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Surface Circulation in the Eastern Mediterranean Using Drifters (2...

By: C. Millot; I. Taupier-letage; R. Gerin; P.-m. Poulain; S. Ben Ismail; C. Sammari

Description: Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS) – Borgo Grotta Gigante, 42/c-34010 Sgonico (Trieste), Italy. Within the framework of the EGITTO/EGYPT program, the spatial structure and the temporal variability of the surface circulation in the eastern basin of the Mediterranean Sea was studied by means of satellite-tracked drifters. A total of 97 drifters drogued to 15-m nominal depth were released between September 2005 and March 20...

Fusco, G., Manzella, G. M. R., Cruzado, A., Gacic, M., Gasparini, G. P., Kovacevic, V., Millot, C., Tziavos, C., Velasquez, Z. R., Walne, A., Zervakis, V., and Zodiatis, G.: Variability of mesoscale features in the Mediterranean Sea from XBT data analysis, Ann. Geophys., 21, 21–32, 2003.; Grilli, F. and Pinardi, N.: The computation of Rossby radii of deformation for the Mediterranean Sea, MTP News, 6, 1998.; Hamad, N., Millot, C., and Taupier-Letage, I.: A new hypothesis...

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X-band Cosmo-skymed© Sar Data for Sea Wave Simulations and Coastal...

By: M. Migliaccio; A. Montuori; F. Nunziata; G. Benassai

Description: Dipartimento di Scienze Applicate, Università di Napoli Parthenope, Napoli, Italy. In this paper, X-band COSMO-SkyMed© Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data are first experimented as wind field forcing of coastal wind-wave oceanographic modeling for both sea-wave numerical simulation and coastal vulnerability assessment purposes. The SAR data set consists of 60 X-band VV-polarized Level 1B Detected Ground Multi-look (DGM) ScanSAR Huge Regi...

Alberico, I., Amato, V., Aucelli, P. P. C., Di Paola, G., Pappone, G. and Rosskopf, C. M.: Historical and recent changes of the Sele River coastal plain (Southern Italy): natural variations and human pressures, Rend. Lincei, 23, 3–12, doi:10.1007/s12210-011-0156-y, 2012.; Benassai, G.: Introduction to Coastal Dynamics and Shoreline Protection, Wit Press, Southampton, 1, 1–356, 2006.; Benassai, G., Chirico, F., and C...

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Springtime Contribution of Dinitrogen Fixation to Primary Producti...

By: A. Levi; M. R. Mulholland; B. Herut; E. Rahav; I. Berman-frank

Description: Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900, Israel. Dinitrogen (N2) fixation rates were measured during early spring across the different provinces of Mediterranean Sea surface waters. N2 fixation rates, measured using 15N2 enriched seawater, were lowest in the eastern basin and increased westward with a maximum at the Strait of Gibraltar (0.10 to 2.35 nmol N L−...

Falkowski, P. G., Barber, R. T., and Smetacek, V.: Biogeochemical controls and feedbacks on ocean primary production, Science, 281, 200–206, 1998.; Bar Zeev, E., Yogev, T., Man-Aharonovich, D., Kress, N., Herut, B., Beja, O., and Berman-Frank, I.: Seasonal dynamics of the endosymbiotic, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Richelia intracellularis in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, ISME J., 2, 911–92. 2008.; Berman, T., Townsend, D. W., Elsayed, S. Z., Trees, C. C., and ...

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Interannual-to-decadal Variability of North Atlantic Air-sea Co2 F...

By: P. Yiou; K. B. Rodgers; O. Aumont; S. Raynaud; J. C. Orr

Description: Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’Environnement, CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette, France. The magnitude of the interannual variability of North Atlantic air-sea CO2 fluxes remains uncertain. Fluxes inferred from atmospheric inversions have large variability, whereas those simulated by ocean models have small variability. Part of the difference is that unlike typical atmospheric inversions, ocean models come with spatial resolution at the sub-bas...

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Technical Note: Detection of Gas Bubble Leakage Via Correlation of...

By: C. Papenberg; J. Schneider Von Deimling

Description: Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research, Rostock, Germany. Hydroacoustic detection of natural gas release from the seafloor has been conducted in the past by using singlebeam echosounders. In contrast, modern multibeam swath mapping systems allow much wider coverage, higher resolution, and offer 3-D spatial correlation. Up to the present, the extremely high data rate hampers water column backscatter investigations and more sophisticated visualization ...

