World Library  


 
  • Cover Image

A Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Model Based on Cellular Automata an...

By: J. M. Marfil; A. M. Posadas; A. Jiménez

Description: Department of Applied Physics, University of Almería, Spain. We try to obtain a spatio-temporal model of earthquakes occurrence based on Information Theory and Cellular Automata (CA). The CA supply useful models for many investigations in natural sciences; here, it have been used to establish temporal relations between the seismic events occurring in neighbouring parts of the crust. The catalogue used is divided into time intervals and the region into c...

Read More
  • Cover Image

The Effects of the Model Errors Generated by Discretization of On-...

By: Q. Zheng; M. Mu

Description: LASG, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China. Through an idealized model of a partial differential equation with discontinuous on-off'' switches in the forcing term, we investigate the effect of the model error generated by the traditional discretization of discontinuous physical on-off'' processes on the variational data assimilation (VDA) in detail. Meanwhile, the validity of the adjoint approach in the VD...

Bao, J. W. and Warner, T. T.: Treatment of on/off switches in the adjoint method: FDDA experiments with a simple model, Tellus, 45A, 525–538, 1993.; Bao, J. W. and Kuo, Y.-H.: On-off switches in the adjoint method, Step functions, Mon. Wea. Rev., 123, 1589–1594, 1995.; Bergur, M. S.: Nonlinear and functional analysis, Academic Press, New York, 1977.; Courtier, P. and Talagrand, O.: Variational assimilation of meteorological observations with adjoint vorticity equation: P...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Analysis of the Atmosphere Behaviour in the Proximities of an Orog...

By: A. García; L. C. Cana; J. Díaz; E. Hernández

Description: Departamento de Astrofisica y Ciencias de la Atmósfera, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid, Spain. The atmospheric behaviour near an orographic obstacle has been thoroughly studied in the last decades. The first papers in this field were mainly theoretical, being more recent the laboratory experiments which represented that behaviour in ideal conditions. The numerical simulations have been addressed lately thanks to the d...

Read More
  • Cover Image

On Closure Parameter Estimation in Chaotic Systems : Volume 19, Is...

By: A. Solonen; M. Laine; J. Tamminen; A. Ilin; E. Oja; J. Hakkarainen; H. Haario; H. Järvinen

Description: Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland. Many dynamical models, such as numerical weather prediction and climate models, contain so called closure parameters. These parameters usually appear in physical parameterizations of sub-grid scale processes, and they act as tuning handles of the models. Currently, the values of these parameters are specified mostly manually, but the increasing complexity of the models calls for more algorithmic ...

Annan, J. and Hargreaves, J.: Efficient estimation and ensemble generation in climate modelling, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 365, 2077–2088, doi:10.1098/rsta.2007.2067, 2007.; Annan, J. D., Lunt, D. J., Hargreaves, J. C., and Valdes, P. J.: Parameter estimation in an atmospheric GCM using the Ensemble Kalman Filter, Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 12, 363–371, doi:10.5194/npg-1...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Consequences of Entropy Bifurcation in Non-maxwellian Astrophysica...

By: M. P. Leubner

Description: Institute for Astro- and Particle Physics, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria. Non-extensive systems, accounting for long-range interactions and correlations, are fundamentally related to non-Maxwellian distributions where a duality of equilibria appears in two families, the non-extensive thermodynamic equilibria and the kinetic equilibria. Both states emerge out of particular entropy generalization leading to a class of probability distributio...

Bruno, R., Carbone, V., Veltri, P., Pietropaolo, E., and Bavassano, B.: Identifying intermittency events in the solar wind, Planetary Space Sci., 49, 1201, 2001.; Bruno R. and Carbone, V.: The Solar Wind as a Turbulence Laboratory, Living Rev. Solar Phys., 2, 1,2005.; Burkert, A.: The Structure of Dark Matter Halos in Dwarf Galaxies, Astrophys. J., 447, L25, 1995.; Burlaga, L. F.: Multifractal structure of speed fluctuations in recurrent streams at 1 AU and near 6 AU, Ge...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Structure Function Measurements of the Intermittent Mhd Turbulent ...

By: A. Balogh; T. S. Horbury

Description: The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London, U.K.. The intertmittent nature of turbulence within solar wind plasma has been demonstrated by several studies of spacecraft data. Using magnetic field data taken in high speed flows at high heliographic latitudes by the Ulysses probe, the character of fluctuations within the inertia] range is discussed. Structure functions are used extensively. A simple consideration of errors associated with calculatio...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Extreme Events: Dynamics, Statistics and Prediction : Volume 18, I...

