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A Simplified Model of the Martian Atmosphere - Part 2: a Pod-galer...

By: I. M. Moroz; S. R. Lewis; P. L. Read; S. G. Whitehouse

Description: Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, UK. In Part I of this study Whitehouse et al. (2005) performed a diagnostic analysis of a simplied model of the Martian atmosphere, in which topography was absent and in which heating was modelled as Newtonian relaxation towards a zonally symmetric equilibrium temperature field. There we derived a reduced-order approximation to the vertical and the horizonal structure of the baroclinically unstable Martian ...

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The Evolution of a Thermocline Effected by a Turbulent Stream : Vo...

By: V. I. Kazakov; P. A. Matusov; L. A. Ostrovsky; O. A. Druzhinin

Description: Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Uljanov Str., Nizhny Novogorod 603600, Russia. The process of thermocline evolution under the action of turbulent stream in the upper layer is investigated in laboratory experiment in thermally stratified tank, the initial temperature profile with pronounced thermocline being similar to that observed in tropic seas. The mean velocity and turbulent energy spatial distributions have been shaped ...

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Elastic Envelope Inversion Using Multicomponent Seismic Data Witho...

By: B. Chi; Y. Liu; L. Dong; C. Huang

Description: State Key Laboratory of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 20092, China. Low frequency is a key issue to reduce the nonlinearity of elastic full waveform inversion. Hence, the lack of low frequency in recorded seismic data is one of the most challenging problems in elastic full waveform inversion. Theoretical derivations and numerical analysis are presented in this paper to show that envelope operator can retrieve strong low frequency modulation ...

Baeten, G., de Maag, J. W., Plessix, R. E., Klaassen, R., Qureshi, T., Kleemeyer, M., ten Kroode, F., and Rujie, Z.: The use of low frequencies in a full-waveform inversion and impedance inversion land seismic case study, Geophys. Prospect., 61, 701–711, 2013.; Bunks, C., Saleck, F. M., Zaleski, S., and Chavent, G.: Multiscale seismic waveform inversion, Geophysics, 60, 1457–1473, 1995.; Bozdağ, E., Trampert, J., and Tromp, J.: Misfit functions for full waveform inversio...

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Frustration and Disorder in Granular Media and Tectonic Blocks: Im...

By: A. Sornette; D. Sornette; P. Evesque

Description: Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée, CNRS URA 190, Université de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice Cedex 2, France. We present exploratory analogies and speculations on the mechanisms underlying the organization of faulting and earthquake in the earth crust. The mechanical properties of the brittle lithosphere at scales of the order or larger than a few kilometers are proposed to be analogous to those of non-cohesive granular med...

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A Model of Coupled Oscillators Applied to the Aerosol–cloud–precip...

By: I. Koren; G. Feingold

Description: Chemical Sciences Division, NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL), 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80305, USA. We simulate the aerosol–cloud–precipitation system as a collection of cloud elements, each coupled through physically based interactions with adjacent clouds. The equations describing the individual clouds follow from the predator–prey model of Koren and Feingold (2011) with the addition of coupling terms that derive from the flow of air ...

Agee, E. M.: Observations from space and thermal convection: a historical perspective, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 65, 938–949, 2.0.CO;2>doi:10.1175/1520-0477(1984)065<0938:OFSATC>2.0.CO;2, 1984.; Blasius, B., Huppert, A., and Stone, L.: Complex dynamics and phase synchronization in spatially extended ecological systems, Nature, 399, 354–359, doi:10.1038/20676, 199...

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Seismo-ionospheric Coupling Correlation Analysis of Earthquakes in...

By: T. D. Xenos; G. S. Tsolis

Description: Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 54006 Thessaloniki, Greece. Ionospheric variability as a result of earthquake events is a confirmed phenomenon as published in various seismo-ionospheric coupling studies. Generally, ionospheric variations resulting from earthquake activity are much weaker than disturbances generated by different sources, e.g. geomagnetic storms. However, geomagnetic storm disturbanc...

