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Markov Chain Analysis of Regional Climates : Volume 17, Issue 6 (1...

By: S. Noël; H. Bovensmann; J. P. Burrows; J. A. Freund; S. Mieruch

Description: Institute of Environmental Physics (IUP), University of Bremen, Otto-Hahn Allee 1, 28359 Bremen, Germany. We present a novel method for regional climate classification that is based on coarse-grained categorical representations of multivariate climate anomalies and a subsequent Markov chain analysis. From the estimated transition matrix several descriptors, such as persistence, recurrence time and entropy, are derived. These descriptors cha...

Andersson, A., Fennig, K., Klepp, C., Bakan, S., Gra{ß}l, H., and Schulz, J.: The Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellite Data -� HOAPS-3, Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., 3, 143–194, doi:10.5194/essdd-3-143-2010, 2010.; Blüthgen, J. and Weischelt, W.: Allgemeine {K}limageographie, Walter de Gruyter, 1980 (in German).; Beck, C., Grieser, J., Kottek, M., Rubel, F., and Rudolf, B.: Characterizing Global Climate Change by means of Köppen Climate Classif...

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Multifractal Properties of Embedded Convective Structures in Orogr...

By: A. P. Barros; P. M. A. Miranda; M. Nogueira

Description: Instituto Dom Luiz, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal. Rain and cloud fields produced by fully nonlinear idealized cloud resolving numerical simulations of orographic convective precipitation display statistical multiscaling behavior, implying that multifractal diagnostics should provide a physically robust basis for the downscaling and sub-grid scale parameterizations of moist processes. Our results show that the horizontal scaling exponent functi...

Kirshbaum, D. J., Bryan, G. H., Rotunno, R., and Durran, D. R.: The triggering of orographic rainbands by small-scale topography, J. Atmos. Sci,, 66, 1530–1549, 2007b.; Barros, A. P. and Lettenmaier, D. P.: Dynamic modeling of orographically induced precipitation, Rev. Geophys., 32, 265–284, 1994.; Barros, A. P., Kim, G., Williams, E., and Nesbitt, S. W.: Probing orographic controls in the Himalayas during the monsoon using satellite imagery, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci...

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Statistical Analysis of Stromboli Vlp Tremor in the Band [0.1–0.5]...

By: M. Palo; M. Falanga; S. De Martino; E. De Lauro

Description: Dipartimento di Fisica, Salerno University, via S. Allende, I-84081 Baronissi (SA), Italy. We analyze time series of Strombolian volcanic tremor, focusing our attention on the frequency band [0.1–0.5] Hz (very long period (VLP) tremor). Although this frequency band is largely affected by noise, we evidence two significant components by using Independent Component Analysis with the frequencies, respectively, of ~0.2 and ~0.4 Hz. We show that these compon...

Acernese, F., Ciaramella, A., De Martino, S., Falanga, M., and Tagliaferri, R.: Neural Networks for blind sources separation of Stomboli explosion quakes, IEEE Trans. Neural Netws., 14, 167–175, 2003.; Acernese, F., Ciaramella, A., De Martino, S., Falanga, M., Godano, C., and Tagliaferri, R.: Polarisation analysis of the independent components of low frequency events at Stromboli volcano (Eolian Island, Italy), J. Volc. Geotherm. Res., Special Issue: an introduction, edi...

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Remarks on Nonlinear Relation Among Phases and Frequencies in Modu...

By: T. Hada; Y. Nariyuki

Description: Department of Earth System Science and Technology, Kyushu University, 816-8580, Kasuga, Japan. Nonlinear relations among frequencies and phases in modulational instability of circularly polarized Alfvén waves are discussed, within the context of one dimensional, dissipation-less, unforced fluid system. We show that generation of phase coherence is a natural consequence of the modulational instability of Alfvén waves. Furthermore, we quantitatively eval...

del-Castillo-Negrete, D., Carreras, B. A., and Lynch, V. E.: Fractional diffusion in plasma turbulence, Phys. Plasmas, 11(8), 3854–3864, 2004.; Derby, N. F.: Modulational instability of finite-amplitude, circulary polarized Alfvén waves, Astrophys. J., 224(3), 1013–1016, 1978.; Carreras, B. A., Lynch, V, E., and Zaslavsky, G. M.: Anomalous diffusion and exit time distribution of particle tracers in plasma turbulence model, Phys. Plasmas, 8(12), 5096–5103, 2001.; Chanpeau...