By: I. Zaliapin; M. Ghil; D. Kondrashov; P. Naveau; P. Friederichs; V. Kossobokov; V. Keilis-borok; P. Shebalin; H. W. Rust; A. Soloviev; P. Yiou; M. Vrac; S. Hallegatte; A. Witt; B. D. Malamud; C. Nicolis; O. Mestre

Description: Environmental Research and Teaching Institute (CERES-ERTI), Geosciences Department and Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (CNRS and IPSL), UMR8539, CNRS-Ecole Normale Supérieure, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France. We review work on extreme events, their causes and consequences, by a group of European and American researchers involved in a three-year project on these topics. The review covers theoretical aspects of time series analysis and of extreme value th...

Rust, H. W., Kallache, M., Schellnhuber, H.-J., and Kropp, J.: Confidence intervals for flood return level estimates using a bootstrap approach, in: In Extremis, edited by: Kropp, J. and Schellnhuber, H.-J., Springer, 61–81, 2011.; Rybski, D., Bunde, A., Havlin, S., and von Storch, H.: Long-term persistence in the climate and the detection problem, Geophy. Res. Lett., 33, doi:10.1029/2005GL025591, 2006.; Salameh, T., Drobinski, P., Vrac, M., and Naveau, P.: Statistical d...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Review: Visual Analytics of Climate Networks : Volume 2, Issue 2 (...

By: S. Buschmann; N. Marwan; J. F. Donges; C. Tominski; H.-j. Schulz; T. Nocke

Description: Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Telegrafenberg A31, 14473 Potsdam, Germany. Network analysis has become an important approach in studying complex spatiotemporal behaviour within geophysical observation and simulation data. This new field produces increasing amounts of large geo-referenced networks to be analysed. Particular focus lies currently on the network analysis of the complex statistical interrelationship structure within climatolo...

Abello, J. and Pogel, A.: Graph partitions and concept lattices, in: Discrete Methods in Epidemiology, edited by: J. Abello and G. Cormode, AMS-DIMACS Series, American Mathematical Society, Providence, Rhode Island, USA, 70, 115–138, 2006.; Abello, J., Hadlak, S., Schumann, H., and Schulz, H.-J.: A modular degree-of-interest specification for the visual analysis of large dynamic networks, IEEE T. Vis. Comput. Gr., 20, 337–350, 2014.; Adar, E.: GUESS: a Language and Inter...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Flow Partitioning and Unstable Divergence in Fluviokarst Evolution...

By: M. D. Walls; J. D. Phillips

Description: Tobacco Road Research Team, Department of Geography, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0027, USA. In fluviokarst landscapes flow may be partitioned into its surface and subsurface components as well as into diffuse and concentrated flow. The competition among these is hypothesized to be responsible for the divergence of the landscape in a fluviokarst region of central Kentucky into depression-rich, unchannelled karst-rich and channel-poor (KRC...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Surface Flow Structure of the Gulf Stream from Composite Imagery a...

By: A. D. Kirwan, Jr.; C. P. Mullen

Description: Center for Coastal Physical Oceanography, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia, 23529 USA. A unique set of coutemporaneous satellite-tracked drifters and five-day composite Advanced Very High Resolution Radionmeter (AVHRR) satellite imagery of the North Atlantic has been analyzed to examine the surface flow structure of the Gulf Stream. The study region was divided into two sections, greater than 37° N and less than 37° N, in order to answer the...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Comment on Fractal Analysis of Ulf Electromagnetic Emissions in Po...

By: J. N. Thomas; F. Masci

Description: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, L'Aquila, Italy. Ida et al. (2012) identified anomalous decreases in the fractal dimension of the vertical (Z) component of the geomagnetic field, which they interpreted as precursors to the China earthquake of 1 September 2003. According to Ida et al. (2012), short-term earthquake prediction seems to be possible only by using electromagnetic phenomena. Here, it is shown that the decreases of the fr...

Balasis, G., Daglis, I. A., Papadimitriou, C., Kalimeri, M., Anastasiadis, A., and Eftaxias, K.: Investigating dynamical complexity in the magnetosphere using various entropy measures, J. Geophys. Res., 114, A00D06, doi:10.1029/2008JA014035, 2009.; Campbell, W. H.: Natural magnetic disturbance fields, not precursors, preceding the Loma Prieta earthquake, J. Geophys. Res., 114, A05307,

Read More
  • Cover Image

Assessing Microstructures of Pyrrhotites in Basalts by Multifracta...

