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Voyager 2 Observation of the Multifractal Spectrum in the Heliosph...

By: A. Wawrzaszek; W. M. MacEk

Description: Space Research Centre, Polish Academy of Science, Bartycka 18A, 00-716 Warsaw, Poland. We look in detail at the multifractal scaling of the fluctuations in the interplanetary magnetic field strength as measured onboard Voyager 2 in the entire heliosphere and even in the heliosheath. More specifically, we analyse the spectra observed by Voyager 2 in a wide range of solar activity cycles during the years 1980–2009 at various heliospheric latitudes and dis...

Belcher, J. W. and Davis, L., J.: Large-amplitude Alfvén waves in the interplanetary medium, 2, J. Geophys. Res., 76, 3534–3563, doi:10.1029/JA076i016p03534, 1971.; Borovsky, J. E.: Contribution of strong discontinuities to the power spectrum of the solar wind, Phys. Rev. Lett., 105, 111102, doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.111102, 2010.; Bruno, R. and Carbone, V...

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Evaluation of Eta Model Seasonal Precipitation Forecasts Over Sout...

By: J. L. Gomes; J. F. Bustamante; S. C. Chou

Description: Center for Weather Prediction and Climate Studies – CPTEC, National Institute for Space Research, INPE, Brazil. Seasonal forecasts run by the Eta Model over South America were evaluated with respect to precipitation predictability at different time scales, seasonal, monthly and weekly for one-year period runs. The model domain was configured over most of South America in 40km horizontal resolution and 38 layers. The lateral boundary conditions were take...

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Model Error in Weather Forecasting : Volume 8, Issue 6 (30/11/-0001)

By: J. Barkmeijer; T. N. Palmer; L. Smith; D. Orrell

Description: Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, 24-29 St Giles’, Oxford OX1 3LB, UK. Operational forecasting is hampered both by the rapid divergence of nearby initial conditions and by error in the underlying model. Interest in chaos has fuelled much work on the first of these two issues; this paper focuses on the second. A new approach to quantifying state-dependent model error, the local model drift, is derived and deployed both in examp...

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Inhomogeneous Dominance Patterns of Competing Phytoplankton Groups...

By: U. Feudel; D. Bastine

Description: Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment, Theoretical Physics/Complex Systems, Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg, Germany. We investigate the competition between two different functional groups of phytoplankton in the wake of an island close to a coastal upwelling region. We couple a simple biological model with three trophic levels and a hydrodynamic model of a von Kármán vortex street. The spatio-temporal abundance shows that...

Abraham, E. R.: The generation of plankton patchiness by turbulent stirring, Nature, 391, 577–580, 1998.; Aristegui, J., Tett, P., Hernández-Guerra, A., Basterretxea, G., Montero, M. F., Wild, K., Sangra, P., Hernández-Leon, S., Canton, M., Garc\'ia-Braun, J. A., Pacheco, M., and Barton, E. D.: The influence of island-generated eddies on chlorophyll distribution: A study of mesoscale variation around Gran Canaria, Deep-Sea Res. Part I-Oceanographic Research Papers, 44, 7...

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Role of the Hydrological Cycle in Regulating the Planetary Climate...

By: T. N. Chase; K. M. Nordstrom; V. K. Gupta

Description: Colorado Research Associates, 3380 Mitchell Lane, Boulder, Colorado 80301, USA. We present the construction of a dynamic area fraction model (DAFM), representing a new class of models for an earth-like planet. The model presented here has no spatial dimensions, but contains coupled parameterizations for all the major components of the hydrological cycle involving liquid, solid and vapor phases. We investigate the nature of feedback processes with this m...

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Intermittent Heating of the Solar Corona by Mhd Turbulence : Volum...

By: É. Buchlin

Description: Space and Atmospheric Physics group, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London, UK. As the dissipation mechanisms considered for the heating of the solar corona would be sufficiently efficient only in the presence of small scales, turbulence is thought to be a key player in the coronal heating processes: it allows indeed to transfer energy from the large scales to these small scales. While Direct numerical simulations which have been performed ...

Abramenko, V I., Yurchyshyn, V B., Wang, H., Spirock, T J., and Goode, P R.: Scaling Behavior of Structure Functions of the Longitudinal Magnetic Field in Active Regions on the Sun, Astrophys. J., 577, 487–495, 2002.; Alexakis, A., Mininni, P D., and Pouquet, A.: Shell-to-shell energy transfer in magnetohydrodynamics. I. Steady state turbulence, Phys. Rev. E, 72, 046 301, 2005.; Bak, P., Tang, C., and Wiesenfeld, K.: Self-organized criticality – An explanation of $1/f$ n...

