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Formation of Quasi-power Law Weak Langmuir Turbulence Spectrum by ...

By: P. H. Yoon

Description: Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA. Langmuir wave turbulence generated by a beam-plasma interaction has been studied since the early days of plasma physics research. Despite a long history of investigation on this subject, among the outstanding issues is the generation of harmonic Langmuir waves observed in both laboratory and computer-simulated experiments. However, the phenomenon has not b...

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The Interaction of Free Rossby Waves with Semi-transparent Equator...

By: V. Zeitlin; G. M. Reznik

Description: Laboratory of Dynamical Meterology, Ecole Normale Superieure and University Paris 6, 24, rue Lhomond, 75005, Paris, France. Nonlinear interactions of the barotropic Rossby waves propagating across the equator with trapped baroclinic Rossby or Yanai modes and mean zonal flow are studied within the two-layer model of the atmosphere, or the ocean. It is shown that the equatorial waveguide with a mean current acts as a resonator and responds to barotropic wa...

Barashenkov, I. V. and Smirnov, Y. S.: Existence and stability chart for the ac-driven, damped nonlinear Schrodinger solitons, Phys. Rev. E, 54, 5707–5725, 1996.; Battogtokh, D. and Mikhailov, A.: Controlling turbulence in the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation, Physica D, 90, 84–95, 1996.; Benilov, E. S. and Reznik, G. M.: The complete classification of large-amplitude geostrophic flows in a two-layer fluid, Geophys. Astro. Fluid, 82, 1–22, 1996.; Boyd, J. P.: Equatorial ...

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Improving the Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter Using a Second-orde...

By: X. Zheng; G. Wu; X. Zhang; L. Wang; S. Zhang; X. Liang; X. Yi

Description: State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China. The ensemble transform Kalman filter (ETKF) assimilation scheme has recently seen rapid development and wide application. As a specific implementation of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), the ETKF is computationally more efficient than the conventional EnKF. However, the current implementation of the ETKF still ha...

Anderson, J. L.: An adaptive covariance inflation error correction algorithm for ensemble filters, Tellus A, 59, 210–224, 2007.; Anderson, J. L.: Spatially and temporally varying adaptive covariance inflation for ensemble filters, Tellus A, 61, 72–83, 2009.; Anderson, J. L. and Anderson, S. L.: A Monte Carlo implementation of the non-linear filtering problem to produce ensemble assimilations and forecasts, Mon. Weather Rev., 127, 2741–2758, 1999.; Bishop, C. H. and Toth,...

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Intermittent Chaos Driven by Nonlinear Alfvén Waves : Volume 11, I...

By: A. J. Preto; A. C.-l. Chian; S. Stephany; E. L. Rempel

Description: National Institute for Space Research (INPE) and World Institute for Space Environment Research (WISER), P.O. Box 515, São José dos Campos, SP-12227-010, Brazil. We investigate the relevance of chaotic saddles and unstable periodic orbits at the onset of intermittent chaos in the phase dynamics of nonlinear Alfvén waves by using the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky (KS) equation as a model for phase dynamics. We focus on the role of nonattracting chaotic solutions o...

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Nonlinear Wave Energy Modelling in the Surf Zone : Volume 3, Issue...

By: Th. V. Karambas

Description: Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Civil Engineering, Division of Hydraulics and Environmental Engineering, Thessaloniki, 54006, Greece. Breaking wave energy in the surf zone is modelled through the incorporation of the time dependent energy balance equation in a non linear dispersive wave propagation model. The energy equations solved simultaneously with the momentum and continuity equation. Turbulence effect...

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Contribution of 3-d Electrical Resistivity Tomography for Landmine...

By: G. El-qady; A. Taha; J. Matsushima; M. Metwaly; S. Szalai; N. S. N. Al-arifi

Description: National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics (NRIAG), 11722 Helwan, Cairo, Egypt. Landmines are a type of inexpensive weapons widely used in the pre-conflicted areas in many countries worldwide. The two main types are the metallic and non-metallic (mostly plastic) landmines. They are most commonly investigated by magnetic, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and metal detector (MD) techniques. These geophysical techniques however have significant ...

% vor jede Referenz Alaia, R., Patella, D., and Mauriello, P.: Applied of geoelectrical 3-D probability tomography in a test-site of the archeological park of Pompei, J. Geophys. Eng., 5, 67–76, 2008.; % vor jede Referenz Benderitter, Y., Jolivet, A., Mounir, A., and Tabbagh, A.: Application of the electrostatic quadripole to sounding in the hectometric depth range, J. Appl. Geophys., 31, 1–6, 1994.; % vor jede Referenz Berhe, A. A.: The contribution of Landmines to land...