By: S. Zhang; Q. Cheng; K. Huang; S. Xie

Description: State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources (GPMR), China University of Geosciences (CUG), Wuhan, 430074, China. Understanding and describing spatial arrangements of mineral particles and determining the mineral distribution structure are important to model the rock-forming process. Geometric properties of individual mineral particles can be estimated from thin sections, and different models have been proposed to quantify the spati...

Agterberg, F. P., Cheng, Q., Brown, A., and Good, D.: Multifractal modeling of fractures in the Lac du Bonnet Batholith, Manitoba, Computers and Geosciences, 22(5), 497–507, 1996.; Bird, N., Diaz, C. M., Saa, A., and Tarquis, M.: Fractal and multifractal analysis of pore-scale images of soil, J. Hydrol., 322, 211–219, 2006.; Cheng, Q.: The perimeter-Area Fractal Model and Its Application to Geology, Mathematical Geology, 27, 69–82, 1995.; Cheng, Q., Agterberg, F. P., and...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Optimal Solution Error Covariance in Highly Nonlinear Problems of ...

By: I. Gejadze; G. J. M. Copeland; F.-x. Le Dimet; V. Shutyaev

Description: Institute of Numerical Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119333 Gubkina 8, Moscow, Russia. The problem of variational data assimilation (DA) for a nonlinear evolution model is formulated as an optimal control problem to find the initial condition, boundary conditions and/or model parameters. The input data contain observation and background errors, hence there is an error in the optimal solution. For mildly nonlinear dynamics, the covariance matri...

Ratkowsky, D. A.: Nonlinear regression modelling: a unified practical approach, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1983.; Thacker, W. C.: The role of the Hessian matrix in fitting models to measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 6177–6196, 1989.; Amemiya, T.: Handbook of econometrics, 1, North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1983.; Courtier, P., Thépaut, J. N., and Hollingsworth, A.: A strategy for operational implementation of 4D-Var, using an incremental approach, Q. J. Roy....

Read More
  • Cover Image

Testing and Modelling Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticit...

By: P. H. A. J. M Van Gelder; J. K. Vrijling; J. Ma; W. Wang

Description: Faculty of Water Resources and Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing, 210098, China. Conventional streamflow models operate under the assumption of constant variance or season-dependent variances (e.g. ARMA (AutoRegressive Moving Average) models for deseasonalized streamflow series and PARMA (Periodic AutoRegressive Moving Average) models for seasonal streamflow series). However, with McLeod-Li test and Engle's Lagrange Multiplier test, clear evidences ...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Spatial Structures and Directionalities in Monsoonal Precipitation...

By: N. Malik; J. Kurths; N. Marwan

Description: Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, P.O. Box 601203, 14412, Potsdam, Germany. Precipitation during the monsoon season over the Indian subcontinent occurs in form of enormously complex spatiotemporal patterns due to the underlying dynamics of atmospheric circulation and varying topography. Employing methods from nonlinear time series analysis, we study spatial structures of the rainfall field during the summer monsoon and identify principle reg...

Bookhagen, B. and Burbank, D. W.: Topography, relief, and TRMM-derived rainfall variations along the Himalaya, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L08405, doi:10.1029/2006GL026037, 2006.; Ding, Y. and Sikka, D. R.: Synoptic Systems and Weather, in: The Asian Monsoon, edited by: Wang, B., Springer, 2006.; Gadgil, S.: The Indian Monsoon and its variability, Annu. Rev. Earth Pl. Sc., 31, 429–67, 2003.; Gadgil, S., Yadumani, and Joshi, N.: Coherent rainfall zones of the Indian region, ...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Characteristic Scales in Landslide Modelling : Volume 16, Issue 4 ...

By: R. Di Maio; L. Milano; E. Piegari

Description: Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Napoli, Italy. Landslides are natural hazards occurring in response to triggers of different origins, which can act with different intensities and durations. Despite the variety of conditions that cause a landslide, the analysis of landslide inventories has shown that landslide events associated with different triggers can be characterized by the same probability distribution. We studied a cellular automaton, able t...

