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The Analysis of Large-scale Turbulence Characteristics in the Indo...

By: K. O'Driscoll; V. Kamenkovich

Description: Institute of Oceanography, Centre for Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Hamburg, Bundesstrasse 53, 20146 Hamburg, Germany. The analysis is presented of the distribution of deep ocean turbulence characteristics on the horizontal scale of order 100 km in the vicinity of the Lifamatola Sill, from the Southern Maluku Sea (north of the sill) to the Seram Sea (south of the sill). The turbulence characteristics were calculated with ...

van Aken, H. M., Punjanan, J., and Saimima, S.: Physical aspects of the flushing of the East Indonesian basins, Neth. J. Sea Res., 22, 315–339, 1988.; van Aken, H. M., Bennekom, A. J. V., Mook, W. G., and Postma, H.: Application of Munk's abyssal recipes to tracer distributions in the deep waters of the Southern Banda basin, Oceanol. Acta, 14, 151–162, 1991.; van Aken, H. M., Brodjonegoro, I. S., and Jaya, I.: The deep-water motion through the Lifamatola Passage and its ...

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Influence of Frontal Cyclones Evolution on the 2009 (Ekman) and 20...

By: V. H. Kourafalou; M. Le Hénaff; Y. S. Androulidakis

Description: University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science RSMAS/MPO 4600 Rickenbacker Cswy., Miami, FL 33149, USA. The anticyclonic Loop Current Eddy (LCE) shedding events are strongly associated with the evolution of Loop Current Frontal Eddies (LCFEs) over the eastern Gulf of Mexico (GoM). A numerical simulation, in tandem with in situ measurements and satellite data, was used to investigate the Loop Current (LC) evolution and the surro...

Androulidakis, Y. S. and Kourafalou, V. H.: On the processes that influence the transport and fate of Mississippi waters under flooding outflow conditions, Ocean Dynam., 63, 143–164, 2013.; Athié, G., Candela, J., Ochoa, J., and Sheinbaum, J.: Impact of Caribbean cyclones on the detachment of Loop Current anticyclones, J. Geophys. Res., 117, C03018, doi:10.1029/2011JC007090, 2012.; Biggs, D., Fargion, G., Hamilton, P., a...

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Dynamically Constrained Ensemble Perturbations – Application to Ti...

By: R. H. Weisberg; A. Alvera-azcárate; F. Lenartz; J.-m. Beckers; A. Barth; M. Rixen; L. Vandenbulcke

Description: GeoHydrodynamics and Environment Research (GHER), MARE, Allée du 6-Août 17, University of Liège Sart-Tilman B5 4000 Liège, Belgium. A method is presented to create an ensemble of perturbations that satisfies linear dynamical constraints. A cost function is formulated defining the probability of each perturbation. It is shown that the perturbations created with this approach take the land-sea mask into account in a similar way as variational analysis tech...

Alvera-Azcárate, A., Barth, A., Beckers, J., and Weisberg, R H.: Multivariate reconstruction of missing data in sea surface temperature, chlorophyll and wind satellite field, J. Geophys. Res., 112, C03008, \doi10.1029/2006JC003660, 2007.; Arakawa, A. and Lamb, V.: A potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme for the shallow water equations, Mon. Weather Rev., 109, 18–36, 1981.; Barth, A., Alvera-Azcárate, A., Beckers, J.-M., Rixen, M., and Vandenbulcke, L.: Multigr...

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From the Chlorophyll A in the Surface Layer to Its Vertical Profil...

By: C. Melsheimer; E. Bauerfeind; E.-m. Nöthig; A. Bracher; A. Cherkasheva

Description: Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany. Current estimates of global marine primary production range over a factor of two. Improving these estimates requires an accurate knowledge of the chlorophyll vertical profiles, since they are the basis for most primary production models. At high latitudes, the uncertainty in primary production estimates is larger than globally, because here phytoplankton absorption shows speci...