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Synchronization in a Coupled Two-layer Quasigeostrophic Model of B...

By: P. L. Read; A. A. Castrejón-pita

Description: Atmospheric, Oceanic & Planetary Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PU, UK. Synchronization is studied using a pair of diffusively-coupled, two-layer quasi-geostrophic systems each comprising a single baroclinic wave and a zonal flow. In particular, the coupling between the systems is in the well-known master-slave or one-way configuration. Nonlinear time series analysis, phase dynamics, and bifurcation diagram...

Andrews, D.: An Introduction to Atmospheric Physics, Cambridge University Press, pp. 140–153, 2000.; Anishchenko, V. S., Silchenko, A. N., and Khovanov, I. A.: Synchronization of switching processes in coupled Lorenz systems, Phys. Rev. E, 57(1), 316–322, 1998.; Appleby, J.: Comparative theoretical and experimental studies of baroclinic waves in a two-layer system, PhD Thesis, University of Leeds, UK, 1982.; Boccaletti, S., Kurths, J., Osipov, G., Valladares, D. K., and ...

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Scaling for Lobe and Cleft Patterns in Particle-laden Gravity Curr...

By: R. Munro; A. Jackson; B. Turnbull

Description: Process and Environmental Research Division, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK. Lobe and cleft patterns are frequently observed at the leading edge of gravity currents, including non-Boussinesq particle-laden currents such as powder snow avalanches. Despite the importance of the instability in driving air entrainment, little is known about its origin or the mechanisms behind its development. In this paper we seek to gain a ...

Bush, J., Thurber, B., and F., B.: Particle clouds in homogeneous and stratified environments, J. Fluid Mech., 489, 29–54, doi:10.1017/S0022112003005160, 2003.; Chandrasekhar, S.: Hydrodynamic and Hydromagnetic Stabiltiy, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 1961.; Duff, R., Harlow, F., and Hirt, C.: Effects of diffusion on interface instability between gases, Phys. Fluids, 5, 417–425, 1962.; H{ä}rtel, C., Carlsson,...

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Self-organization of Ulf Electromagnetic Wave Structures in the Sh...

By: K. Chargazia; G. Zimbardo; O. Kharshiladze; G. Aburjania

Description: I. Vekua Institute of Applied Mathematics, Tbilisi State University, 2 University str., 0143 Tbilisi, Georgia. This work is devoted to investigation of nonlinear dynamics of planetary electromagnetic (EM) ultra-low-frequency wave (ULFW) structures in the rotating dissipative ionosphere in the presence of inhomogeneous zonal wind (shear flow). Planetary EM ULFW appears as a result of interaction of the ionospheric medium with the spatially inhomogen...

Aburjania, G.: Structural turbulences and diffusion of plasmas in the magnetic traps, Plasma Phys. Rep., 16, 70–76, 1990.; Aburjania, G.: Self-organization of acoustic-gravity vortices in the ionosphere before earthquake, Plasma Phys. Rep., 22, 954–959, 1996.; Aburjania, G.: Self-Organization of Nonlinear Vortex Structures and Vortex Turbulence in Dispersive Media, KomKniga, Moscow, 2006 (in Russian).; Aburjania, G.: Formation of strong stationary vortex turbulence in th...

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Hybrid Levenberg–marquardt and Weak Constraint Ensemble Kalman Smo...

By: S. Gratton; E. Bergou; S. Gürol; J. Mandel

Description: University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO, USA. We propose to use the ensemble Kalman smoother (EnKS) as the linear least squares solver in the Gauss–Newton method for the large nonlinear least squares in incremental 4DVAR. The ensemble approach is naturally parallel over the ensemble members and no tangent or adjoint operators are needed. Further, adding a regularization term results in replacing the Gauss–Newton method, which may diverg...

Marquardt, D. W.: An algorithm for least-squares estimation of nonlinear parameters, J. Soc. Ind. Appl. Math., 11, 431–441, doi:10.1137/0111030, 1963.; Nowak, W., Tenkleve, S., and Cirpka, O.: Efficient computation of linearized cross-covariance and auto-covariance matrices of interdependent quantities, Math. Geol., 35, 53–66, 2003.; Osborne, M. R.: Nonlinear least squares – the Levenberg algorithm revisited, J. Aust. Math. S...

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Momentum and Buoyancy Transfer in Atmospheric Turbulent Boundary L...

