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Scaling Properties of Planetary Calderas and Terrestrial Volcanic ...

By: R. Shcherbakov; L. Sanchez

Description: Department of Earth Sciences, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 5B7, Canada. Volcanism plays an important role in transporting internal heat of planetary bodies to their surface. Therefore, volcanoes are a manifestation of the planet's past and present internal dynamics. Volcanic eruptions as well as caldera forming processes are the direct manifestation of complex interactions between the rising magma and the surrounding host rock in t...

Corral, \'A., Oss{ó}, A., and Llebot, J.: Scaling of tropical-cyclone dissipation, Nat. Phys., 6, 693–696, 2010.; Acocella, V.: Understanding caldera structure and development: An overview of analogue models compared to natural calderas, Earth. Sci. Rev., 85, 125–160, 2007.; Akaike, H.: A new look at the statistical model identification, IEEE Trans. Autom. Contr., 19, 716–723, 1974.; Baiesi, M., Paczuski, M., and Stella, A.: Intensity threshold and the statistics of the ...

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A Possible Theory for the Interaction Between Convective Activitie...

By: M. Takahashi; Y. H. Ding; X. Y. Shen; N. Zhao

Description: State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, 100081, China. Theoretical studies usually attribute convections to the developments of instabilities such as the static or symmetric instabilities of the basic flows. However, the following three facts make the validities of these basic theories unconvincing. First, it seems that in most cases the basic flow with balance property cannot exist as the exact soluti...

Arakawa, A. and Schubert, W. H.: Interaction of a cumulus cloud ensemble with the large-scale environment, Part I., J. Atmos. Sci., 31, 674–701, 1974.; Charney, J. G.: The use of the primitive equation of motion in numerical prediction, Tellus, {{7}} 22–26, 1955.; Drazin, P. G.: Hydrodynamical stability, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1981.; Emanuel, K. A., Neelin, J. D., and Bretherton, C. S.:  On large-scale circulations in convecting atmospheres, Quart. J. Roy...

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Time-dependent Long's Equation : Volume 22, Issue 2 (06/03/2015)

By: M. Humi

Description: Department of Mathematical Sciences, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 100 Institute Road, Worcester, MA01609, USA. Long's equation describes steady-state two-dimensional stratified flow over terrain. Its numerical solutions under various approximations were investigated by many authors. Special attention was paid to the properties of the gravity waves that are predicted to be generated as a result. In this paper we derive a time-dependent generalization ...

Baines, P. G.: Topographic effects in Stratified flows. Cambridge Univ. Press, New York, 1995.; Drazin, P. G.: On the steady flow of a fluid of variable density past an obstacle, Tellus, 13, 239–251, 1961.; Drazin, P. G. and Moore, D. W.: Steady two dimensional flow of fluid of variable density over an obstacle, J. Fluid. Mech., 28, 353–370, 1967.; Durran, D. R.: Two-Layer solutions to Long's equation for vertically propagating mountain waves, Q. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., ...

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An Extended Approach for Spatiotemporal Gapfilling: Dealing with L...

By: M. D. Mahecha; J. Zscheischler; J. V. Buttlar

Description: Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, P.O. Box 100164, 07701 Jena, Germany. Spatiotemporal observations in Earth System sciences are often affected by numerous and/or systematically distributed gaps. This data fragmentation is inherited from instrument failures, sparse measurement protocols, or unfavourable conditions (e.g. clouds or vegetation thickness in case of remote-sensing data). Missing values are problematic as they may cause analytic bias...

Beckers, J. and Rixen, M.: EOF Calculations and Data Filling from Incomplete Oceanographic Datasets, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol., 20, 1839–1856, 2.0.CO;2>doi:10.1175/1520-0426(2003)020<1839:ECADFF>2.0.CO;2, 2003.; Beer, C., Reichstein, M., Tomelleri, E., Ciais, P., Jung, M., Carvalhais, N., Rodenbeck, C., Arain, M. A., Baldocchi, D., Bonan, G. B., Bondeau, A., Cescatti, A., Lasslop, G., Lindroth, A., Loma...

