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Renormalization Group Theory of Earthquakes : Volume 3, Issue 2 (3...

By: D. Sornette; H. Saleur; C. G. Sammis

Description: Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0740, USA. We study theoretically the physical origin of the proposed discrete scale invariance of earthquake processes, at the origin of the universal log-periodic corrections to scaling, recently discovered in regional seismic activity (Sornette and Sammis (1995)). The discrete scaling symmetries which may be pr...

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Topographic Instability of Flow in a Rotating Fluid : Volume 13, I...

By: V. O. Kakhiani; K. I. Patarashvili; Z. J. Tsakadze; M. V. Kalashnik; J. I. Nanobashvili; R. J. Chanishvili; M. A. Zhvania

Description: E. Andronikashvili Institute of Physics, 6 Tamarashvili str.,Tbilisi 0171, Georgia. Here are presented the results of experimental and theoretical studies on a stability of zonal geostrophic flows in the rotating layer of the shallow water. In the experiments, a special apparatus by Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory Georgian Academy of Science was used. This apparatus represents a paraboloid of rotation, which can be set in a regulable rotation around...

Danilov, S. D. and Sazonov, I. A.: Calculation of a zonal source-sink flow in a rotating basin, Izv. Acad. Sci. Russia, Atmos. Ocean. Phys., 35, 344–355, 1999.; Dikii, L. A.: Hydrodynamic stability and dynamics of the atmosphere, Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 1976.; Doljanski, F. V., Krimov, V. A., and Manin, D. U.: A stability and vortex structure of quasi-dimensional shear flows, Sov.Phys. Uspekhi, 160, 1–47, 1990.; Nezlin, M. V. and Snejkin, E. N.: Rossby vortices and s...

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Bayesian Neural Network Modeling of Tree-ring Temperature Variabil...

By: S. Maiti; R. K. Tiwari

Description: National Geophysical Research Institute (CSIR), Hyderabad-500007, India. A novel technique based on the Bayesian neural network (BNN) theory is developed and employed to model the temperature variation record from the Western Himalayas. In order to estimate an a posteriori probability function, the BNN is trained with the Hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC)/Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulations algorithm. The efficacy of the new algorithm is tested on the we...

Andrieu, C., de Freitas, N., Doucet, A., and Jordan, M.: An introduction to MCMC for machine learning, Mach. Learn., 50, 5–43, 2003.; Bishop, C. M.: Neural networks for pattern recognition, Oxford University Press, 1995.; Blanco, J. A., Seely, B., Welham, C., Kimmins, J. P., and Seebacher, T. M.: Testing the performance of FORECAST, a forest ecosystem model, against 29 years of field data in a Pseudotsuga menziesii plantation, Can. J. Forest Res., 37, 1808–1820, 2007.; B...

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Non-linear Complex Principal Component Analysis of Nearshore Bathy...

By: W. W. Hsieh; B. G. Ruessink; S. S. P. Rattan

Description: Dept. of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, V6T 1Z4. Complex principal component analysis (CPCA) is a useful linear method for dimensionality reduction of data sets characterized by propagating patterns, where the CPCA modes are linear functions of the complex principal component (CPC), consisting of an amplitude and a phase. The use of non-linear methods, such as the neural-network based circular non-line...

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Sensibility to Noise of New Multifractal Fusion Methods for Ocean ...

By: A. Turiel; M. Umbert; J. Isern-fontanet

Description: Institut de Ciencies del Mar, CSIC, Barcelona, Spain. The repeated observation of the same signatures of mesoscale and submesoscale features in different ocean variables indicates that some common, non-linear processes affect them to a significant extent. A new method to exploit these common signatures to improve the quality of a noisy variable (i.e. increasing the signal-to-noise ratio) using another variable as template has recently been introduced. T...

She, Z. S. and Leveque, E.: Universal scaling laws in fully developed turbulence, Phys. Rev. Lett., 72, 336–339, 1994.; Cayula, J.-F. and Cornillon, P.: Multi-Image Edge Detecion for SST Images, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 12, 821–829, 1995.; Chelton, D., Schlax, M., Samelson, R., and de Szoeke, R.: Global observations of large oceanic eddies, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L15606, doi:10.1029/2007GL030812, 2007.; Dubrulle, B.: In...

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Can an Ensemble Give Anything More Than Gaussian Probabilities? : ...

By: J. C. W. Denholm-price

Description: School of Mathematics, Kingston University, Kingston upon Thames, KT1 2EE, UK. Can a relatively small numerical weather prediction ensemble produce any more forecast information than can be reproduced by a Gaussian probability density function (PDF)? This question is examined using site-specific probability forecasts from the UK Met Office. These forecasts are based on the 51-member Ensemble Prediction System of the European Centre for ...

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Preface Nonlinear Processes in Oceanic and Atmospheric Flows : Vol...

