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A Note on Chaotic Vs. Stochastic Behavior of the High-latitude Ion...

By: K. C. Yeh; A. W. Wernik

Description: Space Research Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Bartycka 18a, Warsaw, Poland. Four data sets of density fluctuations measured in-situ by the Dynamics Explorer (DE 2) were analyzed in an attempt to study chaotic nature of the high-latitude turbulence and, in this way to complement the conventional spectral analysis. It has been found that the probability distribution function of density differences is far from ...

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Conditions for Large Earthquakes in a Two-asperity Fault Model : V...

By: S. Santini; M. Dragoni

Description: Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Bologna, Viale Carlo Berti Pichat 8, 40127 Bologna, Italy. A fault with two asperities is modelled as a system made of two blocks coupled by a spring and sliding on a plane under the same values of static and dynamic friction. An analytical solution is given for the simultaneous motion of the blocks and the corresponding orbits are plotted in the phase space. It is proven that, whichever the initial state is, the lo...

Burridge, R. and Knopoff, L.: Model and theoretical seismology, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 57, 341–371, 1967.; Belardinelli, M. E. and Belardinelli, E.: The quasi-static approximation of the spring-slider motion, Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 3, 143–149, doi:10.5194/npg-3-143-1996, 1996.; Byerlee, J.: Friction of rocks, Pure Appl. Geophys., 116, 616–626, 1978.; Cao, T. and Aki, K.: Seismicity simulation with a mass-spring ...

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Lagrangian Transport and Chaos in the Near Wake of the Flow Around...

By: S. Wiggins; J. Duan

Description: Department of Mathematical Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634. In this paper we study Lagrangian transport in the near wake of the flow around an obstacle, which we take to be a cylinder. In this case, for the range of Reynolds numbers investigated, the flow is two-dimensional and time periodic. We use ideas and methods from transport theory in dynamical systems to describe and quantify transport in the near wake. We numerically ...

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Granulometric Characterization of Sediments Transported by Surface...

By: C. S. Souza; V. P. Singh; J. L. M. P. De Lima

Description: Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology – Campus 2, University of Coimbra, 3030-788 Coimbra, Portugal. Due to the combined effect of wind and rain, the importance of storm movement to surface flow has long been recognized, at scales ranging from headwater scales to large basins. This study presents the results of laboratory experiments designed to investigate the influence of moving rainfall storms on the dynamics of sediment t...

Bagnold R. A.: An approach to the sediment transport problem from general physics, US Geological Survey Professional Paper, 422–1, 11–137, 1966.; Bras, R. and Rodrigues-Iturbe, I.: Rainfall generation: a nonstationary time-varying multidimensional model, Water Resour. Res., 12(3), 450–454, 1976.; Bryan, R. B. and Poesen, J.: Laboratory experiments on the influence of slope length on runoff, percolation and rill development, Earth Surf. Processes, 14, 211–231, 1989.; Eagl...

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Kinetic Simulations of the Coupling Between Current Instabilities ...

By: J. Büchner; T. Wiegelmann

Description: Max-Planck Institut für Aeronomie, Max-Planck-Str. 2, 37191 Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany. We investigate the coupling between current and tearing instability modes of a thin current sheet using the particle code GISMO. We identify pure tearing modes (kx≠ 0), instabilities in the current flow direction (ky≠ 0) and general 3D reconnection modes (kx≠ 0 and ky≠ 0). Our results give evidence that the coupling between ...

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Erratum: the Predictability of Large-scale Wind-drive Flows : Volu...

By: J. Lu; P. Malanotte-rizzoli; S. P. Meacham; A. Mahadevan
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Evaluation of Empirical Mode Decomposition for Quantifying Multi-d...

By: D. P. Chambers

Description: College of Marine Science, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg, FL, USA. The ability of empirical mode decomposition (EMD) to extract multidecadal variability from sea level records is tested using three simulations: one based on a series of purely sinusoidal modes, one based on scaled climate indices of El Niño and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and the final one including a single month with an extreme sea level event. A...