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Do Climate Simulations from Models Forced by Averaged Sea Surface ...

By: P. J. Roebber; A. A. Tsonis; J. B. Elsner

Description: Department of Goesciences, University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee, 3209 N. Maryland, Milwaukee, WI, USA 53211. Recently atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) forced by observed sea surface temperatures (SSTs) have offered the possibility of studying climate variability over periods ranging from years to decades. Such models represent and alternative to fully coupled asynchronous atmosphere ocean models whose long term integration remains problema...

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Non-linear Analysis of Geomagnetic Time Series from Etna Volcano :...

By: R. Napoli; L. Fortuna; C. Del Negro; G. Currenti; A. Vicari

Description: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia – Sezione di Catania, Italy. An intensive nonlinear analysis of geomagnetic time series from the magnetic network on Etna volcano was carried out to investigate the dynamical behavior of magnetic anomalies in volcanic areas. The short-term predictability of the geomagnetic time series was evaluated to establish a possible low-dimensional deterministic dynamics. We estimated the predictive ability of both a n...

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Brief Communication on One Mechanism of Low Frequency Variability ...

By: B. De Young; O. G. Derzho

Description: Department of Physics and Physical Oceanography, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, NL, A1B 3X7, Canada. In this paper we present a simple analytical model for low frequency and large scale variability of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). The physical mechanism of the variability is related to temporal and spatial variations of the cyclonic mean flow (ACC) due to circularly propagating nonlinear barotropic Rossby wave trains. It is s...

Gille, S. T.: Mean sea surface height of the antarctic circumpolar current from geosat data: methods and application, J. Geophys. Res., 99(C9), 18255–18273, 1994.; Jacobs, G. A. and Mitchell, J. L.: Ocean circulation variations associated with the antarctic circumpolar wave, Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 2947–2950, 1996.; Rintoul, S. R., Hughes, C. W., and Olbers, D.: The Antarctic Circumpolar Current system, in: Ocean Circulation and Climate, edited by: Siedler, G., Church, ...

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Achieving Fast Reconnection in Resistive Mhd Models Via Turbulent ...

By: A. Lazarian; G. Lapenta

Description: Centrum voor Plasma-Astrofysica, Departement Wiskunde, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, 3001 Leuven, Belgium. Astrophysical fluids are generally turbulent and this preexisting turbulence must be taken into account for models of magnetic reconnection in astrophysical, solar or heliospheric environments. In addition, reconnection itself induces turbulence which provides an important feedback on the reconnection process. In this paper w...

Alfv{én}, H.: Existence of Electromagnetic-Hydrodynamic Waves, Nature, 150, 405–406, 1942.; Armstrong, J. W., Rickett, B. J. and Spangler, S. R.: Electron density power spectrum in the local interstellar medium, Astrophys. J., 443, 209–221, 1995.; Beck, R., Brandenburg, A., Moss, D., Shukurov, A., and Sokoloff, D.: Galactic Magnetism: Recent Developments and Perspectives, Annu. Rev. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 34, 155–206, 1996.; Beresnyak, A. and Lazarian, A.: Structure...

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Finite-time Lagrangian Transport Analysis: Stable and Unstable Man...

By: S. Wiggins; M. Branicki

Description: School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TW, UK. We consider issues associated with the Lagrangian characterisation of flow structures arising in aperiodically time-dependent vector fields that are only known on a finite time interval. A major motivation for the consideration of this problem arises from the desire to study transport and mixing problems in geophysical flows where the flow is obtained from a numerical so...

Babiano, A., Provenzale, A., and Vulpiani, A. (Eds.): Chaotic Advection, Tracer Dynamics, and Turbulent Dispersion, in: Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop and EGS Topical Workshop on Chaotic Advection, Conference Centre Sereno di Gavo, Italy, 24–28 May 1993, Physica D, vol. 76, 329 pp., 1994.; Dabiri, J. O.: LCS MATLAB Kit, available at: http://dabiri.caltech.edu/software.html, last access: 2009.; Acrivo...

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Svd Analysis of the Magnetospheric Ae Index Time Series and Compar...

