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Estimating Monthly Rainfall in Rural River Basins Under Climate Ch...

By: J. J. Kaluarachchi; D. L. Jayasekera

Description: Civil and Environmental Engineering Department Utah State University Logan, Utah, 84322-4100, USA. This study extended the work of Kim et al. (2008) to generate future rainfall under climate change using a discrete-time/space Markov chain based on historical conditional probabilities. A bias-correction method is proposed by fitting suitable statistical distributions to transform rainfall from the general circulation model (GCM) scale to w...

Abbaspour, K. C., Faramarzi, M., Ghasemi, S. S., and Yang, H.: Assessing the impact of climate change on water resources in Iran, Water Resour. Res., 45, W10434, doi:10.1029/2008WR007615, 2009.; ADB – Asian Development Bank: Lao People's Democratic Republic: Preparing the Cumulative Impact Assessment for the Nam Ngum 3 Hydropower Project, Technical Assistance Consultant's Report, Project Number 40514, Financed by the Jap...

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Infrastructure Sufficiency in Meeting Water Demand Under Climate-i...

By: C. A. Scott; E. A. Lima; S. M. G. L. Montenegro; A. Ribeiro Neto; J. A. Cirilo

Description: Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil. Water availability for a range of human uses will increasingly be affected by climate change especially in the arid and semi-arid tropics. This paper aims to evaluate the ability of reservoirs and related infrastructure to meet targets for water supply in the Capibaribe River Basin (CRB), in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The basin has experienced spatial and sectoral ...

Akhtar, M., Ahmad, N., and Booij, M. J.: Use of regional climate model simulations as input for hydrological models for the Hindukush-Karakorum-Himalaya region, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 13, 1075–1089, doi:10.5194/hess-13-1075-2009, 2009.; Bates, B. C., Kundzewicz, Z. W., Wu, S., and Palutikof, J.: Climate Change and Water, Technical Paper of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC Secretariat, Geneva, 2...

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Estimating Daily Recharge to the Chalk Aquifer of Southern England...

By: K. J. Limbrick

Description: Aquatic Environments Research Centre, Department of Geography, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6AB, UK. A simple, practical model for estimating daily recharge - as hydrologically effective rainfall (HER) - to the Chalk outcrop of southern England is presented. Daily meteorological observations are the only data requirements. The model was calibrated for a Chalk river, the Wey, in south Dorset. Six different root constant thresholds wer...

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Role of Vegetation and Landcover Dynamics on the Recycling of Wate...

By: M. A. Matin; C. P.-a. Bourque

Description: Faculty of Forestry and Environmental Management, University of New Brunswick, 28 Dineen Drive, P.O. Box 4400, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3, Canada. In this study, we analysed the role of vegetation in the recycling of water in two endorheic watersheds in northwest China, namely within the Shiyang and Hei River watersheds (Gansu Province), along a gradient of elevation zones and within-zone landcover types. Each watershed was subdivided into four el...

Friedl, M. A., Sulla-Menashe, D., Tan, B., Schneider, A., Ramankutty, N., Sibley, A., and Huang, X. M.: MODIS Collection 5 global land cover: algorithm refinements and characterization of new datasets, Remote Sens. Environ., 114, 168–182, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2009.08.016, 2010.; Gao, X. J., Luo, Y., Lin, W. T., Zhao, Z. C., and Giorgi, F.: Simulation of effects of land use change on climate in China by a regional clima...

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Detection of Global Runoff Changes: Results from Observations and ...

By: L. Marchand; B. Decharme; A. Ribes; R. Alkama

Description: Groupe d'étude de l'atmosphère météorologique (GAME), UMR3589, CNRM/GAME – Météo-France, Toulouse, France. This paper assesses the detectability of changes in global streamflow. First, a statistical detection method is applied to observed (no missing data which represent 42% of global discharge) and reconstructed (gaps are filled in order to cover a larger area and about 60% of global discharge) streamflow. Observations show no change over the 1958–1992 ...

Adam, J. C. and Lettenmaier, D. P.: Application of new precipitation and reconstructed streamflow products to streamflow trend attribution in northern Eurasia, J. Climate, 21, 1807–1828, doi:10.1175/2007JCLI1535.1, 2008.; Adam, J. C., Haddeland, I., Su, F., and Lettenmaier, D. P.: Simulation of reservoir influences on annual and seasonal streamflow changes for the Lena, Yenisei and Ob rivers, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D24...

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The Patterns and Implications of Diurnal Variations in D-excess of...

By: M. Zhou; H. Xiao; L. Wang; G. Cheng; L. Zhao; F. Wang; Y. Ruan

Description: Key Laboratory of Ecohydrology and Integrated River Basin Science, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000, China. Deuterium excess (d-excess) of air moisture is traditionally considered as a conservative tracer of oceanic evaporation conditions. Recent studies challenge this view and emphasize the importance of vegetation activity in controlling the dynamics of air moisture...

