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A Typical Wave Wake from High-speed Vessels: Its Group Structure a...

By: A. Rodin; I. Didenkulova

Description: Laboratory of Wave Engineering, Institute of Cybernetics at Tallinn University of Technology, Akadeemia tee 21, 12618 Tallinn, Estonia. High-amplitude water waves induced by high-speed vessels are regularly observed in Tallinn Bay, the Baltic Sea, causing intense beach erosion and disturbing marine habitants in the coastal zone. Such a strong impact on the coast may be a result of a certain group structure of the wave wake. In order to understand it, her...

Brown, E. D., Buchsbaum, S. B., Hall, R. E., Penhune, J. P., Schmitt, K. F., Watson, K. M., and Wyatt, D. C.: Observations of a nonlinear solitary wave packet in the Kelvin wake of a ship, J. Fluid Mech., 204, 263–293, 1989.; Didenkulova, I., Parnell, K. E., Soomere, T., Pelinovsky, E., and Kurennoy, D.: Shoaling and runup of long waves induced by high-speed ferries in Tallinn Bay, J. Coast. Res., Special Issue, 56, 491–495, 2009a.; Didenkulova, I., Pelinovsky, E., and R...

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Advection of Pollutants by Internal Solitary Waves in Oceanic and ...

By: W. B. Zimmerman; G. W. Haarlemmer

Description: Department of Chemical Engineering, UMIST. P.O. Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD, England. When a pollutant is released into the ocean or atmosphere under turbulent conditions, even a steady release is captured by large eddies resulting in localized patches of high concentration of the pollutant. If such a cloud of pollutant subsequently enters a stable stratification-either a pycnocline or thermocline-then internal waves are excited. Since large solitary inte...

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A Delay Differential Model of Enso Variability – Part 2: Phase Loc...

By: M. Ghil; I. Zaliapin

Description: Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada, USA. We consider a highly idealized model for El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability, as introduced in an earlier paper. The model is governed by a delay differential equation for sea-surface temperature T in the Tropical Pacific, and it combines two key mechanisms that participate in ENSO dynamics: delayed negative feedback and seasonal forcing. We perform a t...

Battisti, D. S.: The dynamics and thermodynamics of a warming event in a coupled tropical atmosphere/ocean model, J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 2889–2919, 1988.; Battisti, D. S. and Hirst, A. C.: Interannual variability in the tropical atmosphere-ocean system: Influence of the basic state and ocean geometry, J. Atmos. Sci., 46, 1687–1712, 1989.; Bjerknes, J.: Atmospheric teleconnections from the equatorial Pacific, Mon. Weather Rev., 97, 163–172, 1969.; Burgers, G. and Stephenson,...

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Fractal Dimensions of Wildfire Spreading : Volume 21, Issue 4 (07/...

By: S.-p. Li; H.-i. Lee; S.-l. Wang

Description: Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica 128 Sec. 2, Academia Rd., Nankang, Taipei, 11529, Taiwan (ROC). The time series data of 31 wildfires in 2012 in the US were analyzed. The fractal dimensions (FD) of the wildfires during spreading were studied and their geological features were identified. A growth model based on the cellular automata method is proposed here. Numerical study was performed and is shown to give good agreement with the fractal dimensions...

Alexandridis, A., Vakalis, D., Siettos, C. I., and Bafas, G. V.: A cellular automata model for forest fire spread prediction: The case of the wildfire that swept through Spetses Island in 1990, Appl. Math. Comput., 204, 191–201, 2008.; Anderson, D. G., Catchpole, E. A., DeMestre, N. J., and Parkes, E.: Modeling the spread of grass fires, J. Austral. Math. Soc., Series B, 23, 451–466, 1982.; Bak, P., Chen, K., and Tang, C.: A forest-fire model and some thoughts on turbule...

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Nonlinearly Combined Impacts of Initial Perturbation from Human Ac...