Antoine, D. and Morel, A.: Oceanic primary production: I. Adaptation of a spectral light-photosynthesis model in view of application to satellite chlorophyll observations, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 10, 43–55, 1996.; Antoine D., André J. M., and Morel, A.: Oceanic primary production: II. Estimation at global scale from satellite (Coastal Zone Color Scanner) chlorophyll, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 10, 57–69, 1996.; Arnone, R. A., Casey, B., Ko, D., Flynn, P., Carrolo, L., and L...

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Validation of the Nemo-ersem Operational Ecosystem Model for the N...

By: R. Barciela; M. Butenschön; K. P. Edwards

Description: Met Office, Exeter, UK. This paper details updates to the Met Office's operational coupled hydrodynamic-ecosystem model from the 7 km Medium-Resolution Continental Shelf – POLCOMS-ERSEM (MRCS-PE) system (Siddorn et al., 2007) to the 7 km Atlantic Margin Model NEMO-ERSEM (AMM7-NE) system. We also provide a validation of the ecosystem component of the new operational system. Comparisons have been made between the model variables and available in situ, sa...

Allen, J. I., Holt, J. T., Blackford, J., and Proctor, R.: Error quantification of a high-resolution coupled hydrodynamic-ecosystem coastal-ocean model: Part 2. Chlorophyll-a, nutrients and SPM, J. Mar. Syst., 68, 381–404, doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2007.01.005, 2007.; Barciela, R., Mahdon, R., Edwards, K., Miller, P., Shutler, J., Jonas, P., Murdoch, N., Whither, A., and Roast, S.: Operational monitoring and forecas...

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Impact of Sla Assimilation in the Sicily Channel Regional Model: M...

By: S. Dobricic; C. Dufau; A. Ribotti; L. Fazioli; A. Olita; R. Sorgente; A. Cucco

Description: Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche – Istituto per l'Ambiente Marino Costiero, Loc. Sa Mardini, 09170 Oristano, Italy. The impact of the assimilation of MyOcean Sea Level Anomalies along track data on the analyses of the Sicily Channel Regional Model was studied. The numerical model has a resolution of 1/32° degrees and is capable to reproduce mesoscale and sub-mesoscale features. The impact of the SLA assimilation is studied by comparing a simulation (SI...

Auclair, F., Marsaleix, P., and Estournel, C.: Sigma Coordinate Pressure Gradient Errors: Evaluation and Reduction by an Inverse Method, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 17, 1348–1367, 2000.; Castellari, S., Pinardi, N., and Leaman, K.: A model study of air-sea interaction in the Mediterranean Sea, J. Marine Syst., 18, 89–114, 1998.; Blumberg, A. and Mellor, G.: A description of a three-dimensional coastal ocean circulation model, Coastal Estuarine Science, edited by: Heaps, ...

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A Practical Scheme to Introduce Explicit Tidal Forcing Into an Ogc...

By: M. Hirabara; K. Sakamoto; G. Yamanaka; H. Tsujino; H. Nakano

Description: Meteorological Research Institute, Nagamine, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0052, Japan. A practical scheme is proposed to explicitly introduce tides into ocean general circulation models (OGCM). In this scheme, barotropic linear response to the tidal forcing is calculated by the time differential equations modified for ocean tides, instead of the original barotropic equations of an OGCM. This allows for the usage of various parameterizations specified for tides, ...

Arbic, B. K., Garner, S. T., Hallberg, R. W., and Simmons, H. L.: The accuracy of surface elevations in forward global barotropic and baroclinic tide models, Deep-Sea Res. II, 51, 3069–3101, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2004.09.014, 2004.; Arbic, B. K., Wallcraft, A. J., and Metzger, E. J.: Concurrent simulation of the eddying general circulation and tides in a global ocean model, Ocean\ Modell., 32, 175–187,

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Energetics of the Layer-thickness Form Drag Based on an Integral I...

By: T. Yamagata; H. Aiki

Description: Frontier Research Center for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokohama-city 236-0001, Japan. The vertical redistribution of the geostrophic momentum by the residual effects of pressure perturbations (called the layer-thickness form drag) is investigated using thickness-weighted temporal-averaged mean primitive equations for a continuously stratified fluid in an adiabatic formulation. A four-box energy diagram, in whic...

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Monitoring Atlantic Overturning Circulation Variability with Grace...