Aemisegger, F., Pfahl, S., Sodemann, H., Lehner, I., Seneviratne, S. I., and Wernli, H.: Deuterium excess as a proxy for continental moisture recycling and plant transpiration, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 13, 29721–29784, doi:10.5194/acpd-13-29721-2013, 2013.; Allison, G. B.: The relationship between 18O and deuterium in water in sand columns undergoing evaporation, J. Hydrol., 55, 163–169, 1982.; Brook...

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Calibration of Aerodynamic Roughness Over the Tibetan Plateau with...

By: J. Timmermans; Z. Su; M. Mancini; J. H. Lee

Description: Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, Milano, Italy. Aerodynamic roughness height (Zom) is a key parameter required in several land surface hydrological models, since errors in heat flux estimation are largely dependent on optimization of this input. Despite its significance, it remains an uncertain parameter which is not readily determined. This is mostly because of non-linear relationship in Monin-Obukhov similarity (MO...

Baroni, G., Facchi, A., Gandolfi, C., Ortuani, B., Horeschi, D., and van Dam, J. C.: Uncertainty in the determination of soil hydraulic parameters and its influence on the performance of two hydrological models of different complexity, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 251–270, doi:10.5194/hess-14-251-2010, 2010.; Beljaars, A. C. M., Schotanus, P., and Nieuwstadt, F. T. M.: Surface layer similarity under nonuniform fetch...

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Catchment Features Controlling Nitrogen Dynamics in Running Waters...

By: M. Freppaz; C. Arese; A. Buffagni; R. Balestrini

Description: Water Research Institute (IRSA-CNR), Brugherio (MB), Italy. The study of nitrogen cycling in mountain areas has a long tradition, as it was applied to better understand and describe ecosystem functioning, as well as to quantify long-distance effects of human activities on remote environments. Nonetheless, very few studies, especially in Europe, have considered catchment features controlling nitrogen dynamics above the tree line with focus on running wat...

Aber J. D., McDowell, W., Nadelhoffer, K. J., Magill, A., Berntson, G., Kamakea, M., McNulty, S., Currie, W., Rustad, L., and Fernandez, I.: Nitrogen saturation in northern forest ecosystems: Hypothesis revisited, BioScience, 48, 921–934, 1998.; Balestrini, R. and Tagliaferri, A.: Atmospheric deposition and canopy exchange processes in alpine forest ecosystems (northern Italy), Atmos. Environ., 35–36, 6421–6433, 2001.; Balestrini, R., Galli, L., and Tartari, G.: Wet and ...

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Comment on Streamflow Input to Lake Athabasca, Canada by Rasouli E...

By: D. L. Peters

Description: Environment Canada @ Water & Climate Impacts Research Centre, P.O. Box 3060 STN CSC, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. This comment paper addresses data and analysis issues in a paper entitled Streamflow input to Lake Athabasca, Canada by Rasouli et al. (2013). Analyses of observed and naturalized lake level data for Lake Athabasca are redone in this comment paper with corrected hydrometric data to provide northerners and resear...

Aitken, B. and Sapach, R.: Hydraulic modelling of Peace-Athabasca Delta under modified and natural flow conditions, Northern River Basins Study, NRBS Report No. 43, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 45 pp., 1994.; Bayrock, L. A. and Root, J. D.: Geology of the Peace-Athabasca Delta region, Alberta, in: Peace-Athabasca Delta Project Group, Technical Report and Appendices, Volume 1, Hydrological Investigations, Governments of Canada, Alberta and Saskatchewan, N1–N50, 1973.; DeBoe...

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How to Predict Hydrological Effects of Local Land Use Change: How ...

By: M. Jansen; C. Döring; C. Bernhofer; O. Panferov; U. Spank; F. Richter

Description: Department of Soil Science of Temperate Ecosystems, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Büsgenweg 2, 37077 Göttingen, Germany. Among the different bioenergy sources, short rotation coppices (SRC) with poplar and willow trees are one of the promising options in Europe. SRC provide not only woody biomass but also additional ecosystem services. However, a known shortcoming is the potentially lower groundwater recharge caused by the potentially higher evapotr...

Aronsson, P. G., Bergström, L. F., and Elowson, S. N. E.: Long-term influence of intensively cultured short-rotation Willow Coppice on nitrogen concentrations in groundwater, J. Environ. Manage., 58, 135–145, 2000.; Breda, N. J.: Ground-based measurements of leaf area index: a review of methods, instruments and current controversies, J. Exp. Bot., 54, 2403–2417, 2003.; Baum, S., Weih, M., and Bolte, A.: Stand age characteristics and soil properties affect species composi...