Anderson, V. C.: Sound Scattering from a Fluid Sphere, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 22, 426–431, 1950.; Best, J. L., Parsons, D. R., Simmons, S. M., and Oberg, K. A.: Coherent Flow Structures over Alluvial Sand Dunes revealed by Multibeam Echo Sounding, Marine and River Dune Dynamics, 1–3, 25–30, 2008.; Clift, R., Grace, J. R., and Weber, M. E.: Bubbles, Drops, Particles, New York, Academic Press., 380, 1978.; De Moustier, C.: State of the art swath bathymetry survey systems, In...

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Dynamics of Turbulent Western-boundary Currents at Low Latitude in...

By: A. Wirth; C. Q. C. Akuetevi

Description: Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, LEGI, 38000 Grenoble, France. The dynamics of low latitude turbulent western-boundary currents (WBCs) crossing the Equator are considered using numerical results from integrations of a reduced-gravity shallow-water model. For viscosity values of 1000 m2 s−1 and greater, the boundary layer dynamics compares well to the analytical Munk-layer solution. When the viscosity is reduced, the boundary layer be...

Beal, L. and Donohue, K.: The Great Whirl: Observations of its seasonal development and interannual variability, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 118, 1–13, 2013.; Akuetevi, C. Q. C., Barnier, B., Verron, J., Molines, J.-M., and Lecointre, A.: Interactions between the Somali Current eddies during the summer monsoon: insights from a numerical study, Ocean Sci. Discuss., 12, 735–767, doi:10.5194/osd-12-735-2015, 2015.; Aubry, N...

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Mesoscale Variability of Water Masses in the Arabian Sea as Reveal...

By: P. L'Hegaret; X. Carton

Description: Laboratoire de Physique des Oceans, UMR6523 UBO/CNRS/IRD/IFREMER, UBO/UEB, Brest, France. By analysing ARGO float data over the last four years, some aspects of the mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea are described.

The Red Sea Water outflow is strong in the Southwestern Gulf of Aden, in particular when a cyclonic gyre predominates in this region. Salinities of 36.5 and temperatures of 16 °C are found th...

Bower, A. S. and Furey, H.: Mesoscale Eddies in the Gulf of Aden and their Impact on the Spreading of Red Sea Outflow Water, submitted to Progress in Oceanography, 2011.; Bower, A. S., Hunt, H. S., and Price, J. F.: Character and dynamics of the Red Sea and Persian Gulf outflows, J. Geophys. Res., 105(C3), 6387–6414, 2000.; Bower, A. S., Fratantoni, D. M., Johns, W. E., and Peters, H.: Gulf of Aden eddies and their impact on Red Sea water, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(21), 20...

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Tidal Forcing, Energetics, and Mixing Near the Yermak Plateau : Vo...

By: M. Müller; A. K. Peterson; I. Fer

Description: Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway. The Yermak Plateau (YP), located northwest of Svalbard in Fram Strait, is the final passage for the inflow of warm Atlantic Water into the Arctic Ocean. The region is characterized by the largest barotropic tidal velocities in the Arctic Ocean. Internal response to the tidal flow over this topographic feature locally contributes to mixing that removes heat from the Atlantic Water. Here, we in...

Chapman, D. C.: Enhanced subinertial diurnal tides over isolated topographic features, Deep-Sea Res., 36, 815–824, 1989.; Alford, M. H., Cronin, M. F., and Klymak, J. M.: Annual cycle and depth penetration of wind-generated near-inertial internal waves at Ocean Station Papa in the northeast Pacific, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 42, 889–909, 2012.; Allen, S. E. and Thomson, R. E.: Bottom-trapped subinertial motions over midocean ridges in a stratified rotating fluid, J. Phys. Ocea...

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Impacts of Mean Dynamic Topography on a Regional Ocean Assimilatio...

By: C. A. S. Tanajura; J. Zhu; C. Yan

Description: International Center for Climate and Environment Sciences, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100029, China. An ocean assimilation system was developed for the Pacific-Indian oceans with the aim of assimilating altimetry data, sea surface temperature, and in-situ measurements from ARGO, XBT, CTD, and TAO. The altimetry data assimilation requires the addition of the mean dynamic topography to the altimetric...

Evensen, G.: The ensemble Kalman filter: theoretical formulation and practical implementation, Ocean Dynam., 53, 343–367, 2003.; Bertino, L. and Lisæter, K. A.: The TOPAZ monitoring and prediction system for the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans, J. Operat. Oceanogr., 2, 15–18, 2008.; Bleck, R.: An oceanic general circulation model framed in hybrid isopycnic-cartesian coordinates, Ocean Model., 4, 55–88, 2002.; Brasseur, P., Bahurel, P., Bertino, L., Birol, F., Brankart, J.-M.,...