By: G. P. Pavlos; M. A. Athanasiu

Description: Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Demokritos Univercity of Thrace, 67100 Xanthi, Greece. The singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis is used at different stages in this paper in order to extract useful information concerning the underlying dynamics of the magnetospheric AE index. As a frame of reference we use the dynamics of the Lorenz system perturbed by external noise, white or colored. One of the critical results ...

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Soliton Interaction as a Possible Model for Extreme Waves in Shall...

By: J. Engelbrecht; T. Soomere; E. Van Groesen; P. Peterson

Description: Institute of Cybernetics, Tallinn Technical University, Akadeemia tee 21, 12618 Tallinn, Estonia. Interaction of two long-crested shallow water waves is analysed in the framework of the two-soliton solution of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation. The wave system is decomposed into the incoming waves and the interaction soliton that represents the particularly high wave hump in the crossing area of the waves. Shown is that extreme surface eleva...

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Multi-scale Interactions of Geological Processes During Mineraliza...

By: Q. Cheng; L. Yao

Description: State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China. Relations between mineralization and certain geological processes are established mostly by geologist's knowledge of field observations. However, these relations are descriptive and a quantitative model of how certain geological processes strengthen or hinder mineralization is not clear, that is to say, the mechanism of the interactio...

Agterberg, F.: New applications of the model of de Wijs in regional geochemistry, Math. Geol., 39, 1–25, doi:10.1007/s11004-006-9063-7, 2007{a}.; Agterberg, F. and Cheng, Q.: Conditional independence test for weights-of-evidence modelling, Natural Resources Research, 11, 249–255, doi:10.1023/A:1021193827501, 2002.; Agterberg, F., Bonham-Carter, G., and Wright, D....

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On Wave Turbulence in Mhd : Volume 8, Issue 3 (30/11/-0001)

By: A. C. Newell; S. V. Nazarenko; S. Galtier

Description: Mathematics Institute, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK. We describe the fundamental differences between weak (wave) turbulence in incompressible and weakly compressible MHD at the level of three-wave interactions. The main difference is in the structure of the resonant manifolds and the mechanisms of redistribution of spectral densities along the applied magnetic field B0. Similar to pure acoustic wa...

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Fractal Analysis for the Ulf Data During the 1993 Guam Earthquake ...

By: Y. Ida; M. Hayakawa

Description: Department of Electronic Engineering, The University of Electro-Communications, 1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Chofu, Tokyo, 182-8585, Japan. An extremely large earthquake (with magnitude of 8.2) happened on 8 August 1993 near the Guam island, and ultra-low-frequency (ULF) (frequency less than 1 Hz) electromagnetic fields were measured by 3-axis induction magnetometers at an observing station (with the epicentral distance of 65 km) with sampling frequency of 1 Hz. In...

Burlaga, L. F. and Klein, L. W.: Fractal structure of the interplanetary magnetic field, J. Geophys. Res., 91, 347–350, 1986.; Hayakawa, M. and Fujinawa, Y. (Eds.): Electromagnetic Phenomena Related to Earthquake Prediction, Terra Sci. Pub. Co., Tokyo, 667p, 1994.; Gotoh, K., Hayakawa, M., and Smirnova, N.: Fractal analysis of the gromagnetic data obtained at Izu peninsula, Japan in relation to the nearby earthquake swarm of June–August 2000, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci...

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Initial State Perturbations in Ensemble Forecasting : Volume 15, I...

By: J. Nycander; L. Magnusson; E. Källén

Description: Department of Meteorology, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Due to the chaotic nature of atmospheric dynamics, numerical weather prediction systems are sensitive to errors in the initial conditions. To estimate the forecast uncertainty, forecast centres produce ensemble forecasts based on perturbed initial conditions. How to optimally perturb the initial conditions remains an open question and different methods are in use. One is the sing...

Anderson, J L.: Selection of Initial Conditions for Ensemble Forecasts in a Simple Perfect Model Framework, J. Atm. Sci, 53, 22–36, 1996.; Anderson, J L.: The Impact of Dynamical Constraints on the Selection of Initial Conditions for Ensemble Predictions: Low-Order Perfect Model Results, Mon. Weather Rev., 125, 2969–2983, 1997.; Annan, J D.: On the Orthogonality of Bred Vectors, Mon. Weather Rev., 132, 843–849, 2004.; Barkmeijer, J., Buizza, R., and Palmer, T N.: 3D-Var ...

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The Influence of Surface Gravity Waves on the Injection of Turbule...