% vor jede Referenz Davies, K.: Ionospheric Radio, Peregrinus Ltd., London, UK, 1990.; % vor jede Referenz Dobrovolsky, I. R., Zubkov, S. I., and Myachkin, V. I.: Estimation of the size of earthquake preparation zones, Pageoph., 117, 1025–1044, 1979.; % vor jede Referenz Flandrin, P., Rilling, G., and Gonçalvès, P.: Empirical Mode Decomposition as a filter bank, IEEE Signal Proc. Lett., 2003.; % vor jede Referenz Flandrin, P., Gonçalvès, P., and Rilling, G.: Detrending a...

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Current Challenges for Pre-earthquake Electromagnetic Emissions: S...

By: S. M. Potirakis; K. Eftaxias

Description: Department of Physics, Section of Solid State Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, 15784, Zografos, Athens, Greece. Are there credible electromagnetic (EM) potential earthquake (EQ) precursors? This a question debated in the scientific community and there may be legitimate reasons for the critical views. The negative view concerning the existence of EM potential precursors is enhanced by features that accompany their observation which are co...

Alonso-Marroquin, F., Vardoulakis, I., Herrmann, H., Weatherley, D., and Mora, P.: Effect of rolling on dissipation in fault gouges, Phys. Rev. E, 74, 031306(1-10), doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.74.031306, 2006.; Amitrano, D. and Helmstetter, A.: Brittle creep, damage, and time to failure in rocks, J. Geophys. Res., 111, B11201(1-17), doi:10.1029/2005JB004252, 2006.; Andrad...

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The Formation of Relativistic Plasma Structures and Their Potentia...

By: M. E. Dieckmann

Description: Department of Science and Technology (ITN), Linköping University, 60174 Norrköping, Sweden. Recent particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation studies have addressed particle acceleration and magnetic field generation in relativistic astrophysical flows by plasma phase space structures. We discuss the astrophysical environments such as the jets of compact objects, and we give an overview of the global PIC simulations of shocks. These reveal several types of phase...

Bessho, N. and Ohsawa, Y.: Electron acceleration to ultrarelativistic energies in a collisionless oblique shock wave, Phys. Plasmas, 3076–3085, 1999.; Birdsall, C. K. and Langdon, A. B.: Plasma physics via computer simulation, IOP Publishing, Bristol, UK, 1991.; Bludman, S. A., Watson, K. M., and Rosenbluth, M. N.: Statistical mechanics of relativistic streams. II, Phys. Fluids, 3, 747–757, 1960.; Bogdan, T. J. and Lerche, I.: Dynamical evolution of large-scale, two-dime...

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Modelling and Simulation of Waves in Three-layer Porous Media : Vo...

By: S. R. Pudjaprasetya

Description: Mathematics Department, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung, 40132, Indonesia. The propagation of gravity waves in an emerged three-layer porous medium is considered in this paper. Based on the assumption that the flow can be described by Darcy's Law, an asymptotic theory is developed for small-amplitude long waves. This leads to a weakly nonlinear Boussinesq-type diffusion equation for the wave height, with coefficients dependent on th...

Nielsen, P.: Tidal dynamics of the water table in beaches, Water Resour. Res., 26, 2127–2134, 1990.; Chwang, A. T. and Chan, A. T.: Interaction between porous media and wave motion, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 30, 53–84, 1998.; Dahdouh-Guebas, F.: Mangrove forests and tsunami protection, 2006 McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology, McGraw-Hill Professional, New York, USA, 187–191, 2006.; Fernando, H. J. S., Samarawickrama, S. P., Balasubramanian, S., Hettiarachchi, S. ...

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Models of Explosive Volcanism : Volume 2, Issue 3/4 (30/11/-0001)

By: M. I. Bursik; S. M. Bower; A. W. Woods

Description: Institute of Therotical Geophysics, DAMTP, Silver Street, Cambridge, CB3 9EW, U.K.. We describe a series of models which illustrate the controls upon the evolution of an erupting mixture of ash and gas during an explosive volcanic eruption. For large eruption rates, material typically issues from a crater as a supersonic jet which may entrain and heat sufficient air to become buoyant and form a Plinian eruption column. If a buoyant eruption column is abl...