By: K. Bentel; F. W. Landerer; C. Boening

Description: Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA. The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is a key mechanism for large-scale northward heat transport and thus plays an important role for global climate. Relatively warm water is transported northward in the upper layers of the North Atlantic Ocean, and after cooling at subpolar latitudes, sinks down and is transported back south in th...

Bingham, R. J. and Hughes, C. W.: Determining North Atlantic meridional transport variability from pressure on the western boundary: A model investigation, J. Geophys. Res., 113, C09008, doi:10.1029/2007JC004679, 2008.; Bingham, R. J. and Hughes, C. W.: Geostrophic dynamics of meridional transport variability in the subpolar North Atlantic, J. Geophys. Res., 114, C12029, doi...

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Validation of the Nemo-ersem Operational Ecosystem Model for the N...

By: M. Butenschön; R. Barciela; K. P. Edwards

Description: Met Office, Exeter, UK. This paper details updates to the Met Office's operational coupled hydrodynamic-ecosystem model from the Medium-Resolution Continental Shelf – POLCOMS-ERSEM (MRCS-PE) system (Siddorn et al., 2007) to the 7 km Atlantic Margin Model NEMO-ERSEM (AMM7-NE) system. We also provide a validation of the ecosystem component of the new operational system. Comparisons have been made between the model variables and availabl...

Baretta, J. W., Admiraal, C. F., Malschaert, J. F. P., and Ruardij, P.: The construction of the pelagic submodel, in: Tidal Flat Estuaries: Simulation and Analysis of the Ems Estuary, edited by: Baretta, J. W. and Ruardij, P., Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 77–104, 1988.; Baretta, J. W., Ebenhoh, W., and Ruardij, P.: The European-Regional-Seas-Ecosystem-Model, a complex marine ecosystem model, Neth. J. Sea. Res., 33, 233–246, 1995.; Blackford, J. C., Allen, J. I., and Gilb...

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Improved Sea Level Record Over the Satellite Altimetry Era (1993–2...

By: M. Picot; B. Meyssignac; M. Balmaseda; A. Cazenave; S. Rudenko; O. Andersen; P. Knudsen; P. Cipollini; J. A. Johannessen; G. Timms; G. Larnicol; M. J. Fernandes; J. Legeais; Y. Faugère; M. Ablain; M. Roca; O. Henry; J. Benveniste; D. Stammer; M. G. Scharffenberg

Description: Collecte Localisation Satellite(CLS), Ramoville Saint-Agne, France. Sea level is one of the 50 Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) listed by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) in climate change monitoring. In the last two decades, sea level has been routinely measured from space using satellite altimetry techniques. In order to address a number of important scientific questions such as: Is sea level rise accelerating?, Can we close the sea l...

Ablain, M., Cazenave, A., Valladeau, G., and Guinehut, S.: A new assessment of the error budget of global mean sea level rate estimated by satellite altimetry over 1993–2008, Ocean Sci., 5, 193–201, doi:10.5194/os-5-193-2009, 2009.; Ablain, M., Philipps, S., Urvoy, M., Tran, N., and Picot, N.: Detection of long-term instabilities on altimeter backscattering coefficient thanks to wind speed data comparisons from altimete...

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Influence of Frontal Cyclone Evolution on the 2009 (Ekman) and 201...

By: V. H. Kourafalou; M. Le Hénaff; Y. S. Androulidakis

Description: University of Miami, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS/MPO 4600), Rickenbacker Cswy, Miami, FL 33149, USA. The anticyclonic Loop Current Eddy (LCE) shedding events are strongly associated with the evolution of Loop Current Frontal Eddies (LCFEs) over the eastern Gulf of Mexico (GoM). A numerical simulation, in tandem with in situ measurements and satellite data, was used to investigate the Loop Current (LC) evolution and the surr...

Androulidakis, Y. S. and Kourafalou, V. H.: On the processes that influence the transport and fate of Mississippi waters under flooding outflow conditions, Ocean Dynam., 63, 143–164, 2013.; Biggs, D., Fargion, G., Hamilton, P., and Leben, R.: Cleavage of a Gulf of Mexico Loop Current eddy by a deep water cyclone, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 20629–20620, 1996.; Athié, G., Candela, J., Ochoa, J., and Sheinbaum, J.: Impact of Caribbean cyclones on the detachment of Loop Current ...