Andrade, A. O., Nasuto, S., Kyberd, P., Sweeney-Reed, C. M., and Van Kanijin, F. R.: EMG signal filtering based on Empirical Mode Decomposition, Biomedical Signal Processing and Control, 1, 44–55, doi:10.1016/j.bspc.2006.03.003, 2006.; Becker, M., Karpytchev, M., and Lennartz-Sassinek, S.: Long-term sea level trends: natural or anthropogenic?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 5571–5580, doi:

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Scaling Properties of Velocity and Temperature Spectra Above the S...

By: J. B. Moncrieff; K. G. McNaughton; R. J. Clement

Description: School of GeoSciences, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JU, Scotland. We report velocity and temperature spectra measured at nine levels from 1.42 meters up to 25.7 m over a smooth playa in Western Utah. Data are from highly convective conditions when the magnitude of the Obukhov length (our proxy for the depth of the surface friction layer) was less than 2 m. Our results are somewhat similar to the results reported from the Minnesota experim...

Cava, D., Schipa, S. and Giostra, U.: Investigation of low-frequency perturbations induced by a steep obstacle, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol., 115, 27–45, 2005.; Corrsin, S.: On the spectrum of isotropic temperature fluctuations in an isotropic turbulence, J. Appl. Phys., 22, 469–473, 1951.; Deardorff, W J.: Preliminary results from numerical integrations of the unstable boundary layer, J. Atmos. Sci., 27, 1209–1231, 1970.; DeGraaff, D B. and Eaton, J K.: Reynolds-number scaling...

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Wave Vector Analysis Methods Using Multi-point Measurements : Volu...

By: U. Motschmann; K.-h. Glassmeier; Y. Narita

Description: Institut für Geophysik und extraterrestrische Physik, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Mendelssohnstr. 3, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany. Recent developments of multi-point measurements in space provide a means to analyze spacecraft data directly in the wave vector domain. For turbulence study this means that we are able to estimate energy, helicity, and higher order moments in the wave vector domain without assuming Taylor's hypothesis or axisymmetry a...

Biskamp, D.: Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2003.; Capon, J.: High resolution frequency-wavenumber spectrum analysis, Proc. IEEE, 57, 1408–1418, 1969.; Balogh, A., Carr, C. M., Acuña, M. H., Dunlop, M. W., Beek, T. J., Brown, P., Fornacon, K.-H., Georgescu, E., Glassmeier, K.-H., Harris, J., Musmann, G., Oddy, T., and Schwingenschuh, K.: The Cluster Magnetic Field Investigation: overview of in-flight performance and initial results...

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Self-breeding: a New Method to Estimate Local Lyapunov Structures ...

By: J. D. Keller; A. Hense

Description: Hans-Ertel-Centre for Weather Research, Bonn, Germany. We present a new approach to estimate local Lyapunov vectors. The so called self-breeding method is based on the breeding of growing modes technique from medium range weather forecasting and consists of a continuous forecasting and rescaling cycle. Using the Lorenz96 model we test and characterize the behavior of the algorithm regarding error growth, spatial perturbation structure estimates and...

Lorenz, E. N.: Predictability: a problem partly solved, in: Proceedings of the Seminar on Predictability, vol. 1, 1–18, ECMWF, Reading, UK, 1995.; Kalnay, E., Corazza, M., and Cai, M.: Are bred vectors the same as Lyapunov vectors?, in: AMS Symposium on Observations, Data Assimilation and Probabilistic Prediction, Orlando, FL, USA, 173–177, 2002.; Legras, B. and Vautard, R.: A guide to Liapunov vectors, in: Proceedings of the Seminar on Predictability, vol. 1, ECMWF, Rea...

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Brief Communication a Statistical Validation for the Cycles Found ...

By: G. Mabille; M. Erpicum; X. Fettweis; S. Nicolay

Description: Département de mathématique, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium. Recently, new cycles, associated with periods of 30 and 43 months, respectively, have been observed by the authors in surface air temperature time series, using a wavelet-based methodology. Although many evidences attest the validity of this method applied to climatic data, no systematic study of its efficiency has been carried out. Here, we estimate confidence levels for this approach an...

Allen, M. R. and Robertson, A. W.: Distinguishing modulated oscillations from coloured noise in multivariate datasets, Clim. Dynam., 12, 775–784, 1996.; Arneodo, A., Argoul, F., Elezgaray, J., and Grasseau, G.: Wavelet transform analysis of fractals: application to nonequilibrium phase transitions, in: Nonlinear Dynamics, edited by: Turchetti, G., World Scientific, Singapore, 1988.; Daubechies, I.: Ten lectures on wavelets, SIAM, Philadelphia, 1992.; Freysz, E., Pouligny...