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On the Nonlinear Dynamics of Rupture : Volume 5, Issue 2 (30/11/-0001)

By: D. L. Turcotte; H. Ockendon

Description: Center for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Mathematical Institute, Oxford OX1 3CB, England. The rupture on a fault resulting in an earthquake is clearly a complex process. In order to better understand this process the continuum version of the slider-block model has been considered in some detail. In particular, the role of a cohesive breakaway zone is considered. Solutions of a "piston" problem and a "shock-tube" problem are obtained. For the "dirve...

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High Frequency Ion Sound Waves Associated with Langmuir Waves in T...

By: G. Thejappa; R. J. MacDowall

Description: Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA. Short wavelength ion sound waves (2-4kHz) are detected in association with the Langmuir waves (~15-30kHz) in the source regions of several local type III radio bursts. They are most probably not due to any resonant wave-wave interactions such as the electrostatic decay instability because their wavelengths are much shorter than those of Langmuir waves. The Langmuir wave...

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Similarities Between Extreme Events in the Solar-terrestrial Syste...

By: I. A. Daglis; K. Eftaxias; C. Papadimitriou; A. Anastasiadis; G. Balasis; I. Sandberg

Description: Institute for Space Applications and Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens, Greece. The dynamics of complex systems are founded on universal principles that can be used to describe disparate problems ranging from particle physics to economies of societies. A corollary is that transferring ideas and results from investigators in hitherto disparate areas will cross-fertilize and lead to important new results. In this contribution, we investigate t...

Abe, S. and Bagci, G. B.: Necessity of q-expectation value in nonextensive statistical mechanics, Phys. Rev. E, 71, 016139/1–5, doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.71.016139, 2005.; Akay, M.: Time Frequency andWavelets in Biomedical Signal Processing Engineering, Wiley-IEEE Press, 768 pp., 1997.; Baiesi, M., Paczuski, M., and Stella, A. L.: Intensity Thresholds and the Statistics of the Temporal Occurrence of Solar Flares, Phys. ...

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Numerical Detection of Unstable Periodic Orbits in Continuous-time...

By: Y. Saiki

Description: Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Kyoto University, Japan. An infinite number of unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) are embedded in a chaotic system which models some complex phenomenon. Several algorithms which extract UPOs numerically from continuous-time chaotic systems have been proposed. In this article the damped Newton-Raphson-Mees algorithm is reviewed, and some important techniques and remarks concerning the practical numerical comput...

Biham, O. and Wenzel, W.: Characterization of unstable periodic orbits in chaotic attractors and repellers, Phys. Rev. Lett., 63, 819–822, 1989.; Bowen, R.: Topological entropy and AxiomA, Global Analysis (Berkeley, CA, 1968) Proc. Sympos. Pure Math., 14, Amererican Mathathematical Society, Providence, RI, 23–41, 1970.; Chian, A. C. L., Kamide, Y., Rempel, E. L., and Santana, W. M.: On the chaotic nature of solar-terrestrial environmen...

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Brief Communication: 2-d Numerical Modeling of the Transformation ...

By: X. Shao; Y. Xiao; S. F. Yang; X. M. Xu; W. X. Chen

Description: National Inland Waterway Regulation Engineering Research Center, Chongqing Jiaotong University, Chongqing, 400074, China. This paper investigates the controls on the transformation mechanism among different channel patterns. A 2-D depth-averaged numerical model is applied to produce the evolution of channel patterns with complex interactions among water flow, sediment transport, and bank erosion. Changes of the variables as discharge, sediment supply, a...

Ackers, P. and Charlton, F. G.: The geometry of small meandering streams, Inst. Civ. Eng. Proc., Suppl., xii, 28–317, 1970.; Ashmore, P. E.: Laboratory modeling of gravel braided stream morphology, Earth Surf. Proc., 7, 201–225, 1982.; Ashmore, P. E.: How do gravel-bed rivers braid?, Can. J. Earth Sci., 28, 326–341, 1991.; Beam, R. M. and Warming, R. F.: Factored, a-stable, linear multistep methods: an alternative to the method of lines for multidimensions, ACM Signum Ne...

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Sensitivity to Observations Applied to Fastex Cases : Volume 8, Is...