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Long Range Predictability of Atmospheric Flows : Volume 8, Issue 1...

By: C. Rosier; R. Robert

Description: CNRS UMR 5582, Institut Fourier, 100 Rue des mathématiques, BP 74, 38402 Saint Martin d’Hères Cedex, France. In the light of recent advances in 2D turbulence, we investigate the long range predictability problem of atmospheric flows. Using 2D Euler equations, we show that the full nonlinearity acting on a large number of degrees of freedom can, paradoxically, improve the predictability of the large scale motion, giving a picture opposite ...

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On the Nonlinear Dynamics of Rupture : Volume 5, Issue 2 (30/11/-0001)

By: D. L. Turcotte; H. Ockendon

Description: Center for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Mathematical Institute, Oxford OX1 3CB, England. The rupture on a fault resulting in an earthquake is clearly a complex process. In order to better understand this process the continuum version of the slider-block model has been considered in some detail. In particular, the role of a cohesive breakaway zone is considered. Solutions of a "piston" problem and a "shock-tube" problem are obtained. For the "dirve...

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Preface Nonlinear Plasma Waves in Space and Laboratories : Volume ...

By: B. Tsurutani; G. Morales

Description: Space Plasma Section, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, 91109, USA. No Abstract available.

Chang, T., Wu, C. C., Podesta, J., Echim, M., Lamy, H., and Tam, S. W. Y.: ROMA (Rank-Ordered Multifractal Analyses) of intermittency in space plasmas – a brief tutorial review, Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 17, 545–551, http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/npg-17-545-2010doi:10.5194/npg-17-545-2010, 2010.; del-Castillo-Negrete, D.: Non-diffusive, non-local transport in fluids and plasmas, Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 17, 795–807, http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/npg-17-795-2010doi:10.5194/n...

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Nonlinear Data-assimilation Using Implicit Models : Volume 12, Iss...

By: H. A. Dijkstra; A. D. Terwisscha Van Scheltinga

Description: Institute for Marine and Atmospheric research Utrecht, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Utrecht University, The Netherlands. We show how the traditional 4D-Var method can be adapted for implicit time-integration and extended for multi-parameter estimation. We present the algorithm for this new method, which we call I4D-Var, and demonstrate its performance using a fully-implicit barotropic quasi-geostrophic model of the wind-driven double-gyre ocean c...

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Structure Functions and Intermittency in Ionospheric Plasma Turbul...

By: H. L. Pécseli; M. Oppenheim; A. W. Wernik; B. Krane; L. Dyrud; J. Trulsen

Description: Center for Remote Sensing, 3702 Pender Dr., Fairfax, VA 22 030, USA. Low frequency electrostatic turbulence in the ionospheric E-region is studied by means of numerical and experimental methods. We use the structure functions of the electrostatic potential as a diagnostics of the fluctuations. We demonstrate the inherently intermittent nature of the low level turbulence in the collisional ionospheric plasma by using results for the space-time varying el...

Anselmet, F., Gagne, Y., Hopfinger, E J., and Antonia, R A.: High-order velocity structure functions in turbulent shear flows, J. Fluid Mech., 140, 63–89, 1984.; Bahnsen, A., Ungstrup, E., Fälthammer, C.-G., Fahleson, U., Olesen, J K., Primdahl, F., Spangslev, F., and Pedersen, A.: Electrostatic waves observed in an unstable polar cap ionosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 83, 5191–5197, 1978.; Bendat, J S.: Principles and Applications of Random Noise Theory, John-Wiley & Sons, N...

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Channelling of High-latitude Boundary-layer Flow : Volume 15, Issu...

By: R. E. Stewart; N. Nawri

Description: Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. Due to the stability of the boundary-layer stratification, high-latitude winds over complex terrain are strongly affected by blocking and channelling effects. Consequently, at many low-lying communities in the Canadian Archipelago, including Cape Dorset and Iqaluit considered in this study, surface winds for the most part are from two diametrically opposed directions, fol...