Christensen, K. and Olami, Z.: Scaling, phase transitions, and nonuniversality in a self-organized critical cellular-automaton model, Phys. Rev. A., 46, 1829–1838, 1992.; Fredlund, D. G. and Rahardjo H.: Soil Mechanics for Unsatured Soils, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1993.; Dietrich, W. E., Reiss, R., Hsu, M. L., and Montgomery, D.: A process-based model for colluvial soil depth and shallow landslides using digital elevation data, Hydrol. Processes, 9, 383–400, 1995.; ...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Climate Spectrum Estimation in the Presence of Timescale Errors : ...

By: D. Fleitmann; E. W. Wolff; R. Röthlisberger; D. Scholz; M. Mudelsee; A. Mangini

Description: British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, UK. We introduce an algorithm (called REDFITmc2) for spectrum estimation in the presence of timescale errors. It is based on the Lomb-Scargle periodogram for unevenly spaced time series, in combination with the Welch's Overlapped Segment Averaging procedure, bootstrap bias correction and persistence estimation. The timescale errors are modelled parametrically and included in the simulations for determining (1...

Robinson, P. M.: Estimation of a time series model from unequally spaced data, Stoch. Process. Appl., 6, 9–24, 1977.; Röthlisberger, R., Mudelsee, M., Bigler, M., de Angelis, M., Fischer, H., Hansson, M., Lambert, F., Masson-Delmotte, V., Sime, L., Udisti, R., and Wolff, E. W.: The Southern Hemisphere at glacial terminations: insights from the Dome C ice core, Clim. Past, 4, 345–356, 2008.; Scargle, J. D.: Studies in astronomical time series analysis. II. Statistical asp...

Read More
  • Cover Image

On Modulation Instability in a System of Jets, Waves and Eddies Of...

By: T. Margolina; C. A. Collins; L. M. Ivanov

Description: Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, USA. SSH altimetry observations for 1992 to 2009 off Central and Southern California are used to show that observed quasi-zonal jets were likely driven by near-resonance interactions between different scales of the flow. Quartet (modulational) instability dominated and caused non-local transfer of energy from waves and eddies to bi-annual oscillations and quasi-zonal jets. The total number of quartets ind...

Aubry, N., Guyonett, R., and Lima R.: Spatio-temporal analysis of complex signals: theory and applications, J. Stat. Phys., 64, 683–739, 1991.; Baldwin, M. P., Gray, L. G., Dunkerton, T. J., Hamilton, K., Haynes, P. H., Randel, W. J., Holton, J. R., Alexander, M. J., Hirota, I., Horinouchi, T., Jones, D. B. A., Kinnersley, J. S., Marquardt, C., Sao, K., and Takahasi, M.: The Quasi-Biennial Oscillation, Rev. Geophys., 39, 179–229, 2001.; Baldwin, M. P., Rhines, P., Huang,...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Insight Into Earthquake Sequencing: Analysis and Interpretation of...

By: K. Vasudevan; M. S. Cavers

Description: Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada. Directed graph representation of a Markov chain model to study global earthquake sequencing leads to a time-series of state-to-state transition probabilities that includes the spatio-temporally linked recurrent events in the record-breaking sense. A state refers to a configuration comprised of zones with either the occurrence or non-occurrence of an earthq...

Allan, D. W.: Statistics of atomic frequency standards, Ptoc. IEEE, 54, 221–230, 1966.; Barnes, J. A. and Allan, D. W.: A statistical model of flicker noise, Ptoc. IEEE, 54, 176–178, 1966.; Bird, P.: An updated digital model of plate boundaries, Geochem. Geophy. Geosy., 4, 1027, doi:10.1029/2001GC000252, 2003.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R., Tolstoy, M., Smith, D. K., Fox, C. G., and Dziak, R. P.: Time-clustering behavior of sprea...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Turbulent Thermal Diffusion of Aerosols in Geophysics and in Labor...

By: J. Buchholz; T. Elperin; N. Kleeorin; A. Krein; I. Rogachevskii; A. Eidelman; G. Grünefeld

Description: The Pearlstone Center for Aeronautical Engineering Studies, Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, POB 653, Beer-Sheva 84105, Israel. We discuss a new phenomenon of turbulent thermal diffusion associated with turbulent transport of aerosols in the atmosphere and in laboratory experiments. The essence of this phenomenon is the appearance of a nondiffusive mean flux of particles in the direction of the mean heat flux,...

Read More
 
1
|
2
|
3
Records: 1 - 20 of 45 - Pages: 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.