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Quasi-biennial Oscillations Extracted from the Monthly Nao Index a...

By: M. Paluš; D. Novotná

Description: Institute of Computer Science, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Pod vodárenskou věží 2, 182 07 Prague 8, Czech Republic. Using the extension of Monte Carlo Singular System Analysis (MC SSA), based on evaluating and testing the regularity of the dynamics of the SSA modes against the colored noise null hypothesis, we demonstrate detection of oscillatory modes with period of about 27 months in records of monthly average near-surface air temperatu...

Allefeld, C. and Kurths, J.: Testing for phase synchronization, Int J Bif Chaos, 14(2), 406–416, 2004.; Allen, M. R. and Smith, L. A.: Investigating the origins and significance of low-frequency modes of climate variability, Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 883–886, 1994.; Allen, M. R. and Smith, L. A.: Monte Carlo SSA: Detecting irregular oscillations in the presence of colored noise, J. Climate, 9(12), 3373–3404, 1996.; Bochní\vcek, J. and Hejda, P.: The winter NAO pattern chan...

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Ensemble Kalman Filter Assimilation of Temperature and Altimeter D...

By: N. P. Kurkowski; M. M. Rienecker; D. A. Adamec; C. L. Keppenne

Description: Science Applications International Corporation, 4600 Powder Mill Road, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA. To compensate for a poorly known geoid, satellite altimeter data is usually analyzed in terms of anomalies from the time mean record. When such anomalies are assimilated into an ocean model, the bias between the climatologies of the model and data is problematic. An ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is modified to account for the presence of a forecast-mod...

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Percolating Magmas in Three Dimensions : Volume 14, Issue 6 (27/11...

By: S. Lovejoy; M. Carrier-nunes; H. Gaonac'H; F. Lepine; D. Schertzer

Description: GEOTOP-UQAM/McGill Centre, UQAM, Montreal, Qc., Canada. The classical models of volcanic eruptions assume that they originate as a consequence of critical stresses or critical strain rates being exceeded in the magma followed by catastrophic fragmentation. In a recent paper (Gaonac'h et al., 2003) we proposed an additional mechanism based on the properties of complex networks of overlapping bubbles; that extreme multibubble coalescence could lead to cat...

Aldibirov, M.: A model for viscous magma fragmentation during volcanic blasts, Bull. Volcanol., 56, 459–465, 1994.; Aldibirov, M. and Dingwell, D. B.: Magma fragmentation by rapid decompression, Nature, 380, 146–148, 1996.; Arbabi, S. and Sahimi, M.: Elastic properties of three-dimensional percolation networks with stretching and bond-bending forces, Phys. Rev. B, 38, 7173–7176, 1988.; Arbabi, S. and Sahimi, M.: Mechanics of disordered solids. I. Percolation on elastic n...

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Exact Theory for Localized Envelope Modulated Electrostatic Wavepa...

By: I. Kourakis; P. K. Shukla

Description: Institut für Theoretische Physik IV, Fakultät für Physik und Astronomie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum, Germany. Abundant evidence for the occurrence of modulated envelope plasma wave packets is provided by recent satellite missions. These excitations are characterized by a slowly varying localized envelope structure, embedding the fast carrier wave, which appears to be the result of strong modulation of the wave amplitude. This modulation may...

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Asymmetric Multifractal Model for Solar Wind Intermittent Turbulen...

By: W. M. MacEk; A. Szczepaniak

Description: Space Research Centre, Polish Academy of Science, Bartycka 18A, 00-716 Warsaw, Poland. We consider nonuniform energy transfer rate for solar wind turbulence depending on the solar cycle activity. To achieve this purpose we determine the generalized dimensions and singularity spectra for the experimental data of the solar wind measured in situ by Advanced Composition Explorer spacecraft during solar maximum (2001) and minimum (2006) at 1 AU. By determin...

Marsch, E. and Tu, C.-Y.: Intermittency, non-Gaussian statistics and fractal scaling of MHD fluctuations in the solar wind, Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 4, 101–124, 1997.; Marsch, E., Tu, C.-Y., and Rosenbauer, H.: Multifractal scaling of the kinetic energy flux in solar wind turbulence, Ann. Geophys., 14, 259–269, 1996.; Meneveau, C. and Sreenivasan, K. R.: Simple multifractal cascade model for fully developed turbulence, Phys. Rev. Lett., 59, 1424–1427, 1987.; Meneveau,...

