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A Consistent Set of Trans-basin Floods in Germany Between 1952–200...

By: B. Merz; A. H. Thieken; S. Uhlemann

Description: Helmholtz Centre Potsdam, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Section Hydrology, Potsdam, Germany. Floods that affect many sites simultaneously can pose great challenges in the co-ordination of flood disaster management actions, as well as for the insurance and re-insurance industry, since this type of flooding leads to an accumulation of losses and the risk assessment needs to be extended to a concept representing the spatial risk of flooding. T...

Bárdossy, A. and Filiz, F.: Identification of flood producing atmospheric circulation patterns, J. Hydrol., 313, 48–57, 2005.; Barnolas, M. and Llasat, M. C.: A flood geodatabase and its climatological applications: the case of Catalonia for the last century, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 7, 271–281, doi:10.5194/nhess-7-271-2007, 2007.; Barredo, J. I.: Major flood disasters in Europe: 1950–2005, Nat. Hazards, 42, 125–148, 2007.; Barredo, J. I.: Normalised flood losses i...

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Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Export from Carbonate and Silicate Catc...

By: K. S. Lee; D. Lee; G. S. Chung; W. J. Shin

Description: Department of Geology and Earth Environmental Sciences, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 305-764, Republic of Korea. This work presents a study of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) exchange associated with groundwater discharge and stream flow from two upstream catchments with distinct basement lithologies (silicate vs. carbonate). The effects of catchment lithology were evident in the spring waters showing lower Δ13CDIC an...

Amiotte-Suchet, P., Aubert, D., Probst, J. L., Gauthier-Lafaye, F., Probst, A., Andreux, F., and Viville, D.: δ13C pattern of dissolved inorganic carbon in a small granitic catchment: the Strengbach case study (Vosges Mountains, France), Chem. Geol., 159, 129–145, 1999.; Atekwana, E. A. and Krishnamurthy, R. V.: Seasonal variations of dissolved inorganic carbon and δ13C of surface waters: application of a modified gas evolution technique, J. Hydrol....

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Simulation of Rock Salt Dissolution and Its Impact on Land Subside...

By: A. Younes; P. Huggenberger; E. Zechner; A. Zidane

Description: Applied and Environmental Geology, Environmental Sciences Department, University of Basel, Bernoullistrasse 32, 4056 Basel, Switzerland. Extensive land subsidence can occur due to subsurface dissolution of evaporites such as halite and gypsum. This paper explores techniques to simulate the salt dissolution forming an intrastratal karst, which is embedded in a sequence of carbonates, marls, anhydrite and gypsum. A numerical model is developed to simulate ...

Aavatsmark, I.: An introduction to multipoint flux approximations for quadrilateral grids, Comput. Geosci., 6, 404–432, 2002.; Aavatsmark, I., Barkve, T., Bøe, Ø., and Mannseth, T.: Discretization on non-orthogonal, quadrilateral grids for inhomogeneous, anisotropic media, J. Comput. Phys., 127, 2–14, 1996.; Aizinger, V., Dawson, C., Cockburn, B., and Castillo, P.: The local discontinuous Galerkin method for contaminant transport, Adv. Water Resour., 24, 73–87, 2001.; An...

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Hydrological Dynamics of Water Sources in a Mediterranean Lagoon :...

By: I. E. Gönenc; A. Ekdal; P. Maloszewski; C. Stumpp

Description: Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Groundwater Ecology, Neuherberg, Germany. Lagoons are important ecosystems occupying large coastal areas worldwide. Lagoons contain various mixtures of marine and freshwater sources which are highly dynamic in time. However, it often remains a challenge to identify and quantify dynamic changes of water sources, particularly in heterogeneous lagoon systems like ...

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Weather Model Performance on Extreme Rainfall Events Simulation's ...

By: A. C. Carvalho; J. Ferreira; A. Rocha; J. J. Kaiser; J. P. Nunes; S. C. Pereira

Description: CESAM and Dept. Physics, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal. This study evaluates the performance of the WRF-ARW numerical weather model in simulating the spatial and temporal patterns of an extreme rainfall period over a complex orographic region in north-central Portugal. The analysis was performed for the December month of 2009, during the Portugal Mainland rainy season. The heavy rainfall to extreme heavy rainfall periods were due to several low...

AghaKouchaka, A., Bárdossyb, A., and Habiba, E.: Conditional simulation of remotely sensed rainfall data using a non-Gaussian v-transformed copula, Adv. Water Resour., 33, 624–634, doi:10.1016/j.advwatres.2010.02.010, 2010.; Ballester, J. and Moré, J.: The representativeness problem of a station net applied to the verification of a precipitation forecast based on areas, Meteorol. Appl. 14, 177–184,

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Subsurface Lateral Flow from Hillslope and Its Contribution to Nit...