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Tsallis and Levy Statistics in the Preparation of an Earthquake : ...

By: K. Eftaxias; Y. F. Contoyiannis

Description: Department of Physics and Chemistry, Techological Education Institute (TEI) of Chalkis, Greece. Precursory fracture induced electromagnetic (EM) emissions, rooted in opening cracks and ranging from MHz to kHz, with the MHz appearing earlier, are produced and detected both at laboratory and geophysical scale. Recently, we have proposed the following two epochs/stages model of EQ generation: (i) The final kHz part is triggered by the fracture of high streng...

Alemany, P. and Zanette, D.: Fractal random walks from a variational formalism for Tsallis entropies, Phys. Rev. E, 49, R956–R958, 1994.; Antoniou, N., Contoyiannis, Y., Diakonos, F., Karanikas, A., and Ktorides, C.: Pion production from a critical QCD phase, Nucl. Phys. A, 693, 799–824, 2001.; Baldovin, F. and Robledo, A.: Sensitivity to initial conditions at bifurcations in one-dimensional nonlinear maps: Rigorous nonextensive solutions, Europhys. Lett., 60, 518–524, 2...

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Multiscaling and Joint Multiscaling Description of the Atmospheric...

By: R. Calif; F. G. Schmitt

Description: EA 4539, LARGE laboratoire en Géosciences et Énergies, Université des Antilles et de la Guyane, 97170 P-á-P, France. We consider here wind speed time series and the aggregate output wind power from a wind farm. We study their scaling statistics in the framework of fully developed turbulence and Kolmogorov's theory. We estimate their Fourier power spectra and consider their scaling properties in the physical space. We show that the atmospheric wind speed ...

Anselmet, F., Gagne, Y., Hopfinger, E. J. and Antonia, R. A.: High order velocity structure functions in turbulent shear flows, J. Fluid Mech., 140, 63–89, 1984.; Apt, J.: The spectrum of power from wind turbines, J. Power Sources, 169, 369–374, 2007.; Arneodo, A., Baudet C., Belin, F., Benzi, R., Castaing, B., Chabaud, B., Chavarria, R., Cilibertoand, S., Camussi, R., Chillà, F., Dubrulle, B., Gagneand, Y., Hebral, B., Herweijer, J., Marchand, M., Maurer, J., Muzy, J. F...

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Mhd Effects of the Solar Wind Flow Around Planets : Volume 7, Issu...

By: C. J. Farrugia; N. V. Erkaev; D. F. Vogl; H. K. Biernat; W. Schaffenberger

Description: Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Graz, Austria. The study of the interaction of the solar wind with magnetized and unmagnetized planets forms a central topic of space research. Focussing on planetary magnetosheaths, we review some major developments in this field. Magnetosheath structures depend crucially on the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field, the solar wind Alfvén Mach number, the shape of the obstacle (axisymme...

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Modeling Pairwise Dependencies in Precipitation Intensities : Volu...

By: P. Drobinski; P. Naveau; M. Vrac

Description: Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, IPSL-CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette, France. In statistics, extreme events are classically defined as maxima over a block length (e.g. annual maxima of daily precipitation) or as exceedances above a given large threshold. These definitions allow the hydrologist and the flood planner to apply the univariate Extreme Value Theory (EVT) to their time series of interest. But these strategies have two main drawba...

Akaike, H.: A new look at the statistical model identification, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 19, 716–723, 1974.; Beirlant, J., Goegebeur, Y., Segers, J., and Teugels, J.: Statistics of Extremes: Theory and Applications, Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics, 2004.; Carreau, J. and Bengio, Y.: A hybrid Pareto model for asymmetric fat-tail data, Technical report 1283, Dept. IRO, Université de Montréal, 2006.; Choulakian, V. and Stephens, M. A.: Goodness-of-...

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Extreme Fluctuations of Vertical Velocity in the Unstable Atmosphe...

By: F. Hu; L. Liu; X.-l. Cheng

Description: State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China. In this paper, we propose a new method to extract the extreme fluctuations of vertical velocity in the unstable atmospheric surface layer. Unlike the commonly used conditional sampling analysis, this method defines a threshold by using a systematical method and tries to reduce the artif...