By: S. Wiggins; E. García-ladona; A. Turiel; E. Hernández-garcía; C. López; A. M. Mancho

Description: Instituto de Ciencias Matemáticas, CSIC-UAM-UC3M-UCM, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid, Spain. Nonlinear phenomena are essential ingredients in many oceanic and atmospheric processes, and successful understanding of them benefits from multidisciplinary collaboration between oceanographers, meteorologists, physicists and mathematicians. The present Special Issue on Nonlinear Processes in Oceanic and Atmospheric Flows contains selected contributions from attenda...

Boucharel, J., Dewitte, B., Garel, B., and du Penhoat, Y.: ENSO's non-stationary and non-Gaussian character: the role of climate shifts, Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 16, 453–473, doi:10.5194/npg-16-453-2009, 2009.; Rossi, V., López, C., Hernández-García, E., Sudre, J., Garçon, V., and Morel, Y.: Surface mixing and biological activity in the four Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems, Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 16, 557–568, doi:10.5194/npg-16-557-2009, 2009.; Sánchez-Garrido...

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Bistable Systems with Stochastic Noise: Virtues and Limits of Effe...

By: V. Lucarini; D. Faranda; M. Willeit

Description: Klimacampus, Institute of Meteorology, Hamburg Universität, Hamburg, Germany. The understanding of the statistical properties and of the dynamics of multistable systems is gaining more and more importance in a vast variety of scientific fields. This is especially relevant for the investigation of the tipping points of complex systems. Sometimes, in order to understand the time series of given observables exhibiting bimodal distributions, simple one-dime...

Benzi, R., Parisi G., Sutera A., and Vulpiani A.: Stochastic resonance in climatic change, Tellus 34, 10–16, 1982.; Benzi, R.: Stochastic resonance: from climate to biology, Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 17, 431–441, doi:10.5194/npg-17-431-2010, 2010.; Boyle, E. and Kegwin, L.: North Atlantic thermohaline circulation during the past 20,000 years linked to high-latitude surface temperature, Nature, 330, 35–40, 1987.; Ces...

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Testing the Hypothesis of the Earth's Magnetosphere Behaving Like ...

By: A. T. Y. Lui

Description: The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Maryland 20723, USA. The global auroral dissipation power as observed by the imager on the Polar spacecraft is used as a proxy for the power dissipation of the Earth's magnetosphere to examine whether or not the magnetosphere is an avalanching system. It is found that the probability density distributions for the area and power of auroral activity sites have a power law component within a ...

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Nonlinear Analysis of Magnetospheric Data Part I. Geometric Charac...

By: M. A. Athanasiu; E. T. Sarris; D. Kugiumtzis; N. Hatzigeorgiu; A. G. Rigas; G. P. Pavlos

Description: Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Demokritos University of Thrace, 67100 Xanthi, Greece. A long AE index time series is used as a crucial magnetospheric quantity in order to study the underlying dynainics. For this purpose we utilize methods of nonlinear and chaotic analysis of time series. Two basic components of this analysis are the reconstruction of the experimental tiine series state space trajectory of the underlying process and th...

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Time-dependent Long's Equation : Volume 22, Issue 2 (06/03/2015)

By: M. Humi

Description: Department of Mathematical Sciences, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 100 Institute Road, Worcester, MA01609, USA. Long's equation describes steady-state two-dimensional stratified flow over terrain. Its numerical solutions under various approximations were investigated by many authors. Special attention was paid to the properties of the gravity waves that are predicted to be generated as a result. In this paper we derive a time-dependent generalization ...

Baines, P. G.: Topographic effects in Stratified flows. Cambridge Univ. Press, New York, 1995.; Drazin, P. G.: On the steady flow of a fluid of variable density past an obstacle, Tellus, 13, 239–251, 1961.; Drazin, P. G. and Moore, D. W.: Steady two dimensional flow of fluid of variable density over an obstacle, J. Fluid. Mech., 28, 353–370, 1967.; Durran, D. R.: Two-Layer solutions to Long's equation for vertically propagating mountain waves, Q. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., ...

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Clarification of the Hall Effect as an Energy Transfer Mechanism i...

By: A. De Paor

Description: Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, National University of Ireland, Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland. Clarification is offered of the energy transfer role played by the Hall effect in a recent paper: de Paor, A., A theory of the Earth's magnetic field and of sunspots, based on a self-excited dynamo incorporating the Hall effect, Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics, 8, 265-279, 2001.

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Continuous Dynamic Assimilation of the Inner Region Data in Hydrod...

By: S. A. Santos; J. M. Martínez; I. A. Pisnichenko; F. I. Pisnitchenko

Description: State University of Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brazil. In meteorological and oceanological studies the classical approach for finding the numerical solution of the regional model consists in formulating and solving a Cauchy-Dirichlet problem. The boundary conditions are obtained by linear interpolation of coarse-grid data provided by a global model. Errors in boundary conditions due to interpolation may cause large deviations from the correct regional solu...

Andreani, R., Birgin, E. G., Mart\'inez, J. M., and Schuverdt, M. L.: On Augmented Lagrangian methods with general lower-level constraints, SIAM J. Optimiz., 18, 1286–1309, 2007.; Andreani, R., Birgin, E. G., Mart\'inez, J. M., and Schuverdt, M. L.: Augmented Lagrangian methods under the Constant Positive Linear Dependence constraint qualification, Math. Program., 111, 5–32, 2008.; Benzi, M., Golub, G. H., and Liesen, J.: Numerical Solution of Saddle Point Problems, Acta...