By: B. Zhang; C. Gao; H. Zepp; J. Tang

Description: Key State Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Nanjing 210008, China. Compared with overland flow from agricultural hillslopes, subsurface lateral flow is often overlooked partly due to monitoring difficulties and the lack of quantitative identification its role in nutrient delivery to surface water. The objectives of this study were to examine how subsurface lateral flow generates ...

Allaire, S. E., Roulier, S., and Cessna, A. J.: Quantifying preferential flow in soils: A review of different techniques, J. Hydrol., 378, 179–204, 2009.; Anderson, M. G. and Burt, T. P.: The contribution of throughflow to storm runoff: an evaluation of a chemical mixing model, Earth Surf. Proc. Land., 33, 211–225, 1982.; Bishop, K., Seibert, J., Kohler, S., and Laudon, H.: Resolving the double paradox of rapidly mobilized old water with highly variable responses in runo...

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A Global Analysis of Soil Moisture Derived from Satellite Observat...

By: N. Viovy; G. Kiely; P. Ciais; K. T. Rebel; S. L. Piao; R. A. M. De Jeu; A. J. Dolman

Description: Department of Environmental Sciences, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Soil moisture availability is important in regulating photosynthesis and controlling land surface-climate feedbacks at both the local and global scale. Recently, global remote-sensing datasets for soil moisture have become available. In this paper we assess the possibility of using remotely sensed soil moisture – AMSR-E (LP...

Albertson, J. D. and Kiely, G.: On the structure of soil moisture time series in the context of land surface models, J. Hydrol., 243, 101–119, 2001.; Angert, A., Biraud, S., Bonfils, C., Henning, C. C., Buermann, W., Pinzon, J., Tucker, C. J., and Fung, I.: Drier summers cancel out the CO2 uptake enhancement induced by warmer springs, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 102, 10823–10827, 2005.; Ashcroft, P. and Wentz, F.: AMSR-E/Aqua L2A Global Swath Spatially-Resampled ...

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A Multi Basin Swat Model Analysis of Runoff and Sedimentation in t...

By: A. S. Collick; S. B. Awulachew; Z. M. Easton; D. R. Fuka; M. McCartney; T. S. Steenhuis; A. A. Ahmed; B. Biruk Asharge; E. D. White

Description: Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. A multi basin analysis of runoff and erosion in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia was conducted to elucidate sources of runoff and sediment. Erosion is arguably the most critical problem in the Blue Nile Basin, as it limits agricultural productivity in Ethiopia, degrades benthos in the Nile, and results in sedimentation of dams in downstream cou...

Ahmed, A. A.: Sediment transport and watershed management Blue Nile system, Friend/Nile Project report, UNESCO, Khartoum Sudan, 2003.; Arnold, J. G., Srinivasan, R., Muttiah, R. S., and Williams, J. R.: Large area hydrologic modeling and assessment – Part I: model development, J. Am. Water Resour. As., 34(1), 73–89, 1998.; Ashagre, B. B.: Formulation of best management option for a watershed using swat (Anjeni watershed, Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia), M.P.S. thesis, Cornell...

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Hydrogeology and Hydrogeochemistry of an Alkaline Volcanic Area: t...

By: D. Pittalis; G. Oggiano; G. Cerri; G. Ghiglieri

Description: Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cagliari, Italy, Desertification Research Group-NRD, University of Sassari, Italy. The objective of this study is to analyze the geochemical conditions associated with the presence of fluoride (F) in the groundwater of an area of Northern Tanzania. The studied aquifers are composed of volcanic rocks such as phonolitic and nephelinitic lavas, basalts, lahars of various ages and mantling ash. Sediment...

APHA: Standard methods for examination of water and wastewater. America Pubblic Health Association, Washington D.C.-APHA, 1992.; Balcone-Boissard, H., Baker, D. R., Villemant, B., and Boudon, G.: F and Cl diffusion in phonolitic melts: Influence of the Na/K ratio, Chemical Geology, 263, 89–98, 2009.; Bruker AXS: Diffrac$^{\rm plus}$ Evaluation package EVA 14. Release 15-07-2008, Bruker AXS GmbH Karlsruhe, Germany, 2008.; Craig H.: Standards for reporting concentra...

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Towards Reconstruction of the Flow Duration Curve: Development of ...

By: M. Sivapalan; Y. Yokoo

Description: Faculty of Symbiotic Systems Science, Fukushima University, Japan. In this paper we investigate the climatic and landscape controls on the flow duration curve (FDC) with the use of a physically-based rainfall-runoff model. The FDC is a stochastic representation of within-year variability of runoff, which arises from the transformation, by the catchment, of within-year variability of precipitation that can itself be characterized by a corresponding durat...