Altmann, E. G. and Kantz, H.: Recurrence time analysis, long-term correlations, and extreme events, Phys. Rev. E, 71, 056106, doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.71.056106, 2005.; Antonia, R. A.: Conditional sampling in turbulence measurement, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 13, 131–156, 1981.; Baerentsen, J. H. and Berkowicz, R.: Monte Carlo simulation of plume dispersion in the convective boundary layer, Atmos. Environ., 18, 701–712, 1...

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Analysis of Stochastic Model for Nonlinear Volcanic Dynamics : Vol...

By: D. V. Alexandrov; L. B. Ryashko; I. A. Bashkirtseva

Description: Department of Mathematical Physics, Ural Federal University, Lenin ave. 51, 620000 Ekaterinburg, Russia. Motivated by important geophysical applications we consider a dynamic model of the magma-plug system previously derived by Iverson et al.~(2006) under the influence of stochastic forcing. Due to strong nonlinearity of the friction force for a solid plug along its margins, the initial deterministic system exhibits impulsive oscillations. Two types of d...

Alexandrov, D. V., Bashkirtseva, I. A., Malygin, A. P., and Ryashko, L. B.: Sea ice dynamics induced by external stochastic fluctuations, Pure Appl. Geophys., 170, 2273–2282, 2013.; Alexandrov, D. V., Bashkirtseva, I. A., and Ryashko, L. B.: Stochastically driven transitions between climate attractors, Tellus A, 66, 23454, doi:10.3402/tellusa.v66.23454, 2014.; Arathi, S., Rajasekar, S., and Kurths, J.: Stochastic an...

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On Stochastic Stability of Regional Ocean Models with Uncertainty ...

By: L. M. Ivanov; P. C. Chu

Description: Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, USA. A shallow-water model was used to understand model error induced by non-Gaussian wind uncertainty. Although the model was simple, it described a generic system with many degrees of freedom randomized by external noise. The study focused on the nontrivial collective behavior of finite-amplitude perturbations on different scales and their influence on model predictability. The error growth strongly depended on...

Auclair, F., Marsaleix, P., and De Mey, P.: Space-time structure and dynamics of the forecast error in a coastal circulation model of the Gulf of Lions, Dyn. Atmos. Oceans, 36, 309–346, 2003.; Benzi, R., Sutra, A., and Vulpiani, A.: The mechanism of stochastic resonance, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen., 14, L453–L457, 1981.; Berloff, P. S.: Random-forcing model of the mesoscale oceanic eddies, J. Fluid Mech., 529, 71–95, 2005.; Aurell, E., Boffetta, G., Crisanti, A., Paladin, G.,...

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Non-local Deformation Effects in Shear Flows : Volume 2, Issue 1 (...

By: M. E. Bobrova; A. S. Perezhogin; O. V. Sheremetyeva; A. V. Popova

Description: Institute of Cosmophysical Researches and Radio Wave Propagation FEB RAS, Kamchatskiy Kray, Paratunka, Russia. The method for detection of clusters on the basis of event space–time dependence is classically applied for foreshock–mainshock–aftershock sequences for which event connectedness is generally accepted. In the paper, this approach is used to investigate the whole event catalogue of foreshock and aftershock sequences filter...

Aki, K. and Richards, P.: Quantitative Seismology, Theory and Methods, V.1, Mir, Moscow, 519 pp., 1983.; Anderson, J. G. and Nanjo, K.: Distribution of earthquake cluster sizes in the Western United States and in Japan, B. Seismol. Soc. Am., 103, 412–423, 2013.; Batac, R. C. and Kantz, H.: Observing spatio-temporal clustering and separation using interevent distributions of regional earthquakes, Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 21, 735–744,

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The Lifecycle of Axisymmetric Internal Solitary Waves : Volume 17,...

By: B. R. Sutherland; J. M. McMillan

Description: Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2G7, Canada. The generation and evolution of solitary waves by intrusive gravity currents in an approximate two-layer fluid with equal upper- and lower-layer depths is examined in a cylindrical geometry by way of theory and numerical simulations. The study is limited to vertically symmetric cases in which the density of the intruding fluid is equal to the average density of the ambient. We ...

