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Seismic Tomography and Mixing in the Deep Earth : Volume 2, Issue ...

By: G. Pari; W. R. Peltier; A. M. Dziewonski

Description: Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A7, Canada. Recently constructed tomographic models of the lateral heterogeneity of elastic properties in the Earth's mantle are contrasted in terms of their implications concerning the extent to which the endothermic phase transformation at 660 km depth is influencing the radial style of mixing. Previously published whole mantle and split mantle tomographic reconstructions, SH8/WMI3 and...

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A Model for Aperiodicity in Earthquakes : Volume 15, Issue 1 (07/0...

By: D. Lavallée; B. Birnir; B. Erickson

Description: Department of Mathematics, University of California, Santa Barbara, USA. Conditions under which a single oscillator model coupled with Dieterich-Ruina's rate and state dependent friction exhibits chaotic dynamics is studied. Properties of spring-block models are discussed. The parameter values of the system are explored and the corresponding numerical solutions presented. Bifurcation analysis is performed to determine the bifurcations and stability of s...

Andrews, D. J.: Rupture velocity of plane strain shear cracks, J. Geophys. Res., 81, 5679–5687, 1976.; Ascher, U. M. and Petzold, L. R.: Computer methods for ordinary differential equations and differential-algebraic equations, SIAM, Philadelphia, 1st edition, 1998.; Archuleta, R. J.: A faulting model for the 1979 Imperial Valley earthquake, J. Geophys. Res., 89, 4559–4586, 1984. %; %Archuleta, R. J.: %Personal communication, ralph@crustal.ucsb.edu, %2007.; Bak, P., Tang...

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The Global Characteristics of the Three-dimensional Thermal Convec...

By: J. Arkani-hamed

Description: Earth and Planetary Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The Rayleigh number-Nusselt number, and the Rayleigh number-thermal boundary layer thickness relationships are determined for the three-dimensional convection in a spherical shell of constant physical parameters. Several models are considered with Rayleigh numbers ranging from 1.1 x 102 to 2.1 x 105 times the...

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Scaling Properties of Gravity-driven Sediments : Volume 2, Issue 3...

By: D. H. Rothman; J. P. Grotzinger

Description: Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Recent field observations of the statistical distribution of turbidite and debris flow deposits are discussed. In some cases one finds a good fit over 1.5-2 orders of magnitude to the scaling law N(h) α h-B, where N(h) is the number of layers thicker than h. Observations show that the scaling ex...

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Error Budget in Systems with Time-dependent Forcings : Volume 5, I...

By: P. Sancho

Description: Instituto Nacional de Meteorología, Centro Zonal de Castilla y León, Orión 1, 47071, Valladolid, Spain. The behaviour of the error growth is analyzed in several simple examples of systems with external time-dependent forcings. in some systems oscillations of the error around the saturation level can be observed. A common feature of these examples is the error growth dependence on initial time. In the examples here considered the improvement in the predic...

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Skill Prediction of Local Weather Forecasts Based on the Ecmwf Ens...

By: C. Ziehmann

Description: Nonlinear Dynamics Group, Institute of Physics, Potsdam University, Germany. Ensemble Prediction has become an essential part of numerical weather forecasting. In this paper we investigate the ability of ensemble forecasts to provide an a priori estimate of the expected forecast skill. Several quantities derived from the local ensemble distribution are investigated for a two year data set of European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Foreca...

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Exact Theory for Localized Envelope Modulated Electrostatic Wavepa...

By: I. Kourakis; P. K. Shukla

Description: Institut für Theoretische Physik IV, Fakultät für Physik und Astronomie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum, Germany. Abundant evidence for the occurrence of modulated envelope plasma wave packets is provided by recent satellite missions. These excitations are characterized by a slowly varying localized envelope structure, embedding the fast carrier wave, which appears to be the result of strong modulation of the wave amplitude. This modulation may...

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Complexity and Predictability of Daily Precipitation in a Semi-ari...