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Holocene Climate Variability on Millennial Scales Recorded in Gree...

By: A. Y. Schumann; A. Witt

Description: Nonlinear Dynamics Group, Physics Department, University of Potsdam, PB 601553, 14469 Potsdam, Germany. Climate variability is triggered by several solar and orbital cycles as well as by the intern ocean dynamics. Consequently, paleoclimate proxy records are expected to vary on very different time scales ranging from subdecadal to millennial duration. We demonstrate, that Foster's (Foster, 1996) wavelet analysis technique is an appropriate tool for inves...

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Theory and Observation of Double Discontinuities : Volume 11, Issu...

By: Y. C. Whang

Description: Catholic University of America, Room 107, Pangborn Hall, Washington, D. C. 20064, USA. Recent research using high-resolution magnetic field data to examine the interior structures of MHD shocks in interplanetary space and in the magnetotail led to a surprising discovery that a slow-mode shock is often followed by an adjoining rotational discontinuity layer on the postshock side. The thickness of each layer is of the order of a few ion inertial lengths. S...

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Inverse Modelling of Atmospheric Tracers: Non-gaussian Methods and...

By: M. Bocquet

Description: Université Paris-Est, CEREA, Research and Teaching Centre in Atmospheric Environment, Joint laboratory École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées / EDF R&D, avenue Blaise Pascal, 77455 Champs sur Marne, France. For a start, recent techniques devoted to the reconstruction of sources of an atmospheric tracer at continental scale are introduced. A first method is based on the principle of maximum entropy on the mean and is briefly reviewed here. A second approac...

Bocquet, M.: Grid resolution dependence in the reconstruction of an atmospheric tracer source, Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 12, 219–234, 2005a.; Bocquet, M.: Reconstruction of an atmospheric tracer source using the principle of maximum entropy, I: Theory, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 131, 2191–2208, 2005b.; Bocquet, M.: Reconstruction of an atmospheric tracer source using the principle of maximum entropy, II: Applications, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 131, 2209–2223, 2005c.; Bocq...

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Equilibrium Temperature Distribution and Hadley Circulation in an ...

By: N. Tartaglione

Description: School of Science and Technology, University of Camerino, Camerino, Italy. The impact of the equilibrium temperature distribution, ΘE, on the Hadley circulation simulated by an axisymmetric model is studied. The ΘE distributions that drive the model are modulated here by two parameters, n and k, the former controlling the horizontal broadness and the latter controlling the vertical stratification of ΘE. In ...

Fang, M. and Tung, K. K.: Time-dependent nonlinear Hadley circulation, J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 1797–1807, 1999.; Farrell, B. F.: Equable Climate Dynamics, J. Atmos. Sci., 47, 2986–2995, 2.0.CO;2>doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1990)047<2986:ECD>2.0.CO;2, 1990.; Kim, H.-K. and Lee, S.: Hadley cell dynamics in a primitive equation model, Part II: Nonaxisymmetric flow, J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 2859–2871, 2001.; Lindzen, R. S. a...

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Contraction of Westward-travelling Nonlocal Modons Due to the Vort...

By: Z. Kizner; D. Berson

Description: Department of Physics, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900, Israel. Long-term evolution of westward-travelling non-local modons on the β-plane, i.e. dipolar vortices imbedded in slowly damping Rossby wave fields, is studied numerically. In the framework of the nondivergent (barotropic) model, two stages of the evolution are observed. At the first stage (for about 30 synoptic periods), the parameters and the form of the vortex ...

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Hidden Semi-markov Model Based Earthquake Classification System Us...

By: J. Wassermann; M. Beyreuther

Description: Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences (Geophys. Observatory), Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Germany. Automatic earthquake detection and classification is required for efficient analysis of large seismic datasets. Such techniques are particularly important now because access to measures of ground motion is nearly unlimited and the target waveforms (earthquakes) are often hard to detect and classify. Here, we propose to use models from spe...

Beyreuther, M. and Wassermann, J.: Continuous earthquake detection and classification using Discrete Hidden Markov Models, Geophys. J. Int., 175, 1055–1066, 2008.; Beyreuther, M., Carniel, R., and Wassermann, J.: Continuous Hidden Markov Models: Application to automatic earthquake detection and classification at Las Canadas caldera, Tenerife, J. Volcanol. Geoth. Res., 176, 513–518, 2008.; Ibs-von Seht, M.: Detection and identification of seismic signals recorded at Kraka...

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Empirically Derived Climate Predictability Over the Extratropical ...

By: A. A. Tsonis; J. B. Elsner

Description: Dept. of Meteorology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA. A novel application of a technique developed from chaos theory is used in describing seasonal to interannual climate predictability over the Northern Hemisphere (NH). The technique is based on an empirical forecast scheme - local approximation in a reconstructed phase space - for time-series data. Data are monthly 500 hPa heights on a latitude-longitude grid covering the NH from 2...

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