By: G. Sun; M. Mu

Description: The State Key Laboratory of Numerical Mo deling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (LASG), Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China. Human activities and climate change are important factors that affect grassland ecosystems. A new optimization approach, the approach of conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation (CNOP) related to initial and parameter perturbations, is employed to explore th...

Barclay, A., Gill, P. E., and Rosen, J. B.: SQP methods and their application to numerical optimal control, Variational Calculus, Optimal Control and Applications, edited by: Schmidt, W. H., Heier, K., Bittner, L., and Bulirsch, R.: Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel, 207–222, 1998.; Chen, H., Tian, H., Liu, M., Melillo, J., Pan, S., and Zhang, C.: Effect of land-cover change on terrestrial carbon dynamics in the southern USA, J. Environ. Qual., 35, 1533–1547, 2006.; Fay, P. A., K...

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Empirical Study of Multifractal Phase Transitions in Atmospheric T...

By: D. Schertzer; Y. Brunet; S. Lovejoy; F. Schmitt

Description: Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (CNRS), Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France. We study atmospheric wind turbulence in the framework of universal multifractals, using several medium resolution (10 Hz) time series. We cut these original time series into 704 scale invariant realizations. We then compute the moment scaling exponent of the energy flux K(q) for 4 and 704 realizations, in order to study qu...

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Generation of Weakly Nonlinear Nonhydrostatic Internal Tides Ove...

By: T. Gerkema; R. Maugé

Description: Laboratoire de Physique des Océans, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, 6 avenue Le Gorgeu, 29238 Brest, France. A set of evolution equations is derived for the modal coefficients in a weakly nonlinear nonhydrostatic internal-tide generation problem. The equations allow for the presence of large-amplitude topography, e.g. a continental slope, which is formally assumed to have a length scale much larger than that of the internal tide. However, comparison ...

Akylas, T R., Grimshaw, R. H J., Clarke, S R., and Tabaei, A.: Reflecting tidal wave beams and local generation of solitary waves in the ocean thermocline, J. Fluid Mech., 593, 297–313, 2007.; Bender, C M. and Orszag, S A.: Advanced mathematical methods for scientists and engineers, McGraw-Hill, 1978.; Durran, D R.: Numerical methods for wave equations in geophysical fluid dynamics, Springer, 1999.; Garrett, C. and Gerkema, T.: On the body-force term in internal-tide gen...

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A Lagrangian Approach to the Loop Current Eddy Separation : Volume...

By: J. Sheinbaum; L. Zavala Sansón; F. Andrade-canto

Description: Departmento de Oceanografía Física, CICESE, Carretera Ensenada-Tijuana 3918, 22860 Ensenada, Baja California, México. Determining when and how a Loop Current eddy (LCE) in the Gulf of Mexico will finally separate is a difficult task, since several detachment re-attachment processes can occur during one of these events. Separation is usually defined based on snapshots of Eulerian fields such as sea surface height (SSH) but here we suggest that a Lagrangi...

Debreu, L.: Raffinement adaptatif de maillage et méthode de zoom, Application aux modeles d'océan, Ph.D. thesis, Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble, France, 2000.; Alvera-Azcarate, A., Barth, A., and Weisberg, R.: The surface circulation of the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico as inferred from satellite altimetry, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 39, 640–657, 2009.; Athié, G., Candela, J., Sheinbaum, J., and Ochoa, J.: Preconditioning of the Loop Current behaviour by the Mexican...

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Combining 2-m Temperature Nowcasting and Short Range Ensemble Fore...

By: T. Haiden; C. Wittmann; A. Kann

Description: Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics, Vienna, Austria. During recent years, numerical ensemble prediction systems have become an important tool for estimating the uncertainties of dynamical and physical processes as represented in numerical weather models. The latest generation of limited area ensemble prediction systems (LAM-EPSs) allows for probabilistic forecasts at high resolution in both space and time. However, these systems still suf...