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Sea Surface Temperature Patterns in Tropical Atlantic: Principal C...

By: N. M. Hounkonnou; G. N. Bawe; S. C. Kenfack; D. A. Vondou; G. Alory; K. F. Mkankam; Y. Du Penhoat

Description: International Chair in Mathematical Physics and Applications, University of Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou, Benin. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is one of the popular statistical methods for feature extraction. The neural network model has been performed on the PCA to obtain nonlinear principal component analysis (NLPCA), which allows the extraction of nonlinear features in the dataset missed by the PCA. NLPCA is applied to the monthly Sea Surface Temperatu...

Hagos, S. M. and Cook, K. H.: Development of a coupled regional model and its application to the study of interactions between the West African monsoon and the eastern tropical Atlantic ocean, J. Climate, 18, 4993–5010, 2008.; Hastenrath, S. and Lamb, P. J.: Climatic Atlas of the Tropical Atlantic and Eastern Pacific Oceans, The University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 112 pp., 1977.; Hastie, T. and Stuetzle, W.: Principal curves, J. Am. Stat. Assoc., 84, 502–516, 1989.; ...

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Three-dimensional Simulations of Turbulent Spectra in the Local In...

By: G. P. Zank; D. Shaikh

Description: Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California, Riverside CA 92521, USA. Three-dimensional time dependent numerical simulations of compressible magnetohydrodynamic fluids describing super-Alfvénic, supersonic and strongly magnetized space and laboratory plasmas show a nonlinear relaxation towards a state of near incompressibility. The latter is characterized essentially by a subsonic turbulent Mach number. This transition is med...

Armstrong, J. W., Cordes, J. M., and Rickett, B. J.: Density power spectrum in the local interstellar medium, Nature, 291, 561–564, 1981.; Armstrong, J. W., Rickett, B. J, and Spangler, S.: Electron density power spectrum in the local interstellar medium, ApJ, 443, 209–221, 1995.; Bayly, B. J., Levermore, C. D., and Passot, T.: Density variations in weakly compressible flows, Phys. Fluids, A4, 945–954, 1992.; Bhattacharjee, A., Ng, C. S., and Spangler, S. R.: ApJ, 494, 4...

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A New Method for Abrupt Change Detection in Dynamic Structures : V...

By: S. Q. Wan; G. L. Feng; Q. Wu; J. F. Chou; W. P. He

Description: National Climate Center, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing, China. Based on Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), we propose a new method – Moving Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MDFA) – to detect abrupt change in dynamic structures. Application of this technique shows that this method may be of use in detecting time-instants of abrupt change in dynamic structures and we even find that the MDFA results almost do not depend on length of subser...

Alexi, M. G., Brook, E. J., and Severinghaus, J. P: Abrupt change in atmospheric methane at the MIS 5b-5a transition, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L20703, doi:10.1029/2007GL029799, 2007.; Alley, R. B., Marotzke, J. W., Nordhaus, D., Overpeck, J. T., Peteet, D. M., and Pielke, R. A.: Abrupt climate change, Science, 229, 2005–2010, 2003.; Broecker, W. S.: Does the trigger for abrupt climate change reside in the ocean or in the atmosphere?, Science, 300, 1519–1522, 2003.; Bunde...

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Transformation of Frequency-magnitude Relation Prior to Large Even...

By: A. Soloviev

Description: International Institute of Earthquake Prediction Theory and Mathematical Geophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia. The b-value change in the frequency-magnitude (FM) distribution for a synthetic earthquake catalogue obtained by means of the model of block structure dynamics has been studied. The catalogue is divided into time periods preceding strong earthquakes and time periods that do not precede strong earthquakes. The separate a...

Aki, K.: Maximum likelihood estimate of b in formula log N=a–b M and its confidence limits, Bull. Earthquake Res. Inst. Univ. Tokyo, 43, 237–239, 1965.; Allègre, C. J., Le Mou\el, J.-L., and Provost, A.: Scaling rules in rock fracture and possible implications for earthquake prediction, Nature, 297, 47–49, 1982.; Allègre, C. J., Le Mou\el, J.-L., Chau, H. D., and Narteau, C.: Scaling organization of fracture tectonics (SOFT) and earthquake mechanism, Phys. Earth Planet. ...