By: A. Doerenbecher; T. Bergot

Description: Météo-France, Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques, Toulouse, France. The concept of targeted observations was implemented during field experiments such as FASTEX, NORPEX or WSRP in order to cope with some predictability problems. The techniques of targeting used at that moment (adjoint-based or ensemble transform methods) lead to quite disappointing results: the efficiency of the additional observations deployed over sensitive a...

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Self-organized Criticality: Does it Have Anything to Do with Criti...

By: D. L. Turcotte

Description: Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Snee Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. Three aspects of complexity are fractals, chaos, and self-organized criticality. There are many examples of the applicability of fractals in solid-earth geophysics, such as earthquakes and landforms. Chaos is widely accepted as being applicable to a variety of geophysical phenomena, for instance, tectonics and mantle convection. Several sim...

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Momentum and Buoyancy Transfer in Atmospheric Turbulent Boundary L...

By: Yu. I. Troitskaya; G. A. Baidakov; S. S. Zilitinkevich; E. V. Ezhova; D. A. Sergeev; M. I. Vdovin; A. A. Kandaurov

Description: Institute of Applied Physics RAS, Nizhniy Novgorod, Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia. Drag and mass exchange coefficients are calculated within a self-consistent problem for the wave-induced air perturbations and mean velocity and density fields using a quasi-linear model based on the Reynolds equations with down-gradient turbulence closure. This second part of the report is devoted to specification of the model elements: turbulent transfer coefficients and wav...

Apel, J. R.: An improved model of the ocean surface wave vector spectrum and its effects on radar backscatter, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 16269–16291, 1994.; Cox, C. S. and Munk W. H.: Statistics of the sea surface derived from sun glitter, J. Marine Res., 13, 198–227, 1954.; Brut, A., Butet, A., Durand, P., Caniaux, G., and Planton, S.: Air-sea exchanges in the equatorial area from the EQUALANT99 dataset: Bulk parametrizations of turbulent fluxes corrected for airflow distor...

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Observation of Equatorial Kelvin Solitary Waves in a Slowly Varyin...

By: R. D. Susanto; Q. Zheng; C.-r. Ho; X.-h. Yan; W. T. Liu

Description: Center for Remote Sensing, Graduate College of Marine Studies, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA. TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) sea level deviation (SLD) time series from 3 October 1992 to 15 May 1997 combined with upper ocean thermal structures are used to observe the characteristics and analyze the dynamics of equatorial waves in the Pacific Ocean. The evolution of the Kelvin wave propagating along an eastward shoaling thermocline in the equatorial ...

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Assessing Microstructures of Pyrrhotites in Basalts by Multifracta...

By: S. Zhang; Q. Cheng; K. Huang; S. Xie

Description: State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources (GPMR), China University of Geosciences (CUG), Wuhan, 430074, China. Understanding and describing spatial arrangements of mineral particles and determining the mineral distribution structure are important to model the rock-forming process. Geometric properties of individual mineral particles can be estimated from thin sections, and different models have been proposed to quantify the spati...

Agterberg, F. P., Cheng, Q., Brown, A., and Good, D.: Multifractal modeling of fractures in the Lac du Bonnet Batholith, Manitoba, Computers and Geosciences, 22(5), 497–507, 1996.; Bird, N., Diaz, C. M., Saa, A., and Tarquis, M.: Fractal and multifractal analysis of pore-scale images of soil, J. Hydrol., 322, 211–219, 2006.; Cheng, Q.: The perimeter-Area Fractal Model and Its Application to Geology, Mathematical Geology, 27, 69–82, 1995.; Cheng, Q., Agterberg, F. P., and...

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Solute Transport in a Heterogeneous Aquifer: a Search for Nonlinea...

By: T. Harter; H. Zhang; B. Sivakumar

Description: Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, USA. The potential use of a nonlinear deterministic framework for understanding the dynamic nature of solute transport processes in subsurface formations is investigated. Time series of solute particle transport in a heterogeneous aquifer medium, simulated using an integrated probability/Markov chain (TP/MC) model, groundwater flow model, and particle transport model, are stud...

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Four-dimensional Ensemble Variational (4D-en-var) Data Assimilatio...