Brozkova, R., Klaric, D., Ivatek-Sahdan, S., Geleyn, J. F., Casse, V., Siroka, M., Radnoti, G., Janousek, M., Stadlbacher, K., and Seidl, H.: DFI Blending, an alternative tool for preparation of the initial conditions for LAM. PWRP Report Series No. 31 (CAS/JSCWGNE Report), WMO-TD, No. 1064, 1.7, 2001.; Buizza, R., Miller, M., and Palmer, T. N.: Stochastic simulation of model uncertainties, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 125, 2887–2908, 1999.; Cui, B., Toth, Z., Zhu, Y., Hou, ...

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Brief Communication: the Double Layer in the Separatrix Region Dur...

By: B. Yu; J. Guo

Description: School of Mathematics and Physics, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, Shandong 266061, China. With two-dimensional (2-D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations we investigate the evolution of the double layer (DL) driven by magnetic reconnection. Our results show that an electron beam can be generated in the separatrix region as magnetic reconnection proceeds. This electron beam could trigger the ion-acoustic instability; as a result, a D...

Boström, R.: Obdervations of weak double-layers on auroral field lines, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 20, 756–763, 1992.; Deng, X. H. and Matsumoto, H.: Rapid magnetic reconnection in the Earth's magnetosphere mediated by whistler waves, Nature, 410, 557–560, 2001.; Drake, J. F., Swisdak, M., Cattell, C., Shay, M. A., Rogers, B. N., and Zeiler, A.: Formation of electron holes and particle energization during magnetic reconnection, Science, 299, 873–877, 2003.; Ergun, R. E., S...

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Asymmetric Tide in Lake Vallunden (Spitsbergen) : Volume 20, Issue...

By: E. G. Morozov; A. V. Marchenko

Description: Svalbard University Center, Longyearbyen, Spitsbergen, Norway. We observed strongly asymmetric tide in a channel connecting the Van Mijen Fjord and Lake Vallunden in Spitsbergen. The channel is approximately 100 m long, 10 m wide, and 1–2 m deep. Asymmetric tide was also observed in the lake. The form of the semidiurnal tide is described by a combination of only three harmonics (M2, S2 and M4) with di...

Aubrey, D. G. and Speer, P. E.: A study of non-linear tidal propagation in shallow inlet/estuarine systems, Part I: Observations, Estuarine, Coast. Shelf Sci., 21, 185–205, 1985.; Boon, J. D. and Byrne, R. J.: On basin hypsometry and the morphodynamic response of coastal inlets, Marine Geol., 40, 27–48, 1981.; Blanton, J. O., Lin, G. Q., and Elston, S. A.: Tidal current asymmetry in shallow estuaries and tidal creeks, Cont. Shelf Res., 22, 1731–1743, 2002.; Caline, F.: C...

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Comment on Multivariate Non-normally Distributed Random Variables ...

By: F. Serinaldi

Description: Dipartimento di Idraulica Trasporti e Strade, Sapienza Università di Roma, Via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Rome, Italy. No abstract available.

Bárdossy, A.: Copula-based geostatistical models for groundwater quality parameters, Water Resour. Res., 42, W11416, \doi10.1029/2005WR004754, 2006.; dos Santos Silva, R. and Freitas Lopes, H.: Copula, marginal distributions and model selection, Stat. Comput., 18, 313–320, 2008.; Drouet-Mari, D. and Kotz, S.: Correlation and dependence, Imperial College Press, London, 2001.; Fang, H B., Fang, K T., and Kotz, S.: The meta-elliptical distributions with given marginals, J. ...

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A Barnes-hut Scheme for Simulating Fault Slip : Volume 18, Issue 2...

By: T. E. Tullis; N. M. Beeler

Description: US Geological Survey, Cascades Observatory, Vancouver, Washington, 98683, USA. To account for natural spatial and temporal complexity, large-scale, long-duration calculations are required for simulations of seismicity in fault zones that host large earthquakes. Without advances in computational methods, the rate of progress in earthquake simulator models and associated earthquake forecasts is limited by the rates at which computer speed and storage incr...