By: L. M. V. Carvalho; T. De M. B. S. Xavier; M. A. F. Da Silva Dias; M. E. S. Silva

Description: Department of Geography, FFLCH, University of São Paulo, Brazil. Complexity and predictability of daily precipitation in a tropical semi-arid region (Ceará State, Brazil) is assessed by applying entropy concepts. Precipitation regimes in that region depend on several dynamical forcings, the most important being the displacement and activity of the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone in the Atlantic Ocean. Topography is another important factor that influenc...

Alves, J. M. B.: Verification of the seasonal prognostics of precipitation in the Ceará State by using percentiles, Rev. Bras. Meteorol., 15, 73–86 (in portuguese), 2000.; Asnani, G. C.: Tropical Meteorology., vol 1., Nobles Printer, India, 604 pp., 1993.; Bengtsson, L., Hodges, K. I., and Froude, L. S. R.: Global observation and forecast skill, Tellus, 57A, 515–527, 2005.; Bengtsson, L. and Hodges, K. I.: A note on atmospheric predictability, Tellus, 58, 154–157, 2006.;...

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An Ising Model for Earthquake Dynamics : Volume 14, Issue 1 (19/01...

By: A. M. Posadas; A. Jiménez; K. F. Tiampo

Description: Department of Earth Sciences Biological and Geological Sciences, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada. This paper focuses on extracting the information contained in seismic space-time patterns and their dynamics. The Greek catalog recorded from 1901 to 1999 is analyzed. An Ising Cellular Automata representation technique is developed to reconstruct the history of these patterns. We find that there is strong correlation in the region, and that sm...

Aki, K.: Correlogram analyses of seismograms by means of a simple automatic computer, J. Phys. Earth, 4, 71–79, 1956.; Allègre, C J. and Le Mouel, J L.: Introduction of Scaling Technique in Brittle Failure of Rocks, Phys. Earth Planet Inter., 87, 85–93, 1994.; Allègre, C J., Le Mouel, J L., and Provost, A.: Scaling Rules in Rock Fracture and Possible Implications for Earthquake Predictions, Nature, 297, 47–49, 1982.; Anghel, M., Klein, W., Rundle, J B., and Martins, J S ...

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Solar Wind Interaction with the Earth's Magnetosphere: the Role of...

By: F. Valentini; M. Faganello; F. Pegoraro; F. Califano

Description: Physics Dept., University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy. The Earth's magnetosphere and solar wind environment is a laboratory of excellence for the study of the physics of collisionless magnetic reconnection. At low latitude magnetopause, magnetic reconnection develops as a secondary instability due to the stretching of magnetic field lines advected by large scale Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices. In particular, reconnection takes place in the sheared magnetic layer th...

Attico, N., Califano, F., and Pegoraro, F.: Fast collisionless reconnection in the whistler frequency range, Phys. Plasmas, 7, 2381–2387, doi:10.1063/1.874076, 2000.; Bian, N. and Vekstein, G.: On the two-fuid modification of the resistive tearing instability, Phys. Plasmas, 14, 120702, doi:10.1063/1.2820904, 2007.; Belmont, G. and Chanteur, G.: Kelvin-Helmholtz instability: nonlinear evolution, in: Turbulence and Nonlinear Dynamics in MHD Flows, edited by: Meneguzzi, M....

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Spectral Properties of Electromagnetic Turbulence in Plasmas : Vol...

By: D. Shaikh; P. K. Shukla

Description: Department of Physics and Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomy Research (CSPAR), The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL-35899, USA. We report on the nonlinear turbulent processes associated with electromagnetic waves in plasmas. We focus on low-frequency (in comparison with the electron gyrofrequency) nonlinearly interacting electron whistlers and nonlinearly interacting Hall-magnetohydrodynamic (H-MHD) fluctuations in a magnetized plasm...

Kingsep, A. S., Chukbar, K. V., and Yan'kov, V. V.: Reviews of Plasma Physics, Consultants Bureau, New York, 16, 243–291, 1990.; Bale, S. D., Kellogg, P. J., Mozer, F. S., Horbury, T. S., and Reme, H.: Measurement of the Electric Fluctuation Spectrum of Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 215002, doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.215002, 2005.; Bespalov, P. A.: Excitation of whistler waves in three spectral bands in the radiation belts of Jupiter and Saturn, Eu...

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Complex Noise Suppression and Reconstruction of Seismic Reflection...