Botter, G., Peratoner, F., Porporato, A., Rodriguez-Iturbe, I., and Rinaldo, A.: Signatures of large-scale soil moisture dynamics on streamflow statistics across US Climate regimes, Water Resour. Res., 43, W11413, doi:10.1029/2007WR006162, 2007.; Bras, R. L.: Hydrology – An Introduction to Hydrologic Science, Addison-Wesley- Longman, Reading, Mass., 1990.; Brooks, R. H. and Corey, A. T.: Properties of porous media affect...

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Assimilation of Near-surface Cosmic-ray Neutrons Improves Summerti...

By: T. Hoar; A. Arellano; X. Zeng; J. L. Anderson; T. E. Franz; R. Rosolem; W. J. Shuttleworth

Description: Queens School of Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK. Aboveground cosmic-ray neutron measurements provide an opportunity to infer soil moisture at the sub-kilometer scale. Initial efforts to assimilate those measurements have shown promise. This study expands such analysis by investigating (1) how the information from aboveground cosmic-ray neutrons can constrain the soil moisture at distinct depths simulated by a land surface model, and ...

Anderson, J. L.: An ensemble adjustment Kalman filter for data assimilation, Mon. Weather Rev., 129, 2884–2903, 2001.; Anderson, J. L.: A local least squares framework for ensemble filtering, Mon. Weather Rev., 131, 634–642, 2003.; Anderson, J. L.: Exploring the need for localization in ensemble data assimilation using a hierarchical ensemble filter, Physica D, 230, 99–111, doi:10.1016/j.physd.2006.02.011, 2007.; ...

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Building a Field- and Model-based Climatology of Local Water and E...

By: J. Demarty; B. Cappelaere; B. Maidaji; M. Oï; N. Benarrosh; C. Velluet; F. Arpin-pont; I. Braud; J.-p. Chazarin; G. Charvet; Y. Nazoumou; A. Mahamane; M. Boucher; J. Seghieri; D. Ramier; G. Favreau; H. B.-a. Issoufou; N. Boulain; I. Mainassara; H. Yahou

Description: Université Montpellier 2, UMR HSM (CNRS/IRD/UM1/UM2), Montpellier, France. In the African Sahel, energy and water cycling at the land surface is pivotal for regional climate, water resources and land productivity, yet it is still extremely poorly documented. As a step towards a comprehensive climatological description of surface fluxes in this area, this study provides estimates of average annual budgets and seasonal cycles for two main land use ty...

Sjöström, M., Ardö, J., Arneth, A., Boulain, N., Cappelaere, B., Eklundh, L., de Grandcourt, A., Kutsch, W. L., Merbold, L., Nouvellon, Y., Scholes, R. J., Schubert, P., Seaquist, J., and Veenendaal, E. M.: Exploring the potential of MODIS EVI for modeling gross primary production across African ecosystems, Remote Sens. Environ., 115, 1081–1089, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2010.12.013, 2011.; Sjöström, M., Zhao, M., Archibald...

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Bioturbation, Ecosystem Functioning and Community Structure : Volu...

By: D. M. Paterson; R. B. Ford; M. Solan; D. G. Raffaelli; C. L. Biles

Description: School of Biological Sciences, Gatty Marine Laboratory, University of St Andrews, Fife KY16 8LB, UK. The effect of community structure on the functioning of the ecosystem is an important issue in ecology due to continuing global species loss. The influence of infaunal community structure on the functioning of marine systems is proposed here to act primarily through bioturbation of the sediment. Nutrient concentration in the water column, generated by re...

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Uncertainty in Acquiring Elemental Fluxes from Subtropical Mountai...

By: S. C. Hsu; J. C. Huang; A. E. Carey; S. J. Kao; T. Y. Lee; K. Selvaraj

Description: Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Nangang, Taipei, Taiwan. Mountainous watersheds in high standing islands of the western tropical and subtropical Pacific have received great international attention regarding its high physical and chemical weathering rates caused by cyclone invasion, friable lithology and high tectonic activity. Since mountainous region is usually difficult to assess, particularly, during severe weather conditio...

Allan, R. J.: The role of particulate matter in the fate of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems, Inland Water Directorate Scientific Series, Nat. Water Res. Inst., Berlington, Canada, 142, 1986.; Butturini, A.: Uncertainty of solute flux estimation in ungauged small streams: potential implications for input-output nutrient mass balances at stream reach scale, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 9, 675–684, 2005.; Clarke, R. T.: Bias and variance of some estimators of suspended sedi...

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Three Perceptions of the Evapotranspiration Landscape: Comparing S...