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An Application of a Large Scale Conceptual Hydrological Model Over...

By: D. Lohmann; C. Ruhe; M. Lobmeyr

Description: GKSS Research Center Geesthacht, Insitute for Atmospheric Physics D-21502 Geesthacht, Germany.. This paper investigates the ability of the VIC-2L model coupled to a routing model to reproduce streamflow in the catchment of the lower Elbe River, Germany. The VIC-2L model, a hydrologically-based land surface scheme (LSS) which has been tested extensively in the Project for Intercomparison of Land-surface Parameterization Schemes (PILPS), is put up on the r...

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Importance of Stream Temperature to Climate Change Impact on Water...

By: A. Ducharne

Description: Laboratoire Sisyphe, CNRS/Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France. The sensitivity of some aspects of water quality to climate change was assessed in the Seine River (France) with the biogeochemical model RIVERSTRAHLER, which describes the transformations and fluxes of C, N, P and Si between the main microbiological populations, the water column and the sediment, along the entire river network. Point and diffuse sources are prescribed, stream te...

EEA: Corine Land Cover (CLC90), European Environment Agency, http://dataservice.eea.europa.eu/dataservice/metadetails.asp?id=188, 1996.; AESN: Les bassins de la Seine et des cours d'eau normands – Hydrologie générale et conclusions, Tome 1, Fascicule 6, Agence de l'Eau Seine-Normandie, Nanterre, 1976.; Arnell, N. W., Liu, C., Compagnucci, R., da Cunha, L., Hanaki, K., Howe, C., Mailu, G., Shiklomanov, I., and Stakhiv, E.: Hydrology and water resources, in: Climate Change...

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A New Technique Using the Aero-infiltrometer to Characterise the N...

By: A. H. M. Kassim; I. Ibrahim; Z. Yusop; M. A. Fulazzaky

Description: Institute of Environmental and Water Resources Management, Water Research Alliance, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor Bahru, Malaysia. Infiltration rate (f) and soil moisture content (θ) are the important factors for water resources management. Accurate measurements of these factors are not so readily available in most farmlands since present measuring equipments are not really suitable. This paper proposes the measuring d...

Fulazzaky, M. A., Ismail, I., and Kassim, A. H. M.: Empirical models of aero-infiltromater to measure the infiltration rate and soil moisture content, in: The 3rd Regional Conference on Natural Resources in the Tropics, Kuching, Malaysia, 2–5 August 2009, 2009b.; Fulazzaky, M. A., Khamidun, M. H., and Omar, R.: Understanding of mass transfer resistance for the adsorption of solute onto porous material from the modified mass transfer factor models, Chem. Eng. J., 228, 102...

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Water Consumption from Hydropower Plants – Review of Published Est...

By: K. Engeland; T. H. Bakken; K. Alfredsen; A. Harby; Å. Killingtveit

Description: Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering, 7491 Trondheim, Norway. Since the report from IPCC on renewable energy (IPCC, 2012) was published; more studies on water consumption from hydropower have become available. The newly published studies do not, however, contribute to a more consistent picture on what the true water consumption from hydropower plants is. The dominant calculation metho...

Hveding, Q.: Hydropower development in Norway (Vol.~1), Norwegian Institute of Technology, Division of Hydraulic Engineering, Trondheim, Norway, 1992.; Agder Energi: available at: www.ae.no/ae/english/, last access: 21~May~2013.; Andrah Pradesh (India): State Water Policies and the National Water Policy for water management practices, available at: http://wrmin.nic.i...

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Uncertainties in Climate Change Projections and Regional Downscali...

By: R. Célleri; R. Urrutia; A. Karmalkar; A. Dewulf; W. Buytaert; M. Vuille

Description: Imperial College London, Civil and Environmental Engineering, London, UK. Climate change is expected to have a large impact on water resources worldwide. A major problem in assessing the potential impact of a changing climate on these resources is the difference in spatial scale between available climate change projections and water resources management. Regional climate models (RCMs) are often used for the spatial disaggregation of the outputs of globa...

Allen, M. R. and Ingram, W. J.: Constraints on future changes in climate and the hydrologic cycle, Nature, 419, 224–232, 2002.; Allen, R. G., Pereira, L. S., Raes, D., and Smith, M.: Crop evapotranspiration. Guidelines for computing crop water requirements, FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 56, FAO, Rome, 1998.; Bates, B. C., Kundzewicz, Z. W., Wu, S., and Palutikof, J.: Climate Change and Water. Technical Paper of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC Secr...

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Effect of Meteorological Forcing and Snow Model Complexity on Hydr...

