developed for the NCP in the past few decades, most of them deal only with the groundwater component or only at local scales. In the present study, a coupled surface water–groundwater model using the MIKE SHE code h...

Abbott, M. B., Bathurst, J. C., Cunge, J. A., O'Connell, P. E., and Rasmussen, J.: An introduction to the European hydrological system-Systeme Hydrologique Europeen, SHE 1, History and philosophy of a physically based distributed modeling system, J. Hydrol., 87, 45–59, 1986a.; Abbott, M. B., Bathurst, J. C., Cunge, J. A., O'Connell, P. E., and Rasmussen, J.: An introduction to the European Hydrological System-Systeme Hydrologique Europeen, SHE 1, Structure of a physicall...

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Early Warning of Drought in Europe Using the Monthly Ensemble Syst...

By: J. Vogt; F. Pappenberger; C. Lavaysse

Description: European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Ispra (Va), Italy. Timely forecasts of the onset or possible evolution of droughts are an important contribution to mitigate their manifold negative effects. In this paper we therefore analyse and compare the performance of the first month of the probabilistic extended range forecast and of the seasonal forecast from ECMWF in predicting droughts over the European continent. The Standardized Precipitation ...

McKee, T. B., Doesken, N. J., and Kleist, J.: The relationship of drought frequency and duration to time scales, in: Proceedings of the 8th Conference on Applied Climatology, Anaheim, CA, USA, Am. Meteorol. Soc., 179–184, 1993.; Mishra, A. and Desai, V.: Drought forecasting using feed-forward recursive neural network, Ecol. Model., 198, 127–138, 2006.; Mishra, A., Desai, V., and Singh, V.: Drought forecasting using a hybrid stochastic and neural network model, J. Hydrol....

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Online Multistep-ahead Inundation Depth Forecasts by Recurrent Nar...

By: L.-c. Chang; H.-y. Shen

Description: Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, Tamkang University, Tamsui, Taiwan. Various types of artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been successfully applied in hydrological fields, but relatively scant on multistep-ahead flood inundation forecasting, which is very difficult to achieve, especially when dealing with forecasts without regular observed data. This study proposes a recurrent configuration of nonlinear autoregressive with ...

Menezes Jr., J. M. P. and Barreto, G. A.: Long-term time series prediction with the NARX network: an empirical evaluation, Neurocomputing, 71, 3335–3343, 2008.; Abrahart, R. J., Anctil, F., Coulibaly, P., Dawson, C. W., Mount, N. J., See, L. M., Shamseldin, A. Y., Solomatine, D. P., Toth, E., and Wilby, R. L.: Two decades of anarchy? Emerging themes and outstanding challenges for neural network river forecasting, Prog. Phys. Geogr., 36, 480–513, 2012.; Bates, P. D. and D...

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Validation of a Meteosat Second Generation Solar Radiation Dataset...

By: J. Cristóbal; M. C. Anderson

Description: Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 903 Koyukuk Dr. Fairbanks, Alaska, 99775-7320, USA. Solar radiation plays a key role in the Earth's energy balance and is used as an essential input data in radiation-based evapotranspiration (ET) models. Accurate gridded solar radiation data at high spatial and temporal resolution are needed to retrieve ET over large domains. In this work we present an evaluation at hourly, daily and monthly time st...

Allen, R. G., Pereira, L. S., Raes, D., and Smith, M.: Crop evapotranspiration – Guidelines for computing crop water requirements, FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 1998.; Allen, R. G., Tasumi, M., and Trezza, R.: Satellite-based energy balance for mapping evapotranspiration with internalized calibration (METRIC) – Model, J. Irrig. Drain. E-Asce, 133, 380–394,

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Kalman Filter Approach for Estimating Water Level Time Series Over...

By: W. Bosch; D. Dettmering; F. Seitz; C. Schwatke

Description: Deutsches Geodätisches Forschungsinstitut der Technischen Universität München (DGFI-TUM), Alfons-Goppel-Str. 11, 80539 Munich, Germany. Satellite altimetry has been designed for sea level monitoring over open ocean areas. However, since some years, this technology is also used for observing inland water levels of lakes and rivers. In this paper, a new approach for the estimation of inland water level time series is described. It is used for t...

Bosch, W., Dettmering, D., and Schwatke, C.: Multi-mission cross-calibration of satellite altimeters: constructing a long-term data record for global and regional sea level change studies, Remote Sens., 6, 2255–2281, doi:10.3390/rs6032255, 2014.; Boser, B. E., Guyon, I. M., and Vapnik, V. N.: A training algorithm for optimal margin classifiers, in: Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Workshop on Computational Learning Theory, C...

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Multi-annual Droughts in the English Lowlands: a Review of Their C...

By: B. P. Marchant; M. Kendon; J. P. Bloomfield; J. Prior; C. K. Folland; C. Svensson; J. Hannaford; E. Wallace

Description: Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, UK. The English Lowlands is a relatively dry, densely populated region in the south-east of the UK in which water is used intensively. Consequently, parts of the region are water-stressed and face growing water resource pressures. The region is heavily dependent on groundwater and particularly vulnerable to long, multi-annual droughts primarily associated with dry winters. Despite this vulnerability, the atmospheric dri...

Jackson, C. R., Meister, R., and Prudhomme, C.: Modelling the effects of climate change and its uncertainty on UK Chalk groundwater resources from an ensemble of global climate model projections, J. Hydrol., 399, 12–28, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2010.12.028, 2011.; Jones, P. D. and Lister, D. H.: Riverflow reconstructions for 15 catchments over England and Wales and an assessment of hydrologic drought since 1865, In...

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