By: I. Fer; M. Bakhoday Paskyabi

Description: Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Allégaten 70, 5007 Bergen, Norway. Observations were made in the near-surface layer, at about 8 m depth in 132 m deep water off the coast of Ålesund in Norway, for a duration of 2.5 months in late 2011. The measurement period covers the passage of two low pressure systems with substantial wind and wave forcing. The time series of the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy, ε, and the estimates of surfac...

Anis, A. and Moum, J. N.: Surface wave–turbulence interactions: Scaling Ε(z) near the sea surface, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25, 2025–2045, 1995.; Ardhuin, F. and Jenkins, A. D.: On the interaction of surface wave and upper ocean turbulence, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 36, 551–557, 2006.; Babanin, A. V. and Haus, B. K.: On the existence of water turbulence induced by nonbreaking surface waves, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 39, 2675–2679, 2009.; Burchard, H.: Simulating the wave–enhanced layer u...

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Roma (Rank-ordered Multifractal Analyses) of Intermittency in Spac...

By: C. C. Wu; M. Echim; J. Podesta; T. Chang; H. Lamy; S. W. Y. Tam

Description: Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Intermittent fluctuations are the consequence of the dynamic interactions of multiple coherent or pseudo-coherent structures of varied sizes in the stochastic media (Chang, 1999). We briefly review here a recently developed technique, the Rank-Ordered Multifractal Analysis (ROMA), which is both physically explicable and quantitatively acc...

Bak, P., Tang, C., and Wiesenfeld, W.: Self-organized criticality: an explanation of 1/f noise, Phys. Rev. Lett., 59, 381–384, 1987.; Bruno, R., Carbone, V., Veltri, P., Pietropaolo, E., and Bavassano, B.: Identifying intermittency events in the solar wind, Planet. Space Sci., 49, 1201–1210, 2001.; Chang, T., Nicoll, J. F., and Young, J. E.: A closed form differential renormalization-group generator for critical dynamics, Phys. Lett. A, 67, 287–290, 1978.; Chang, T., Han...

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An Improved Arima Model for Precipitation Simulations : Volume 21,...

By: C. Wang; X. Lin; J. Kang; H. R. Wang

Description: College of Water Sciences, Key Laboratory for Water and Sediment Sciences Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xinjiekouwai Street, Beijing, 100875, China. Auto regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models have been widely used to calculate monthly time series data formed by interannual variations of monthly data or inter-monthly variation. However, the influence brought about by inter-monthly variations within each year is often ig...

Ahmad, S., Khan, I. H., and Parida, B. P.: Performance of stochastic approaches for forecasting river water quality, Water Res., 35, 4261–4266, 2001.; Box, G. E. P.: Models for forecasting seasonal and nonseasonal time series, in: Spectral Analysis of Time Series, edited by: Harris, B., Wiley, New York, 271–311, 1967.; Box, G. E. P.: Time Series Analysis Forecasting And Control, China Statistics Press, Beijing, China, 1997.; Ip, W. C., Wong, H., and Wang, S. G.: A GIC ru...

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Low-order Models of Wave Interactions in the Transition to Barocli...

By: W.-g. Früh

Description: Sub-Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Planetary Physics. A hierarchy of low-order models, based on the quasi-geostrophic two-layer model, is used to investigate complex multi-mode flows. The different models were used to study distinct types of nonlinear interactions, namely wave- wave interactions through resonant triads, and zonal flow-wave interactions. The coupling strength of individual triads is estimated u...

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Structural and Statistical Properties of the Collocation Technique...

By: W. Wagner; W. Dorigo; K. Scipal; S. Zwieback

Description: Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Vienna, Austria. The validation of geophysical data sets (e.g. derived from models, exploration techniques or remote sensing) presents a formidable challenge as all products are inherently different and subject to errors. The collocation technique permits the retrieval of the error variances of different data sources without the need to specify one data set as a reference. I...

Caires, S. and Sterl, A.: Validation of ocean wind and wave data using triple collocation, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 3098–3114, 2003.; Cantrell, C. D.: Modern Mathematical Methods for Physicists and Engineers, Cambridge University Press, 2000.; Dorigo, W. A., Scipal, K., Parinussa, R. M., Liu, Y. Y., Wagner, W., de Jeu, R. A. M., and Naeimi, V.: Error characterisation of global active and passive microwave soil moisture datasets, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 2605–2616,

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