Ampuero, J.-P. and Rubin, A. M.: Earthquake nucleation on rate-and-state faults: aging and slip laws, J. Geophys. Res., 113, B01302, doi:10.1029/2007JB005082, 2008.; Barnes, J. and Hut, P.: A Hierarchical O(N log N) force calculation algorithm, Nature, 324, 446~pp., 1986.; Ben-Zion, Y. and Rice, J. R.: Earthquake failure sequences along a cellular fault zone in a three-dimensional elastic solid containing asperity and nonasperity regions, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 14109–1413...

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On Reliability Analysis of Multi-categorical Forecasts : Volume 15...

By: J. Bröcker

Description: Max-Planck-Institut für Physik komplexer Systeme, Nöthnitzer Strasse 34, 01187 Dresden, Germany. Reliability analysis of probabilistic forecasts, in particular through the rank histogram or Talagrand diagram, is revisited. Two shortcomings are pointed out: Firstly, a uniform rank histogram is but a necessary condition for reliability. Secondly, if the forecast is assumed to be reliable, an indication is needed how far a histogram is expected to deviate f...

Anderson, J L.: A method for producing and evaluating probabilistic forecasts from ensemble model integrations, J. Climate, 9, 1518–1530, 1996.; Breiman, L.: Probability, Addison-Wesley-Publishing, 1973.; Bröcker, J.: Decomposition of Proper Scores, Tech. rep., Max-Planck-Institut für Physik komplexer Systeme, Dresden, arXiv:0806.0813 [physics.ao-ph], 2008.; Bröcker, J. and Smith, L A.: Scoring Probabilistic Forecasts: The Importance of Being Proper, Weather and Forecast...

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A Variational Formulation for Translation and Assimilation of Cohe...

By: M. Plu

Description: Laboratoire de l'Atmosphère et des Cyclones, UMR8105, Unité mixte CNRS/Météo-France/Université de La Réunion, and CNRM-GAME, Météo-France/CNRS, Toulouse, France. The assimilation of observations from teledetected images in geophysical models requires one to develop algorithms that would account for the existence of coherent structures. In the context of variational data assimilation, a method is proposed to allow the background to be translated so as to ...

Michel, Y.: Displacing potential vorticity structures by the assimilation of pseudo-observations, Mon. Weather Rev., 139, 549–565, 2011.; Beezley, J. D. and Mandel, J.: Morphing ensemble Kalman filters, Tellus, 60A, 131–140, 2008.; Chen, Y. and Snyder, C.: Assimilating vortex position with an ensemble Kalman filter, Mon. Weather Rev., 135, 1828–1845, 2007.; Deckmyn, A. and Berre, L.: A wavelet approach to representing background error covariances in a limited-area model,...

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Multifractal Analysis for the Ulf Geomagnetic Data During the 1993...

By: M. Hayakawa; K. Gotoh; A. Adalev; Y. Ida

Description: Department of Electronic Engineering, The University of Electro-Communications, 1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Chofu Tokyo 182-8585, Japan. In our previous papers we have shown that the fractal (monofractal) dimension (Do) showed a significant increase before the Guam earthquake occurred on 8 August, 1993. In order to have a further support to this precursory effect to the general rupture (earthquake) we have carried out the corresponding multifract...

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What Determines Size Distributions of Heavy Drops in a Synthetic T...

By: U. Feudel; J. C. Zahnow

Description: Theoretical Physics/Complex Systems, ICBM, University of Oldenburg, 26129 Oldenburg, Germany. We present results from an individual particle based model for the collision, coagulation and fragmentation of heavy drops moving in a turbulent flow. Such a model framework can help to bridge the gap between the full hydrodynamic simulation of two phase flows, which can usually only study few particles and mean field based approaches for coagulation and fragmen...