By: J. Bojarova; N. Gustafsson

Description: Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, 60176 Norrköping, Sweden. A four-dimensional ensemble variational (4D-En-Var) data assimilation has been developed for a limited area model. The integration of tangent linear and adjoint models, as applied in standard 4D-Var, is replaced with the use of an ensemble of non-linear model states to estimate four-dimensional background error covariances over the assimilation time window. The computational cos...

Noilhan, J. and Mahfouf, J.-F.: The ISBA land surface parameterization scheme, Global Planet. Change, 13, 145–159, 1996.; Bergthorsson, P. and Döös, B.: Numerical weather map analysis, Tellus, 7, 329–340, 1955.; Berre, L.: Estimation of synoptic and mesoscale forecast error covariances in a limited area model, Mon. Weather Rev., 128, 644–667, 2000.; Bishop, C. H., Etherton, B. J., and Majumdar, S. J.: Adaptive Sampling with the Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter. Part I: T...

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Passive Tracer Patchiness and Particle Trajectory Stability in Inc...

By: M. G. Brown; M. J. Olascoaga; F. J. Beron-vera

Description: RSMAS, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA. Particle motion is considered in incompressible two-dimensional flows consisting of a steady background gyre on which an unsteady wave-like perturbation is superimposed. A dynamical systems point of view that exploits the action-angle formalism is adopted. It is argued and demonstrated numerically that for a large class of problems one expects to observe a mixed phase space, i.e. the occurrence of regula...

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Atmospheric Gravity Waves in the Red Sea: a New Hotspot : Volume 1...

By: I. B. Araújo; J. C. B. Da Silva; J. Pineda; J. M. Magalhaes; K. Davis; R. H. J. Grimshaw

Description: Centro de Oceanografia and Departamento de Engenharia Geográfica, Geofísica e Energia (DEGGE), Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal. The region of the Middle East around the Red Sea (between 32° E and 44° E longitude and 12° N and 28° N latitude) is a currently undocumented hotspot for atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs). Satellite imagery shows evidence that this region is prone to relatively high occurren...

Alpers, W.: Theory of radar imaging of internal waves, Nature, 314, 245–247, 1985.; Alpers, W. and Stilke, G.: Observations of a nonlinear wave disturbance in marine atmosphere by synthetic aperture radar aboard the ERS 1 satellite, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 6512–6525, 1996.; Bedard, A. J., Canavero, F., and Einaudi, F.: Atmospheric gravity waves and aircraft turbulence encounters, J. Atmos. Sci., 43(23), 2838–2844, 1986.; Christie, D. R.: Long nonlinear waves in the lower ...

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Predictability of Extreme Values in Geophysical Models : Volume 19...

By: P. Rabassa; H. W. Broer; M. P. Holland; A. E. Sterk; R. Vitolo

Description: College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, Harrison Building, Streatham Campus, University of Exeter, North Park Road, Exeter, EX4 4QF, UK. Extreme value theory in deterministic systems is concerned with unlikely large (or small) values of an observable evaluated along evolutions of the system. In this paper we study the finite-time predictability of extreme values, such as convection, energy, and wind speeds, in three geophysical models. ...

Abarbanel, H., Brown, R., and Kennel, M.: Variation of {L}yapunov Exponents on a Strange Attractor, J. Nonlin. Sci., 1, 175–199, 1991.; Bailey, B., Ellner, S., and Nychka, D.: Chaos with confidence: asymptotics and applications of local {L}yapunov exponents, Fields Institute Communications, 11, 115–133, 1997.; Beirlant, J., Goegebeur, Y., Teugels, J., and Segers, J.: Statistics of Extremes: Theory and Applications, John Wiley and Sons, Berlin, 2004.; Bowler, N., Arribas,...

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Nonlinear Multivariable Analysis of Soi and Local Precipitation an...

By: K. Jinno; R. Berndtsson; A. Kawamura; Y.-h. Jin

Description: Department of Water Resources Engineering, Lund University, Box 118 221 00 Lund, Sweden. Global climate variability affects important local hydro-meteorological variables like precipitation and temperature. The Southern Oscillation (SO) is an easily quantifiable major driving force that gives impact on regional and local climate. The relationships between SO and local climate variation are, however, characterized by strongly nonlinear processes. Due to t...

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