By: K. Dhanam; R. Rajesh; R. K. Tiwari; T. Seshunarayana

Description: AcSIR-NGRI, Hyderabad, India. The seismic reflection data processing to identify thin coal beds and intrinsic fault structure associated with coalmines suffers from the coherent noise that arises due to interference and diffraction of seismic signals from adjacent horizontal boundaries on either sides of the fault structure. The amplitudes of the interfering reflections mislead the interpretation of geological features like faults, curved reflectors, et...

Biswas, S. K.: Regional tectonic framework of the Pranhita–Godavari basin, India, J. Asian Earth Sci., 21, 543–551, 2003.; Broomhead, D. S. and King, G. P.: Extracting qualitative dynamics from experimental data, Physica D, 20, 217–236, 1986a.; Broomhead, D. S. and King, G. P.: On the qualitative analysis of experimental dynamical systems, in: Nonlinear Phenomena and Chaos, edited by: Sarkar, S., Adam Hilger, Bristol, 113–144, 1986b.; Fraedrich, K.: Estimating dimensions...

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Model for Vortex Turbulence with Discontinuities in the Solar Wind...

By: B. T. Tsurutani; O. P. Verkhoglyadova; B. Dasgupta

Description: Department of Astronomy and Space Physics, Kiev University, Ukraine. A model of vortex with embedded discontinuities in plasma flow is developed in the framework of ideal MHD in a low b plasma. Vortex structures are considered as a result of 2-D evolution of nonlinear shear Alfvén waves in the heliosphere. Physical properties of the solutions and vector fields are analyzed and the observational aspects of the mode...

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Evolving Towards a Critical Point: a Possible Electromagnetic Way ...

By: E. Dologlou; N. G. Bogris; P. G. Kapiris; A. S. Peratzakis; K. A. Eftaxias; J. Polygiannakis; K. D. Nomikos; G. T. Balasis; V. E. Hadjicontis

Description: Solid State Section, Physics Department, University of Athens, Greece. In analogy to the study of critical phase transitions in statistical physics, it has been argued recently that the fracture of heterogeneous materials could be viewed as a critical phenomenon, either at laboratory or at geophysical scales. If the picture of the development of the fracture is correct one may guess that the precursors may reveal the critical approach of ...

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Nonlinear Correlations of Daily Temperature Records Over Land : Vo...

By: I. M. Jánosi; I. Bartos

Description: Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Eötvös University, Budapest, Hungary. We present a near global statistics on the correlation properties of daily temperature records. Data from terrestrial meteorological stations in the Global Daily Climatology Network are analyzed by means of detrended fluctuation analysis. Long-range temporal correlations extending up to several years are detected for each station. In order to reveal nonlinearity, we evaluate...

Fraedrich, K., Luksch, U., and Blender, R. A.: 1/f-model for long time memory of the ocean surface temperature, Phys. Rev. E, 70, 037301, doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.70.037301, 2003.; Hegger, R., Kantz, H., and Schreiber, T.: Practical implementation of nonlinear time series methods: The TISEAN package, Chaos, 9, 413–435, 1999, The software package is publicly available at http://www.mpipks-dresden.mpg.de/ tisean.; Jun, W. C., Oh, G., and Kim, S.: Understanding volatility corre...

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Edge Effect Causes Apparent Fractal Correlation Dimension of Unifo...

By: J.-d. Creutin; D. Sempere Torres; J. M. Porrà; R. Uijlenhoet

Description: Chair of Hydrology and Quantitative Water Management, Department of Environmental Sciences, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands. Lovejoy and Schertzer (1990a) presented a statistical analysis of blotting paper observations of the (two-dimensional) spatial distribution of raindrop stains. They found empirical evidence for the fractal scaling behavior of raindrops in space, with potentially far-reaching implications for rainfall microphysics...

Bacchi, B., Ranzi, R., and Borga, M.: Statistical characterization of spatial patterns of rainfall cells in extratropical cyclones, J. Geophys. Res., (D101), 26277–26286, 1996.; Cornford, S G.: Sampling errors in measurements of raindrop and cloud droplet concentrations, Meteorol. Mag., 96, 271–282, 1967.; Cox, D R. and Isham, V.: Point processes, Chapman & Hall, London, 188 pp., 1980.; Cressie, N A C.: Statistics for spatial data, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 936 pp., 1...