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Wavelet Filtering of Chaotic Data : Volume 7, Issue 1/2 (30/11/-0001)

By: M. Grzesiak

Description: Space Research Center of Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland. Satisfactory method of removing noise from experimental chaotic data is still an open problem. Normally it is necessary to assume certain properties of the noise and dynamics, which one wants to extract, from time series. The wavelet based method of denoising of time series originating from low-dimensional dynamical systems and polluted by the Gaussian white noise is considered. Its ef...

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Debye-scale Solitary Structures Measured in a Beam-plasma Laborato...

By: P. Kintner; P. Pribyl; W. Gekelman; J. Pickett; L.-j. Chen; B. Lefebvre; S. Vincena

Description: Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824, USA. Solitary electrostatic pulses have been observed in numerous places of the magnetosphere such as the vicinity of reconnection current sheets, shocks or auroral current systems, and are often thought to be generated by energetic electron beams. We present results of a series of experiments conducted at the UCLA large plasma device (LAPD) where a suprathermal electron beam was injec...

Andersson, L., Ergun, R. E., Tao, J., Roux, A., Lecontel, O., Angelopoulos, V., Bonnell, J., McFadden, J. P., Larson, D. E., Eriksson, S., Johansson, T., Cully, C. M., Newman, D. N., Goldman, M. V., Glassmeier, K., and Baumjohann, W.: New Features of Electron Phase Space Holes Observed by the THEMIS Mission, Phys. Rev. Lett., 102, 225004, doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.225004, 2009.; Bale, S. D., Hull, A., Larson,...

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Lagrangian Study of Surface Transport in the Kuroshio Extension Ar...

By: M. V. Budyansky; S. V. Prants; M. Yu. Uleysky

Description: Laboratory of Nonlinear Dynamical Systems, Pacific Oceanological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 43 Baltiyskaya st., 690041 Vladivostok, Russia. Lagrangian approach is applied to study near-surface large-scale transport in the Kuroshio Extension area using a simulation with synthetic particles advected by AVISO altimetric velocity field. A material line technique is proposed and applied to find out the origin of water masses in cold-core cy...

Abraham, E. R. and Bowen, M. M.: Chaotic stirring by a mesoscale surface-ocean flow, Chaos, 12, 373–381, doi:10.1063/1.1481615, 2002.; Andrade-Canto, F., Sheinbaum, J., and Zavala Sansón, L.: A Lagrangian approach to the Loop Current eddy separation, Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 20, 85–96, doi:10.5194/npg-20-85-2013, 2013.; Buesseler, K. O., Jayne, S. R., Fisher, N. S., Ry...

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Inversion of 2-d Dc Resistivity Data Using Rapid Optimization and ...

By: U. K. Singh; S. B. Singh; R. K. Tiwari

Description: Department of Applied Geophysics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad-826 004, India. The backpropagation (BP) artificial neural network (ANN) technique of optimization based on steepest descent algorithm is known to be inept for its poor performance and does not ensure global convergence. Nonlinear and complex DC resistivity data require efficient ANN model and more intensive optimization procedures for better results and interpretations. Improvements in t...

Battiti, R.: First and second order methods for learning between steepest descent and Newton's methods, Neural Comput., 4, 141–166, 1992.; Baum, E. and Haussler, D.: What size net gives valid generalization?, Neural Comput., 1, 151–160, 1989.; Brown, M. and Poulton, M.: Locating buried objects for environmental site investigations using neural networks, J. Environ. Eng. Geoph., 1, 179–188, 1996.; Constable, S., Parker, R., and Constable, C.: Occam's inversion: a practica...

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Scaling Statistics in a Critical, Nonlinear Physical Model of Trop...

By: V. K. Gupta; K. M. Nordstrom

Description: C4-CIRES, Univ. Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA. Over the last two decades, concepts of scale invariance have come to the fore in both modeling and data analysis in hydrological precipitation research. With the advent of the use of the multiplicative random cascade model, these concepts have become increasingly more important. However, unifying this statistical view of the phenomenon with the physics of rainfall has proven to be a rather n...

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Dynamics of Turbulence Under the Effect of Stratification and Inte...

By: L. A. Ostrovsky; O. A. Druzhinin

Description: The Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Acad. Sci., Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. The objective of this paper is to study the dynamics of small-scale turbulence near a pycnocline, both in the free regime and under the action of an internal gravity wave (IW) propagating along a pycnocline, using direct numerical simulation (DNS). Turbulence is initially induced in a horizontal layer at some distance above the pycnocline. The velocity and density fields of I...