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A Practical Scheme to Introduce Explicit Tidal Forcing Into Ogcm :...

By: H. Nakano; M. Hirabara; H. Tsujino; G. Yamanaka; K. Sakamoto

Description: Oceanographic Research Department, Meteorological Research Institute, Nagamine, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0052, Japan. A practical scheme is proposed to introduce tides explicitly into ocean general circulation models (OGCM). In this scheme, barotropic linear response to the tidal forcing is calculated by the time differential equations modified for ocean tides, instead of the original barotropic equations of OGCM. This allows usage of various parameterizations...

Arbic, B. K., Garner, S. T., Hallberg, R. W., and Simmons, H. L.: The accuracy of surface elevations in forward global barotropic and baroclinic tide models, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 51, 3069–3101, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2004.09.014, 2004.%; Arbic, B. K., Wallcraft, A. J., and Metzger, E. J.: Concurrent simulation of the eddying general circulation and tides in a global ocean model, Ocean Model., 32, 175–187, doi:

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The Oceanflux Greenhouse Gases Methodology for Deriving a Sea Surf...

By: J. D. Shutler; D. K. Woolf; P. E. Land; L. M. Goddijn-murphy; C. Donlon

Description: ERI, University of the Highlands and Islands, Ormlie Road, Thurso, UK. Climatologies, or long-term averages, of essential climate variables are useful for evaluating models and providing a baseline for studying anomalies. The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) has made millions of global underway sea surface measurements of CO2 publicly available, all in a uniform format and presented as fugacity, fCO2. As ...

Bakker, D. C. E., Pfeil, B., Smith, K., Hankin, S., Olsen, A., Alin, S. R., Cosca, C., Harasawa, S., Kozyr, A., Nojiri, Y., O'Brien, K. M., Schuster, U., Telszewski, M., Tilbrook, B., Wada, C., Akl, J., Barbero, L., Bates, N. R., Boutin, J., Bozec, Y., Cai, W.-J., Castle, R. D., Chavez, F. P., Chen, L., Chierici, M., Currie, K., de Baar, H. J. W., Evans, W., Feely, R. A., Fransson, A., Gao, Z., Hales, B., Hardman-Mountford, N. J., Hoppema, M., Huang, W.-J., Hunt, C. W., ...

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An Observed 20-year Time Series of Agulhas Leakage : Volume 10, Is...

By: A. Biastoch; J. V. Durgadoo; H. A. Dijkstra; D. Le Bars; W. P. M. De Ruijter

Description: IMAU, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.005, 3508 TA Utrecht, The Netherlands. We provide a time series of Agulhas leakage anomalies over the last 20-years from satellite altimetry. Until now, measuring the interannual variability of Indo-Atlantic exchange has been the major barrier in the investigation of the dynamics and large scale impact of Agulhas leakage. We compute the difference of transport between the Agulhas Current and Agulhas Return Current, w...

Ansorge, I. J., Speich, S., Froneman, P. W., Rouault, M., and Garzoli, S.: Monitoring the oceanic flow between Africa and Antarctica: Report of the first GoodHope cruise, S. Afr. J. Sci., 101, 29–35, 2005.; Backeberg, B. C., Penven, P., and Rouault, M.: Impact of intensified Indian Ocean winds on mesoscale variability in the Agulhas system, Nature Climate Change, 2, 1–5, 2012.; Bang, N. D. and Andrews, W. R. H.: Direct current measurements of a shelf-edge frontal jet in ...

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Wave Induced Mixing and Transport of Buoyant Particles: Applicatio...

By: K. H. Christensen; M. Drivdal; G. Broström

Description: Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo, Norway. The modelling of wave-current and wave-turbulence interactions have received much attention in recent years. In this study the focus is on how these wave effects modify the transport of particles in the ocean. Here the particles are buoyant tracers that can represent oil droplets, plastic particles or plankton, for example fish eggs and larvae. Using the General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM), modifi...

Agrawal, Y. C., Terray, E. A., Donelan, M. A., Hwang, P. A., Williams, A. J., Drennan, W., Kahma, K., and Kitaigorodskii, S.: Enhanced dissipation of kinetic energy beneath surface waves, Nature, 359, 219–220, doi:10.1038/359219a0, 1992.; Albretsen, J. and Røed, L. P.: Decadal long simulations of mesoscale structures in the northern North Sea/Skagerrak using two ocean models, Ocean Dynam., 60, 933–955, 2010.; Andrews, D. and...

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The Surface Thermal Signature and Air–sea Coupling Over the Agulha...