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Mapping Flow Distortion on Oceanographic Platforms Using Computati...

By: B. Ward; N. O'Sullivan

Description: School of Physics and Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland. Ocean-Atmosphere Fluxes Eddy correlation (EC) is the most direct method to measure fluxes of trace gases over the Earth's surface. In its simplest form, an EC setup consists of a gas sensor and a sonic anemometer. EC is commonly used on land, but its adaptation at sea has proven difficult because of the marine environment, the motion of the research platform (ship or ...

Gagnon, L. and Richard, J. M.: Parallel CFD of a prototype car with OpenFOAM, Tech. rep., Dept of Mech. Eng., Laval University, Québec, Canada, 2010.; Castro, I. P. and Robins, A. G.: the flow around a surface mounted cube in uniform and turbulent streams, J. Fluids. Mech., 79, 307–335, 1977.; Broecker, W. S., Ledwell, J. R., Takahashi, T., Weiss, L. M. R., Memery, L., Peng, T. H., ihne, B. J., and Jnnich, K. O. M.: Isotopic versus micrometeorologic ocean {CO}2

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On the Chemical Dynamics of Extracellular Polysaccharides in the H...

By: C. Leck; P. A. Matrai; C. Rauschenberg; Q. Gao

Description: Department of Meteorology, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden. The surface microlayer (SML) represents a unique system of which the physicochemical characteristics may differ from those of the underlying subsurface seawater (SSW). Within the Arctic pack ice area, the SML has been characterized as enriched in small colloids of biological origin, resulting from extracellular polymeric secretions (EPS). During the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study...

Aluwihare, L. I., Repeta, D. J., and Chen, R. F.: A major biopolymeric component to dissolved organic carbon in surface sea water, Nature, 387, 166–169, 1997.; Amon, R. M. W. and Benner, R.: Combined neutral sugars as indicators of the diagenetic state of dissolved organic matter in the Arctic Ocean, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 50, 151–169, 2003.; Andreas, E. L. and Monahan, E. C.: The role of whitecap bubbles in air-sea heat and moisture exchange, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30, 433–4...

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A New Method for Continuous Measurements of Oceanic and Atmospheri...

By: I. Piller; T. Steinhoff; M. Krumbholz; M. Beyer; D. L. Arévalo-martínez; A. Körtzinger; A. Kock; H. W. Bange

Description: Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel (GEOMAR), Düsternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel, Germany. A new system for continuous, highly-resolved oceanic and atmospheric measurements of N2O, CO and CO2 is described. The system is based upon off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) and a non-dispersive infrared analyzer (NDIR) both coupled to a Weiss-type equilibrator. Performance of the combined setup was evalu...

Baer, D. S., Paul, J. B., Gupta, M., and O'keefe, A.: Sensitive absorption measurements in the near-infrared region using off-axis integrated-cavity output spectroscopy, Appl. Phys. B, 75, 261–265, 2002.; Bange, H. W., Rapsomanikis, S., and Andreae, M. O.: The Aegean Sea as a source of atmospheric nitrous oxide and methane, Mar. Chem., 53, 41–49, 1996b.; Allan, D. W.: Statistics of atomic frequency standards, Proc. IEEE, 54, 221–230, 1966.; Andrié, C., Oudot, C., Genthon...

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Decadal Variability and Trends of the Benguela Upwelling System as...

By: B. Hünicke; E. Zorita; N. Tim

Description: Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Coastal Research, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht, Germany. Detecting the atmospheric drivers of the Benguela Upwelling Systems is essential to understand its present variability and its past and future changes. We present a statistical analysis of an ocean-only simulation driven by observed atmospheric fields over the last decades with the aim of identifying the large-scale atmospheric drivers of upwelli...