Brümmer, B. and Thiemann, S.: The atmospheric boundary layer in an arctic wintertime on-ice air flow, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol., 104, 53–72, 2002.; Brümmer, B., Kirchgäß ner, A., and Müller, G.: The atmospheric boundary layer over Baltic Sea ice, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol., 117, 91–109, 2005.; Drobinski, P., Dabas, A M., Haeberli, C., and Flamant, P H.: On the small-scale dynamics of flow splitting in the Rhine Valley during a shallow foehn event, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol., 99, 277–2...

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On the Cascade Mechanism of Short Surface Wave Modulation : Volume...

By: L. Ostrovsky; A. Smirnov; K. Naugolnykh; M. Charnotskii

Description: Zel Technologies, LLC / NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO, 8030-3328, USA. Modulation of short surface ripples by long surface or internal waves by a cascade mechanism is considered. At the first stage, the orbital velocity of the long wave (LW) adiabatically modulates an intermediate length nonlinear gravity wave (GW), which generates a bound (parasitic) capillary wave (CW) near its crest in a wide spati...

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Mitigation of Energetic Electrons in the Magnetosphere by Amplifie...

By: S. P. Kuo

Description: Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Polytechnic Institute of New York University, 6 MetroTech Center, Brooklyn, NY 11201, USA. An optimal approach reducing the population of MeV electrons in the magnetosphere is presented. Under a double resonance condition, whistler wave is simultaneously in cyclotron resonance with keV and MeV electrons. The injected whistler waves is first amplified by the background keV electrons via loss-cone negative...

Albert, J. M.: Gyroresonant interactions of radiation belt particles with a monochromatic electromagnetic wave, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 21 191–21 205, 2000.; Arnoldy, R. L. and Kintner, P. M.: Rocket observations of the precipitation of electrons by ground VLF transmitters, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 6825–6832, 1989.; Breneman, A., Kletzing, C. A., Chum, J., Santolik, O., Gurnett, D., and Pickett, J.: Multispacecraft observations of chorus dispersion and source location, J. Ge...

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Improved Singular Spectrum Analysis for Time Series with Missing D...

By: F. Peng; B. Li; Y. Shen

Description: College of Surveying and Geo-informatics, Tongji University, Shanghai, China. Singular spectrum analysis (SSA) is a powerful technique for time series analysis. Based on the property that the original time series can be reproduced from its principal components, this contribution develops an improved SSA (ISSA) for processing the incomplete time series and the modified SSA (SSAM) of Schoellhamer (2001) is its special case. The approach is evaluated with...

Broomhead, D. S. and King, G. P.: Extracting qualitative dynamics from experimental data, Physica D, 20, 217–236, 1986.; Buchanan, P. A. and Ruhl, C. A.: Summary of suspended-solids concentration data, San Francisco Bay, California, water year 1998, Open File Report 99-189, US Geological Survey, San Francisco, 41 pp., 2000.; Buchanan, P. A. and Schoellhamer, D. H.: Summary of suspended solids concentration data, San Francisco Bay, California, water year 1997, Open File R...

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Incidence and Reflection of Internal Waves and Wave-induced Curren...

By: J. P. McHugh

Description: University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, USA. Weakly nonlinear internal gravity waves are treated in a two-layer fluid with a set of nonlinear Schrodinger equations. The layers have a sharp interface with a jump in buoyancy frequency approximately modeling the tropopause. The waves are periodic in the horizontal but modulated in the vertical and Boussinesq flow is assumed. The equation governing the incident wave packet is directly coupled to the equati...

McHugh, J. P., Jumper, G. Y., and Chun, M.: Balloon thermosonde measurements over Mauna Kea, and comparison with seeing measurements, Pub. Astro. Soc. Pac., 120, 1318–1324, 2008b.; Shrira, V. I.: On the propagation of a three-dimensional packet of weakly non-linear internal gravity waves, Int. J. Non-Lin. Mech., 16, 129–138, 1981.; Smith, R. B., Woods, B. K., Jensen, J., Cooper, W. A., Doyle, J. D., Jiang, Q., and Grubisic, V.: Mountain waves entering the stratosphere, J...

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