Benjamin, T. B.: Gravity Currents and Related Phenomena, J. Fluid Mech., 31, 209–248, 1968.; Benney, D. J.: Long Nonlinear Waves in Fluid Flows, J. Math. Phys., 45, 52–63, 1966.; Bolster, D., Hang, A., and Linden, P. F.: The Front Speed of Intrusions into a Continuously Stratified Medium, J. Fluid Mech., 594, 369–377, 2008.; Britter, R. E. and Simpson, J. E.: A Note on the Structure of the Head of an Intrusive Gravity Current, J. Fluid Mech., 112, 459–466, 1981.; Brown, ...

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Nonlinear Evolution of the Parametric Instability: Numerical Predi...

By: F. Malara; P. Veltri; L. Primavera

Description: Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, and Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, Unità di Cosenza, I-87030 Arcavacata di Rende, Italy.. Low-frequency turbulence in the solar wind is characterized by a high degree of Alfvénicity close to the Sun. Cross-helicity, which is a measure of Alfvénic correlation, tends to decrease with increasing distance from the Sun at high latitudes as well as in slow-speed streams at low lati...

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Clifford Algebra-based Structure Filtering Analysis for Geophysica...

By: L. Yi; Y. Hu; L. Yuan; W. Luo; Z. Yu

Description: Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment, Ministry of Education, Nanjing Normal University, No.1 Wenyuan Road, Nanjing, China. A new Clifford algebra-based vector field filtering method, which combines amplitude similarity and direction difference synchronously, is proposed. Firstly, a modified correlation product is defined by combining the amplitude similarity and direction difference. Then, a structure filtering algorithm is constructed based ...

Brassington, G. B., Summons, N., and Lumpkin, R.: Observed and simulated Lagrangian and eddy characteristics of the East Australian Current and the Tasman Sea, Deep-Sea Res. Part II, 58, 559–573, 2011.; Cook, E. R., Seager, R., Cane, M. A., and Stahle, D. W.: North American drought: Reconstructions, causes, and consequences, Earth-Sci. Rev., 81, 93–134, 2007.; Bujack, R., Scheuermann, G., and Hitzer, E.: Detection of total rotations on 2D-vector fields with geometric cor...

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The Comparative Study of Chaoticity and Dynamical Complexity of th...

By: I. A. Fuwape; J. A. Laoye; A. B. Rabiu; B. O. Ogunsua

Description: Space Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. The deterministic chaotic behavior and dynamical complexity of the space plasma dynamical system over Nigeria are analyzed in this study and characterized. The study was carried out using GPS (Global Positioning System) TEC (Total Electron Content) time series, measured in the year 2011 at three GPS receiver stations within Nigeria, which lies within the ...

Abdu, M. A.: Major Phenomena of the equatorial ionosphere thermosphere system under disturbed conditions, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 59, 1505–1519, 1997.; Anastasiadis, A., Costa, L., Gonzales, C., Honey, C., Szeliga, M., and Terhesiu, D.: Measures of Structural Complexity in Networks, in: Complex Systems Summer School 2005, Santa Fe, 2005.; Balan, N. and Rao, P. B.: Latitudinal variations of nighttime enhancements in total electron content, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 3436–...

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Denoising Gravity and Geomagnetic Signals from Etna Volcano (Italy...

By: F. Greco; G. Nunnari; R. Napoli; C. Del Negro

Description: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Catania, Italy. Multivariate methods were applied to denoise the gravity and geomagnetic signals continuously recorded by the permanent monitoring networks on the Etna volcano. Gravity and geomagnetic signals observed in volcanic areas are severely influenced by meteorological variables (i.e. pressure, temperature and humidity), whose disturbances can make the detection of volcanic source effect...

Andò, B. and Carbone, D.: A methodology for reducing a continuously recording gravity meter for the effect of meteorological parameters, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., 50(5), 1248–1254, 2001.; Andò, B. and Carbone, D.: A test on a Neuro-Fuzzy algorithm used to reduce continuous gravity records for the effect of meteorological parameters, Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 142, 37–47, 2004.; Andò, B. and Carbone, D.: A new computational approach to reduce the signal from continuously...

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Functional Background of the Tsallis Entropy: Coarse-grained Syste...

By: A. V. Milovanov; L. M. Zelenyi

Description: Space Research Institute, 117810 Moscow, Russia. The concept of the generalized entropy is analyzed, with the particular attention to the definition postulated by Tsallis [J. Stat. Phys. 52, 479 (1988)]. We show that the Tsallis entropy can be rigorously obtained as the solution of a nonlinear functional equation; this equation represents the entropy of a complex system via the partial entropies of the subsystems involved, and includes two principal par...

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