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Intermittency, Non-gaussian Statistics and Fractal Scaling of Mhd ...

By: C.-y. Tu; E. Marsch

Description: Max-Planck-Institut für Aeronomie, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany. This paper gives a review of some recent work on intermittency, non-Gaussian statistics, and fractal scaling of solar wind magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. Model calculations and theories are discussed and put in their context with the in-situ observations of the solar wind fluctuations, essentially of the flow velocity and magnetic field. Emphasis is placed more on a comparison of th...

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A Simple Conceptual Model of Abrupt Glacial Climate Events : Volum...

By: D. R. Chialvo; M. Christl; A. Ganopolski; H. Braun

Description: Heidelberg Academy of Sciences and Humanities, c/o Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. Here we use a very simple conceptual model in an attempt to reduce essential parts of the complex nonlinearity of abrupt glacial climate changes (the so-called Dansgaard-Oeschger events) to a few simple principles, namely (i) the existence of two different climate states, (ii) a threshold proc...

Alley, R B. and Clark, P U.: The deglaciation of the northern hemisphere: A global perspective, Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 27, 149–182, 1999.; Alley, R B., Clark, P U., Keigwin, L D., and Webb, R S.: Making sense of millennial-scale climate change, in: Mechanisms of Global Climate Change at Millennial Time Scales, edited by: Clark, P U., Webb, R S., and Keigwin, L D., AGU, Washington, DC, 385–394, 1999.; Alley, R B., Anandakrishnan, S., and Jung, P.: Stochastic resona...

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Using Ensemble Data Assimilation to Forecast Hydrological Flumes :...

By: T. Kauranne; A. Bibov; Z. Mussa; I. Amour

Description: Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta, Finland. Data assimilation, commonly used in weather forecasting, means combining a mathematical forecast of a target dynamical system with simultaneous measurements from that system in an optimal fashion. We demonstrate the benefits obtainable from data assimilation with a dam break flume simulation in which a shallow-water equation model is complemented with wave meter measurements. Data assimilatio...

Aliparast, M.: Two-dimensional finite volume method for dam-break flow simulation, Int. J. Sediment Res., 24, 99–107, 2009.; Auvinen, H., Bardsley, J., Haario, H., and Kauranne, T.: The variational Kalman filter and an efficient implementation using limited memory BFGS, Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fl., 64, 314–335, 2009.; Baghlani, A.: Simulation of dam-break problem by a robust flux-vector splitting approach in Cartesian grid, Scientia Iranica, 18, 1061–1068, 2011.; Barcena, J...

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Excitation of Low Frequency Oscillations in a Planetary Magnetoshe...

By: N. Borisov; M. Fränz

Description: Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Waves Propagation, (IZMIRAN), 142190 Troitsk, Moscow region, Russia. We show that the slow magnetosonic (SM) perturbations generated in the vicinity of the magnetopause, due to the excitation of the Kelvin-Helmholtz (K.-H.) instability in the case of a supersonic flow velocity, are transformed into fast magnetosonic (FM) waves which can propagate into the magnetosheath. Under the conditions discuss...

Anderson, B. J. and Fuselier, S. A.: Magnetic pulsations from 0.1 Hz to 4.0 Hz and associated plasma properties in the Earth's subsolar magnetosheath and plasma depletion layer, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 1461–1479, 1993.; Biernat, H. K., Erkaev, N. V., Amerstofer U. V., Penz, T., and Lichtenegger, H. I. M.: Solar wind flow past Venus and its applications for the occurrence of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, Planet. Space Sci., 55, 1793–1803, 2007.; Chandrasekhar, S.: Hydro...

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Lagrangian Structures in Time-periodic Vortical Flows : Volume 13,...

By: A. A. Khapaev; I. G. Yakushkin; V. M. Ponomarev; S. V. Kostrykin

Description: Institute of Numerical Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia. The Lagrangian trajectories of fluid particles are experimentally studied in an oscillating four-vortex velocity field. The oscillations occur due to a loss of stability of a steady flow and result in a regular reclosure of streamlines between the vortices of the same sign. The Eulerian velocity field is visualized by tracer displacements over a short time period. The obtai...