Bakun, A.: Global climate change and intensification of coastal ocean upwelling, Science, 247, 198–201, doi:10.1126/science.247.4939.198, 1990.; Bakun, A. and Nelson, C. S.: The seasonal cycle of wind-stress curl in subtropical eastern boundary current regions, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 21, 1815–1834, 2.0.CO;2>doi:10.1175/1520-0485(1991)021<1815:TSCOWS>2....

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On the Freshening of the Northwestern Weddell Sea Continental Shel...

By: D. Gomis; O. Huhn; H. H. Hellmer; R. Timmermann

Description: Alfred Wegener Institut für Polar und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven, Germany. We analyzed hydrographic data from the northwestern Weddell Sea continental shelf of the three austral winters 1989, 1997, and 2006 and two summers following the last winter cruise. During summer a thermal front exists at ~64° S separating cold southern waters from warm northern waters that have similar characteristics as the deep waters of the central basin of the Bransfield S...

Absy, J. M., Schröder, M., Muench, R., and Hellmer, H. H.: Early summer thermohaline characteristics and mixing in the western Weddell Sea, \dsrII 55(8–9) 1117–1131 2008; Augstein, E., Bagriantsev, N. V., and Schenke, H.-W.: The expedition ANTARKTIS VIII/1-2, 1989 with the Winter Weddel Gyre study of the research vessels Polarstern and Akademik Fedorov, Reports on Polar Research, 84, 134 pp., 1991.; Braun, M. and Humbert, A.: Recent retreat of Wilkins Ice Shelf reveals n...

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The Role of Atmosphere and Ocean Physical Processes in Enso : Volu...

By: G. J. Van Oldenborgh; M. Collins; B. J. J. M. Van Den Hurk; S. Y. Philip

Description: Royal Netherlands Institute of Meteorology, De Bilt, The Netherlands. We examine the behaviour of the El Niño – Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in an ensemble of global climate model simulations with perturbations to parameters in the atmosphere and ocean components respectively. The influence of the uncertainty in these parametrisations on ENSO are investigated systematically. The ensemble exhibits a range of different ENSO behaviour in terms of the...

AchutaRao, K. and Sperber, K. R.: ENSO simulation in coupled ocean-atmosphere models: are the current models better?, Climate Dyn., 27, 1–15, 2006.; AchutaRao, K. and Sperber, K. R.: Simulation of the El Niõ Southern Oscillation: Results from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Climate Dyn., 19, 191–209, 2002.; Annan, J. D., Hargreaves, J. C., Ohgaito, R., Abe-Ouchi, A., and Emori, S.: Efficiently constraining climate sensitivity with ensembles of paleoclimate sim...

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Phytoplankton Distribution and Nitrogen Dynamics in the Southwest ...

By: S. J. Thomalla; I. J. Ansorge; M. I. Lucas; E. Pakhomov; H. N. Waldron; J. F. Read

Description: Department of Oceanography, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch, Cape Town 7701, South Africa. During the 1999 Marion Island Oceanographic Survey (MIOS 4) in late austral summer, a northbound and reciprocal southbound transect were taken along the Southwest Indian and Madagascar Ridge, between the Prince Edward Islands and 31° S. The sections crossed a number of major fronts and smaller mesoscale features and covered a wide productivity spec...

Atkinson, A., Whitehouse, M. J., Priddle, J., Cripps, G. C., Ward, P., and Brandon, M. A.: South Georgia, Antarctica: a productive, cold water, pelagic ecosystem, Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser., 216, 279–308, 2001.; Barange, M., Pakhomov, E. A., Perissinotto, R., Froneman, P. W., Verheye, H. M., Taunton-Clark, J., and Lucas, M. I.: Pelagic community structure of the subtropical convergence region south of Africa and in the mid-Atlantic Ocean, Deep-Sea Res., 45, 1663–1687, 1998.; ...

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High Sampling Rate Thermistor String Observations at the Slope of ...

By: B. Koster; M. Laan; R. Groenewegen; H. Van Haren

Description: Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, The Netherlands. A high sampling rate (1 Hz) thermistor string has been built to accommodate the scientific need to accurately monitor high-frequency and vigorous internal wave and overturning processes in the ocean. The thermistors and their custom designed electronics can register temperature at an estimated precision of about 0.001° C with a response time faster than 0...

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