Bäbler, M. U., Morbidelli, M., and Baldyga, J.: Modelling the breakup of solid aggregates in turbulent flows, J. Fluid Mech., 612, 261–289, 2008.; Bec, J.: Fractal clustering of inertial particles in random flows, Phys. Fluids, 15, L81–L84, 2003.; Bec, J.: Multifractal concentrations of inertial particles in smooth random flows, J. Fluid Mech., 528, 255–277, 2005.; Bec, J., Celani, A., Cencini, M., and Musacchio, S.: Clustering and collisions of heavy particles in random...

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Non-local Deformation Effects in Shear Flows : Volume 2, Issue 1 (...

By: M. E. Bobrova; A. S. Perezhogin; O. V. Sheremetyeva; A. V. Popova

Description: Institute of Cosmophysical Researches and Radio Wave Propagation FEB RAS, Kamchatskiy Kray, Paratunka, Russia. The method for detection of clusters on the basis of event space–time dependence is classically applied for foreshock–mainshock–aftershock sequences for which event connectedness is generally accepted. In the paper, this approach is used to investigate the whole event catalogue of foreshock and aftershock sequences filter...

Aki, K. and Richards, P.: Quantitative Seismology, Theory and Methods, V.1, Mir, Moscow, 519 pp., 1983.; Anderson, J. G. and Nanjo, K.: Distribution of earthquake cluster sizes in the Western United States and in Japan, B. Seismol. Soc. Am., 103, 412–423, 2013.; Batac, R. C. and Kantz, H.: Observing spatio-temporal clustering and separation using interevent distributions of regional earthquakes, Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 21, 735–744,

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Strongly Nonlinear Steepening of Long Interfacial Waves : Volume 1...

By: E. Pelinovsky; O. Polukhina; A. Slunyaev; T. Talipova; N. Zahibo; A. Kurkin

Description: Département de Physique, Université des Antilles et de la Guyane, Guadeloupe, France. The transformation of nonlinear long internal waves in a two-layer fluid is studied in the Boussinesq and rigid-lid approximation. Explicit analytic formulation of the evolution equation in terms of the Riemann invariants allows us to obtain analytical results characterizing strongly nonlinear wave steepening, including the spectral evolution. Effects manifesting the a...

Afanasyev, Ya. D. and Pelter, W. R.: On breaking internal waves over the sill in Knight Inlet, Proc. Royal Society London, A457, 2799–2825, 2001.; Armi, L. and Farmer, D.: Stratified flow over topography bifurcation fronts and transition to the uncontrolled state, Proc. Royal Society London, A457, 2827–2830, 2001.; Baines, P. G.: Topographic effects in stratified flows, Cambridge University Press, 1995.; Chant, R. and Wilson, R.: Internal hydraulics and mixing in highly ...

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Accurate Estimation of Third-order Moments from Turbulence Measure...

By: M. A. Forman; C. W. Smith; D. C. Elton; Y. Gagne; Y. Malécot; J. J. Podesta

Description: Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire, 03824, USA. Politano and Pouquet's law, a generalization of Kolmogorov's four-fifths law to incompressible MHD, makes it possible to measure the energy cascade rate in incompressible MHD turbulence by means of third-order moments. In hydrodynamics, accurate measurement of third-order moments requires large amounts of data because the probability distributions of velocity-difference...

Balogh, A., Beek, T J., Forsyth, R J., Hedgecock, P C., Marquedant, R J., Smith, E J., Southwood, D J., and Tsurutani, B T.: The magnetic field investigation on the ULYSSES mission - Instrumentation and preliminary scientific results, Astron. Astrophys.\ Suppl. Ser., 92, 221–236, 1992.; Belcher, J W. and Davis, L.: Large-amplitude Alfvén waves in the interplanetary medium, 2., J Geophys. Res., 76, 3534–3563, 1971.; Dudok de Wit, T.: Can high-order moments be meaningfully...

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