Cardoso, O., Gluckmann, B., Parcollet, O., and Tabeling, P.: Dispersion in a quasi-two-dimensional turbulent flow: an experimental study, Phys. Fluids A, 8, 209–214, 1996.; Cencini, M., Lacorata, G., Vulpani, A., and Zambianchi, E.: Mixing in a meandering jet: a Markovian approximation, J. Phys. Oceanog., 29, 2578–2594, 1999.; Chukbar, K. V: Stochastic transport and fractional derivatives, J. Exp. Theor. Phys., 81, 1025–1029, 1995.; Danilov, S. D., Dovzhenko, V. A., Karp...

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The Role of Boundary and Initial Conditions for Dynamical Seasonal...

By: J. O. Roads; T. J. Reichler

Description: Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0224, USA. The importance of initial state and boundary forcing for atmospheric predictability is explored on global to regional spatial scales and on daily to seasonal time scales. A general circulation model is used to conduct predictability experiments with different combinations of initial and boundary conditions. The experimen...

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Universal Dependences Between Turbulent and Mean Flow Parameters I...

By: S. S. Zilitinkevich; I. N. Esau

Description: Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Centre, Thormohlensgate 47, 5006 Bergen, Norway. We consider the resistance law for the planetary boundary layer (PBL) from the point of view of the similarity theory. In other words, we select the set of the PBL governing parameters and search for an optimal way to express through these parameters the geostrophic drag coefficient Cg=u* /Ug and the cross isobaric angle Α (wher...

Banta, R. M., Newsom, R. K., Lundquist, J. K., Pichugina, Y. L., Coulter, R. L., and Mahrt, L.: Nocturnal Low-Level Jet Characteristics Over Kansas During Cases-99, Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 105, 221-252, 2002.; Beare, R. J., MacVean, M. K., Holtslag, A. A. M., Cuxart, J. , Esau, I., Golaz, J.-C., Jimenez, M. A., Khairoutdinov, M., Kosovic, B., Lewellen, D., Lund, T. S., Lundquist, J. K., McCabe, A., Moene, A. F., Noh, Y., Raasch, S., and Sullivan, P.: An intercomparison...

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Fluctuations in a Quasi-stationary Shallow Cumulus Cloud Ensemble ...

By: A. Seifert; T. Heus; M. Sakradzija

Description: Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany. We propose an approach to stochastic parameterisation of shallow cumulus clouds to represent the convective variability and its dependence on the model resolution. To collect information about the individual cloud lifecycles and the cloud ensemble as a whole, we employ a large eddy simulation (LES) model and a cloud tracking algorithm, followed by conditional sampling of clouds at the cloud-base...

Arakawa, A. and Schubert, W. H.: Interaction of a cumulus cloud ensemble with the large-scale environment, Part 1, J. Atmos. Sci., 31, 674–701, 1974.; Baker, L. H., Rudd, A. C., Migliorini, S., and Bannister, R. N.: Representation of model error in a convective-scale ensemble prediction system, Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 21, 19–39, doi:10.5194/npg-21-19-2014, 2014.; Bechtold, P., Bazile, E., Guichard, F., Mascart, P.,...

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Number-average Size Model for Geological Systems and Its Applicati...

By: J. Zhao; Y. Zhang; H. Liu; L. Wan; Q. F. Wang

Description: State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083, China. Various natural objects follow a number-size relationship in the fractal domain. In such relationship, the accumulative number of the objects beyond a given size shows a power-law relationship with the size. Yet in most cases, we also need to know the relationship between the accumulative number of the objects and their average size...

Annels, A. E.: Mineral Deposit Evaluation, A practical approach, Chapman & Hall, London, New York, Tokyo, Melbourne, Madras, 436 pp., 1991.; Cheng, Q. M.: Spatial and scaling modelling for geochemical anomaly separation, J. Geochem. Explor., 65, 175–194, 1999.; Clark, M. B., Brantley, S. L., and Fisher, D. M.: Power-law vein-thickness distributions and positive feedback in vein growth, Geology, 23, 975–978, 1995.; Deng, J., Wang, Q. F., Huang, D. H., Wan, L., Yang, L. Q....

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