Anis, A. and Moum, J. N.: Surface wave-turbulence interactions: scaling ϵ(z) near the sea surface, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25, 2025–2045, 1995.; Carruthers, D. J. and Hunt, J. C. R.: Velocity fluctuations near an interface between a turbulent region and a stably stratified layer, J. Fluid Mech., 165, 475–501, 1986.; Druzhinin, O. A., Ostrovsky, L. A., and Zilitinkevich, S. S.: The study of the effect of small-scale turbulence on internal gravity waves propa...

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Physical Simulation of Resonant Wave Run-up on a Beach : Volume 20...

By: E. Pelinovsky; N. Abcha; A. Ezersky

Description: CNRS, UMR6143 – Morphodynamique Continentale et Côtière (M2C), Université Caen Basse, Normandie, 24 rue des Tilleuls, 14000 Caen, France. Nonlinear wave run-up on the beach caused by a harmonic wave maker located at some distance from the shore line is studied experimentally. It is revealed that under certain wave excitation frequencies, a significant increase in run-up amplification is observed. It is found that this amplification is due to the excitati...

Antuono, M. and Brocchini, M.: Solving the nonlinear shallow-water equations in physical sense, J. Fluid Mech., 643, 207–232, 2010.; Carrier, G. F. and Greenspan, H. P.: Water waves of finite amplitude on a sloping beach, J. Fluid Mech., 4, 97–109, 1958.; Carrier, G. F., Wu, T. T., and Yeh, H.: Tsunami run-up and draw-down on a plane beach, J. Fluid Mech., 475, 79–99, 2003.; Denissenko, P., Didenkulova, I., Pelinovsky, E., and Pearson, J.: Influence of the nonlinearity o...

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Hamiltonian Approach to the Derivation of Evolution Equations for ...

By: N. N. Romanova

Description: Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyzhevsky 3, 109017, Moscow, Russia. The dynamics of weakly nonlinear wave trains in unstable media is studied. This dynamics is investigated in the framework of a broad class of dynamical systems having a Hamiltonian structure. Two different types of instability are considered. The first one is the instability in a weakly supercritical media. The simplest example of instability of this type ...

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Bounded Lognormal Cascades as Quasi-multiaffine Random Processes :...

By: M. Menabde

Description: Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand. A new model for simulating non-negative random processes is developed. The model is based on a bounded random multiplicative cascade with a lognormal generator with the scale parameter dependent on the number of steps in the cascade. It is shown, both analytically and numerically, that the simulated field has multiaffine properties within some restricted range of sca...

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Four-dimensional Energy Spectrum for Space–time Structure of Plasm...

By: Y. Narita

Description: Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstr. 6, 8042 Graz, Austria. A parametric model of the inertial-range energy spectrum is constructed for plasma turbulence in the four-dimensional wave vector and frequency domain. The model is based on that of the Eulerian wavenumber-frequency spectrum developed for describing fluid turbulence, and includes wave vector anisotropies in the three-dimensional wave vector domain by approximating...

Balbus, S. A.: Enhanced angular momentum transport in accretion disks, Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 41, 555–597, doi:10.1146/annurev.astro.41.081401.155207, 2003.; Balogh, A., Carr, C. M., Acuña, M. H., Dunlop, M. W., Beek, T. J., Brown, P., Fornaçon, K.-H., Georgescu, E., Glassmeier, K.-H., Harris, J., Musmann, G., Oddy, T., and Schwingenschuh, K.: % The Cluster magnetic field investigation: overview o...

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On the Properties of Turbulent Boundary Layer Over Polar Cusps : V...

By: F. Marcucci; E. Dubinin; K. H. Fornacon; L. Zelenyi; Z. Nemecek; G. Consolini; S. Klimov; J. L. Rauch; E. Amata; S. Savin; S. Romanov; A. Pedersen; J. Büchner; J. Safrankova; H. U. Auster; J. A. Sauvaud; A. Skalsky; B. Nikutowski; J. Blecki; H. Kawano; Yu. Yermolaev; P. Song

Description: Space Research Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Profsoyuznaya 84/32, Moscow, 117810, Russia. We study properties of nonlinear magnetic fluctuations in the turbulent boundary layer (TBL) over polar cusps during a typical TBL crossing on 19 June 1998. Interball-1data in the summer TBL are compared with that of Geotail in solar wind (SW) and Polar in the northern TBL. In the TBL two characteristic slopes are seen: ~ - 1 at (0.004- 0.0...

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