By: A. Bronstert; F. Wechsung; T. Conradt

Description: Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany. A problem encountered by many distributed hydrological modelling studies is high simulation errors at interior gauges when the model is only globally calibrated at the outlet. We simulated river runoff in the Elbe River basin in Central Europe (148 268 km2) with the semi-distributed eco-hydrological model SWIM. While global parameter optimisation led to Nash–Sutcl...

Ajami, N. K., Gupta, H., Wagener, T., and Sorooshian, S.: Calibration of a semi-distributed hydrologic model for streamflow estimation along a river system, J. Hydrol., 298, 112–135, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2004.03.033, 2004.; Albertz, J.: Grundlagen der {I}nterpretation von {L}uft- und {S}atellitenbildern, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt, 1991.; Andersen, J., Refsgaard, J. C., and Jensen, K. H.: Dis...

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The Effect of Water Physical Quality and Water Level Changes on th...

By: B. M. Teklu; S. Kibret; H. Tekie; M. McCartney

Description: Department of Biology, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Entomological studies to determine the effect of the physical characteristics of larval breeding water bodies and reservoir water level changes on the occurrence of Anopheles mosquito larvae and on the spatial and temporal formation of larval breeding habitats were conducted in two villages at Koka reservoir between August and December 2007. Of the...

Carrara, G., Petrarca, V., Niang, M., and Coluzzi, M.: Anopheles pharoensis and transmission of Plalsmodium falciparum in the Senegal River delta, West Africa, Med. Vet. Entomol., 4, 421–424, 1990.; Cotezee, M., Coaig, M. and Sueur, D.: Distribution of Africa malaria mosquitoes belonging to the Anopheles gambiae complex, Parasitol. Today, 16, 74–77, 2002.; Fillinger, U., Sonye, G., Killin, F., Knols, B., and Becker, N.: The practical importance of pe...

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Predictions of Rainfall-runoff Response and Soil Moisture Dynamics...

By: M. Sivapalan; E. Zehe; H. Lee

Description: School of Environmental Systems Engineering, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley WA 6009, Australia. Predictions of catchment hydrology have been performed generally using either physically based, distributed models or conceptual lumped or semi-distributed models. In recognition of the disadvantages of using either of these modeling approaches, namely, detailed data requirements in the case of distributed modeling, and lack ...

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Dams on Mekong Tributaries as Significant Contributors of Hydrolog...

By: T. A. Cochrane; T. Piman; H. Lauri; M. E. Arias; M. Kummu

Description: Department of Civil and Natural Resources Engineering, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand. River tributaries have a key role in the biophysical functioning of the Mekong Basin. Of particular attention are the Sesan, Srepok, and Sekong (3S) rivers, which contribute nearly a quarter of the total Mekong discharge. Forty two dams are proposed in the 3S, and once completed they will exceed the active storage of China's large dam cascade in t...

Adamson, P. T., Rutherfurd, I. D., Peel, M. C., and Conlan, I. A.: The hydrology of the Mekong River, in: The Mekong, available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B9FBM-4Y59TWF-M/2/29840b78b5de4ee935ae707cd803a3b4, Academic Press, San Diego, 53–76, 2009.; Agostinho, A. A., Bonecker, C. C., and Gomes, L. C.: Effects of water quantity o...

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Hydrological Landscape Classification: Investigating the Performan...

By: F. Fenicia; M. Hrachowitz; H. H. G. Savenije; S. Gharari

Description: Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Water Resources Section, Delft, The Netherlands. This paper presents a detailed performance and sensitivity analysis of a recently developed hydrological landscape classification method based on dominant runoff mechanisms. Three landscape classes are distinguished: wetland, hillslope and plateau, corresponding to three dominant hydrological regimes: saturation excess overland f...

B{á}rdossy, A., Bogardi, I., and Duckstein, L.: Fuzzy regression in hydrology, Water Res. Res., 26, 1497–1508, doi:10.1029/WR026i007p01497, 1990.; Beven, K. J. and Binley, A. M.: The future of distributed models: Model calibration and uncertainty prediction, Hydrol. Process., 6, 279–298, 1992.; Behrens, T., Zhu, A.-X., Schmidt, K., and Scholten, T.: Multi-scale digital terrain analysis and feature selection for digita...

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Research Note:Use of a Distributed Erosion Model (Agnps) for Plann...

By: A. Konicek; P. Pekarova; J. Pekar; P. Miklanek

Description: Institute of Hydrology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Racianska 75, 831 02 Bratislava 3, Slovak Republic. This paper assesses the vulnerability to erosion of the soils in the upper Torysa catchment down to the planned drinking water reservoir at Tichy Potok (Slovakia). Experimental observations in the Torysa catchment, together with the outputs of the AGricultural Non-Point Source pollution model (AGNPS), have been used to select optimal sites for smal...

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