By: S. S. Zilitinkevich; E. V. Ezhova; Yu. I. Troitskaya

Description: Institute of Applied Physics RAS, Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia. The surface-drag and mass-transfer coefficients are determined within a self-consistent problem of wave-induced perturbations and mean fields of velocity and density in the air, using a quasi-linear model based on the Reynolds equations with down-gradient turbulence closure. Investigation of a harmonic wave propagating along the wind has disclosed that the surface drag is generally larger for s...

Batchelor, G. K.: On steady laminar flow with closed streamlines at large Reynolds number, J. Fluid Mech., 1, 177–190, 1956.; Batchelor, G. K.: An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1967.; Brut, A., Butet, A., Durand, P., Caniaux, G., and Planton, S.: Air-sea exchanges in the equatorial area from the EQUALANT99 dataset: Bulk parametrizations of turbulent fluxes corrected for airflow distortion, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 131, 2497–25...

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A Barnes-hut Scheme for Simulating Fault Slip : Volume 18, Issue 2...

By: T. E. Tullis; N. M. Beeler

Description: US Geological Survey, Cascades Observatory, Vancouver, Washington, 98683, USA. To account for natural spatial and temporal complexity, large-scale, long-duration calculations are required for simulations of seismicity in fault zones that host large earthquakes. Without advances in computational methods, the rate of progress in earthquake simulator models and associated earthquake forecasts is limited by the rates at which computer speed and storage incr...

Ampuero, J.-P. and Rubin, A. M.: Earthquake nucleation on rate-and-state faults: aging and slip laws, J. Geophys. Res., 113, B01302, doi:10.1029/2007JB005082, 2008.; Barnes, J. and Hut, P.: A Hierarchical O(N log N) force calculation algorithm, Nature, 324, 446~pp., 1986.; Ben-Zion, Y. and Rice, J. R.: Earthquake failure sequences along a cellular fault zone in a three-dimensional elastic solid containing asperity and nonasperity regions, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 14109–1413...

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A Deterministic Width Function Model : Volume 10, Issue 6 (30/11/-...

By: B. Sivakumar; C. E. Puente

Description: Department of Land, Air & Water Resources, University of California, Davis, USA. Use of a deterministic fractal-multifractal (FM) geometric method to model width functions of natural river networks, as derived distributions of simple multifractal measures via fractal interpolating functions, is reported. It is first demonstrated that the FM procedure may be used to simulate natural width functions, preserving their most relevant features ...

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Stochastic Formalism-based Seafloor Feature Discrimination Using M...

By: B. Chakraborty; K. Haris

Description: CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403004, India. Dual-frequency echo-envelope data acquired using the normal-incidence single-beam echosounder system (SBES) have been examined to study its scale invariant properties. The scaling and multifractality of the SBES echo envelopes (at 33 and 210 kHz) were validated by applying a stochastic-based multifractal analysis technique. The analyses carried out substantiate the hierarchy of mult...

Amiri-Simkooei, A. R., Snellen, M., and Simons, D. G.: Principal component analysis of single-beam echo-sounder signal features for seafloor classification, IEEE J. Ocean. Eng., 36, 259–271, 2011.; Bak, P., Tang, C., and Wiesenfeld, K.: Self-Organized Criticality: An Explanation of 1/f Noise, Phys. Rev. Lett., 59, 381–384, 1987.; Anderson, J. T., Holliday, D. V., Kloser, R., Reid, D. G., and Simard, Y.: Acoustic seabed classification: current practice and future d...

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Inferring Internal Properties of Earth's Core Dynamics and Their E...

By: J. Aubert; A. Fournier

Description: Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, UMR7154, INSU, CNRS – Université Paris-Diderot, PRES Sorbonne Paris Cité, 1 rue Jussieu, 75238 Paris cedex 5, France. Over the past decades, direct three-dimensional numerical modelling has been successfully used to reproduce the main features of the geodynamo. Here we report on efforts to solve the associated inverse problem, aiming at inferring the underlying properties of the system from the sole knowledge of su...

Aubert, J., Aurnou, J., and Wicht, J.: The magnetic structure of convection-driven numerical dynamos, Geophys. J. Int., 172, 945–956, doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2007.03693.x, 2008.; Aubert, J., Labrosse, S., and Poitou, C.: Modelling the palaeo-evolution of the geodynamo, Geophys. J. Int., 179, 1414–1428, doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2009.04361.x, 2009.; ...

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Turbulence in the Interstellar Medium : Volume 21, Issue 3 (16/05/...