By: G. Meon; U. Strasser; T. Marke; K. Förster

Description: Department of Hydrology, Water Management and Water Protection, Leichtweiss Institute for Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources, University of Braunschweig, Beethovenstr. 51a, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany. Detailed physically based snow models using energy balance approaches are spatially and temporally transferable and hence regarded as particularly suited for scenario applications including changing climate or land use. However, these snow models pla...

Anderson, E. A.: Development and testing of snow pack energy balance equations, Water Resour. Res., 4, 19–37, 1968.; Anderson, E. A.: National Weather Service River Forecast System – Snow Accumulation and Ablation Model, in: NOAA Technical Memorandum, edited by: NOAA, vol. NWS HYDRO-17, National Weather Service, Silver Spring, 1973.; Bales, R. C., Molotch, N. P., Painter, T. H., Dettinger, M. D., Rice, R., and Dozier, J.: Mountain hydrology of the western United States, ...

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Modelling a River Catchment Using an Electrical Circuit Analogue :...

By: C. G. Collier

Description: Telford Institute of Environmental Systems, Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT, Greater Manchester, United Kingdom. An electrical circuit analogue of a river catchment is described from which is derived an hydrological model of river flow called the River Electrical Water Analogue Research and Development (REWARD) model. The model is based upon an analytic solution to the equation governing the flow of electr...

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Uncertainty in the Determination of Soil Hydraulic Parameters and ...

By: A. Facchi; B. Ortuani; C. Gandolfi; J. C. Van Dam; D. Horeschi; G. Baroni

Description: Dipartimento di Ingegneria Agraria, Università degli Studi di Milano, Italy. Data of soil hydraulic properties forms often a limiting factor in unsaturated zone modelling, especially at the larger scales. Investigations for the hydraulic characterization of soils are time-consuming and costly, and the accuracy of the results obtained by the different methodologies is still debated. However, we may wonder how the uncertainty in soil hydraulic parameters ...

Bastet, G., Bruand, A., Voltz, M., Bornand, M., and Quétin, P.: Performance of available pedotransfer functions for predicting the water retention properties of French soils, in: Characterization and Measurement of the Hydraulic Properties of Unsaturated Porous Media, edited by: van Genuchten, M. T., Leij, F. J., and Wu, L., University of California, Riverside, USA, 981–991, 1999.; Bouma, J.: Using soil survey data for quantitative land evaluation. Adv. Soil Sci., 9, 177...

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Early Warning of Drought in Europe Using the Monthly Ensemble Syst...

By: J. Vogt; F. Pappenberger; C. Lavaysse

Description: European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Ispra (Va), Italy. Timely forecasts of the onset or possible evolution of droughts are an important contribution to mitigate their manifold negative effects. In this paper we therefore analyse and compare the performance of the first month of the probabilistic extended range forecast and of the seasonal forecast from ECMWF in predicting droughts over the European continent. The Standardized Precipitation ...

McKee, T. B., Doesken, N. J., and Kleist, J.: The relationship of drought frequency and duration to time scales, in: Proceedings of the 8th Conference on Applied Climatology, Anaheim, CA, USA, Am. Meteorol. Soc., 179–184, 1993.; Mishra, A. and Desai, V.: Drought forecasting using feed-forward recursive neural network, Ecol. Model., 198, 127–138, 2006.; Mishra, A., Desai, V., and Singh, V.: Drought forecasting using a hybrid stochastic and neural network model, J. Hydrol....

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Era-interim/Land: a Global Land Surface Reanalysis Data Set : Volu...

By: A. Beljaars; C. Albergel; S. Boussetta; T. Stockdale; F. Pappenberger; H. Cloke; E. Brun; D. Dee; G. Balsamo; P. De Rosnay; J. Muñoz-sabater; F. Vitart; E. Dutra

Description: European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), Reading, UK. ERA-Interim/Land is a global land surface reanalysis data set covering the period 1979–2010. It describes the evolution of soil moisture, soil temperature and snowpack. ERA-Interim/Land is the result of a single 32-year simulation with the latest ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) land surface model driven by meteorological forcing from the ERA-Interim atmosp...

Adler, R. F., Huffman, G. J., Chang, A., Ferraro, R., Xie, P., Janowiak, J., Rudolf, B., Schneider, U., Curtis, S., Bolvin, D., Gruber, A., Susskind, J., Arkin, P., and Nelkin, E. J.: The Version 2.1 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Monthly Precipitation Analysis (1979–Present), J. Hydrometeorol., 4, 1147–1167, 2003.; Agust\`i-Panareda, A., Balsamo, G., and Beljaars, A.: Impact of improved soil moisture on the ECMWF precipitation forecast in West Africa, G...

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