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Wave Turbulence in Magnetized Plasmas : Volume 16, Issue 1 (16/02/...

By: S. Galtier

Description: Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale, bâtiment 121, Université Paris-Sud XI, UMR 8617, 91405 Orsay, France. The paper reviews the recent progress on wave turbulence for magnetized plasmas (MHD, Hall MHD and electron MHD) in the incompressible and compressible cases. The emphasis is made on homogeneous and anisotropic turbulence which usually provides the best theoretical framework to investigate space and laboratory plasmas. The solar wind and the coronal he...

Abdurakhimov, L. V., Brazhnikov, M. Y., and Levchenko, A. A.: Statistic of capillary waves on the surface of liquid hydrogen in a turbulent regime, J. Low Temp. Phys., 150, 431–434, 2008.; Alexakis, A., Bigot, B., Politano, H., and Galtier, S.: Anisotropic fluxes and nonlocal interactions in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, Phys. Rev. E., 76, 056313, doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.76.056313, 2007.; Alexakis, A., Mininni, P. D., and Pouquet, A.: Shell-to-shell energy transfer in mag...

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Excitation of Low Frequency Oscillations in a Planetary Magnetoshe...

By: N. Borisov; M. Fränz

Description: Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Waves Propagation, (IZMIRAN), 142190 Troitsk, Moscow region, Russia. We show that the slow magnetosonic (SM) perturbations generated in the vicinity of the magnetopause, due to the excitation of the Kelvin-Helmholtz (K.-H.) instability in the case of a supersonic flow velocity, are transformed into fast magnetosonic (FM) waves which can propagate into the magnetosheath. Under the conditions discuss...

Anderson, B. J. and Fuselier, S. A.: Magnetic pulsations from 0.1 Hz to 4.0 Hz and associated plasma properties in the Earth's subsolar magnetosheath and plasma depletion layer, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 1461–1479, 1993.; Biernat, H. K., Erkaev, N. V., Amerstofer U. V., Penz, T., and Lichtenegger, H. I. M.: Solar wind flow past Venus and its applications for the occurrence of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, Planet. Space Sci., 55, 1793–1803, 2007.; Chandrasekhar, S.: Hydro...

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Investigating the Connection Between Complexity of Isolated Trajec...

By: M. G. Brown; S. E. Scott; L. J. Pratt; I. I. Rypina

Description: Physical Oceanography Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543, USA. It is argued that the complexity of fluid particle trajectories provides the basis for a new method, referred to as the Complexity Method (CM), for estimation of Lagrangian coherent structures in aperiodic flows that are measured over finite time intervals. The basic principles of the CM are explained and the CM is tested in a variety of examples, both ide...

Aref, H.: Stirring by chaotic advection, J. Fluid Mech., 143, 1–21, 1984.; Brown, M. G.: Phase space structure and fractal trajectories in 1 1/2 degree of freedom Hamiltonian systems whose time dependence is quasiperiodic, Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 5, 69–74, doi:10.5194/npg-5-69-1998, 1998.; Deese, H. E., Pratt, L. J., and Helfrich, K. R.: A laboratory model of exchange and mixing between western boundary layers and s...

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Earthquake Sequencing: Chimera States with Kuramoto Model Dynamics...

By: M. Cavers; A. Ware; K. Vasudevan

Description: Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, Canada. Earthquake sequencing studies allow us to investigate empirical relationships among spatio-temporal parameters describing the complexity of earthquake properties. We have recently studied the relevance of Markov chain models to draw information from global earthquake catalogues. In these studies, we considered directed graphs as graph theoretic repres...

Abrams, D. M. and Strogatz, S. H.: Chimera states for coupled oscillators, Phys. Rev. Lett., 93, 174102, doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.93.174102, 2004.; Abrams, D. M., Mirollo, R., Strogatz, S. H., and Wiley, D. A.: Solvable model for chimera states of coupled oscillators, Phys. Rev. Lett., 101, 084103, doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.101.084103, 2008.; Arenas, A., ...

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