By: E. Falgarone; G. Kowal; A. C.-l. Chian; D. Falceta-gonçalves

Description: SUPA, School of Physics & Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife, KY16 9SS, UK. Turbulence is ubiquitous in the insterstellar medium and plays a major role in several processes such as the formation of dense structures and stars, the stability of molecular clouds, the amplification of magnetic fields, and the re-acceleration and diffusion of cosmic rays. Despite its importance, interstellar turbulence, like turbulence in gener...

Alexakis, A.: Non-local Phenomenology for Anisotropic Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence, Astrophys. J., 667, L93–L96, 2007.; Alexakis, A.: Large-Scale Magnetic Fields in Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence, Phys. Rev. Lett., 110, 084502, 2013.; Alexandrova, O., Lacombe, C., and Mangeney, A.: Spectra and anisotropy of magnetic fluctuations in the Earth's magnetosheath: Cluster observations, Ann. Geophys., 26, 3585–3596, doi:10....

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Dependence of Sandpile Avalanche Frequency–size Distribution on Co...

By: Q. Liu; L.-y. Chiao

Description: Institute of Oceanography, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan. The effects of the spatiotemporal evolution of failure threshold heterogeneity on the dynamics of fault criticality, and thus on regional seismogenesis, have attracted strong interest in the field of regional seismotectonics. The heterogeneity might be a manifestation of the macroscopic distribution and multiscale strength variation of asperities, the distinct regional stress level, ...

Aki, K.: Maximum likelihood estimation of b in the formula logN = a − $bM$ and its confidence limits, Bull. Earthq. Res. Inst., 43, 237–239, 1965.; Ayele, A. and Kulhanek, O.: Spatial and temporal variation of seismicity in the horn of Africa from 1960 to 1993, Geophys. J. Int., 130, 805–810, 1997.; Bak, P. and Tang, C.: Earthquakes as a self-organized critical phenomenon, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 15635–15637, 1989.; Bak, P., Tang, C., and Wiesenfeld, K...

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A Comparative Study on Chaoticity of Equatorial/Low Latitude Ionos...

By: K. Unnikrishnan

Description: Department of Physics, N. S. S. Hindu College, Changanacherry – 686 102, Kerala, India. In the present study, the latitudinal aspect of chaotic behaviour of ionosphere during quiet and storm periods are analyzed and compared by using GPS TEC time series measured at equatorial trough, crest and outside crest stations over Indian subcontinent, by employing the chaotic quantifiers like Lyapunov exponent (LE), correlation dimension (CD), entropy and nonlinea...

Abdu, M. A.: Major phenomena of the equatorial ionosphere-thermosphere system under disturbed conditions, J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phy., 59(13), 1505–1519, 1997.; Athanasiu, M. A., Pavlos, G. P., Sarafopoulos, D. V., and Sarris, E. T.: Dynamical characteristics of magnetospheric energetic ion time series: evidence for low dimensional chaos, Ann. Geophys., 21, 1995–2010, doi:10.5194/angeo-21-1995-2003, 2003.; Bagiya, Mala S., Joshi, H. P., Iyer, K. N., Aggarwal, M., Ravindran...

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Cosmic Rays and Stochastic Magnetic Reconnection in the Heliotail ...

By: P. Desiati; A. Lazarian

Description: Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA. Galactic cosmic rays are believed to be generated by diffusive shock acceleration processes in Supernova Remnants, and the arrival direction is likely determined by the distribution of their sources throughout the Galaxy, in particular by the nearest and youngest ones. Transport to Earth through the interstellar medium is expected to affect the cosmic ray pro...

Abbasi, R., Abdou, Y., Abu-Zayyad, T., Adams, J., Aguilar, J. A., Ahlers, M., Andeen, K., Auffenberg, J., Bai, X., Baker, M., and et al.: Measurement of the Anisotropy of Cosmic-ray Arrival Directions with IceCube, Astrophys. J. Lett., 718, L194–L198, doi:10.1088/2041-8205/718/2/L194, 2010.; Abbasi, R., Abdou, Y., Abu-Zayyad, T., Adams, J., Aguilar, J. A., Ahlers, M., Altmann, D., Andeen, K., Auffenberg, J., Bai,...

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Developments in the Theory of Collisionless Reconnection in Magnet...

By: D. Grasso; F. Califano; D. Borgogno; D. Del Sarto; T. Liseikina; E. Echkina; F. Pegoraro; F. Porcelli

Description: Phys. Dept., University of Pisa and INFM, Pisa Italy. We review some recent results that have been obtained in the investigation of collisionless reconnection in two dimensional magnetic configurations with a strong guide field in regimes of interest for laboratory plasmas. First we adopt a two-fluid dissipationless plasma model where the plasma evolution is described by the advection of two Lagrangian invariant fields. Then, we show that an analogous f...

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