By: E. Autret; B. Chapron; J. M. A. C. Souza

Description: Laboratoire d'Oceanographie Spatiale (LOS), IFREMER, Centre Brest, 29280, Plouzané, France. The surface signature of Agulhas rings propagating across the South Atlantic Ocean is observed based on three independent data sets: Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System/Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) (TMI/AMSR-E) satellite sea surface temperature, Argo profiling floats and a merged winds product d...

Businger, J. A. and Shaw, W. J.: The response of the marine atmospheric boundary layer to mesoscale variations in sea-surface temperature, Dyn. Atmos. Oceans, 8, 267–281, 1984.; Arhan, M., Speich, S., Messager, C., Dencausse, G., Fine, R., and Boye, M.: Anticyclonic and cyclonic eddies of subtropical origin in the subantarctic zone of south of Africa, J. Geophys. Res., 116, C11004, doi:10.1029/2011JC007140, 2011.; Bentam...

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Effects of Mesoscale Eddies on Global Ocean Distributions of Cfc-1...

By: J.-c. Dutay; J. C. Orr; P. Delecluse; Z. Lachkar

Description: LSCE/IPSL, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Gif-sur-Yvette, France. Global-scale tracer simulations are typically made at coarse resolution without explicitly modelling eddies. Here we ask what role do eddies play in ocean uptake, storage, and meridional transport of transient tracers. We made global anthropogenic transient-tracer simulations in coarse-resolution (2°cosΦ×2°, ORCA2) and eddy-permitting (½°cosΦ×½°, O...

Andrews, D. and McIntyre, M.: Planetary waves in horizontal and vertical shear: The generalized Eliassen-Palm relation and the mean zonal acceleration, J. Atmos. Sci., 33, 2031–2048, 1976.; Arakawa, A.: Design of the UCLA general circulation model, numerical simulation of weather and climate, Tech. Rep 7, University of California, Dept. of Meteorology, 1972.; Berliand, M E. and Strokina, T.: Global distribution of the total amount of clouds (in Russian), Hydrometeorologi...

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A Wind-driven Nonseasonal Barotropic Fluctuation of the Canadian I...

By: R. M. Ponte; C. G. Piecuch

Description: Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Lexington, MA 02421, USA. A wind-driven, spatially coherent mode of nonseasonal, depth-independent variability in the Canadian Inland Seas (i.e., the collective of Hudson Bay, James Bay, and Foxe Basin) is identified based on Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) retrievals, a tide-gauge record, and a barotropic model over 2003–2013. This dominant mode of nonseasonal variability is p...

A, G., Wahr, J., and Zhong, S.: Computations of the viscoelastic response of a 3-D compressible Earth to surface loading: an application to Glacial Isostatic Adjustment in Antarctica and Canada, Geophys. J. Int., 192, 557–572, doi:10.1093/gji/ggs030, 2013.; Ablain, M., Cazenave, A., Valladeau, G., and Guinehut, S.: A new assessment of the error budget of global mean sea level rate estimated by satellite altimetry over 1993...

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The Transient Distributions of Nuclear Weapon-generated Tritium an...

By: J. Sültenfuß; E. Fourré; P. Jean-baptiste; W. Roether

Description: Institut für Umweltphysik, Univ. Bremen, Otto Hahn Allee, 28355, Bremen, Germany. We present a comprehensive account of tritium and 3He in the Mediterranean Sea since the appearance of the tritium generated by the atmospheric nuclear-weapon testing in the 1950s and early 1960s, based on essentially all available observations. Tritium in surface waters rose to 20–30 TU in 1964 (TU = 1018 × [3H]/H]), a factor of about 100 ...

Andrie, C., and Merlivat, L.: Tritium in the western Mediterranean during the 1981 Phycemed cruise, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 35, 247–267, 1988.; Benson, B. B. and Krause, D.: Isotopic fractionation of helium during solution: a probe for the liquid state, J. Solution Chem., 9, 895–909, 1980.; Charlou, J. L., Donval, J. P., Roy, N., Jean-Baptiste, P., Foucher, J. P., Woodside, J., and the MEDINAUT Scientific Party: Evidence of methane venting and geochemistry of brines associa...

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Modeling Long-term Changes of the Black Sea Ecosystem Characterist...

By: L. I. Sukhikh; G. K. Korotaev; T. Oguz; A. I. Kubryakov; V. L. Dorofeyev; V. V. Knysh

Description: Marine Hydrophysical Institute National Academy of Sciences, Sevastopol, Ukraine. A three dimensional coupled physical-biological model is provided for the Black Sea to investigate its long-term changes under the synergistic impacts of eutrophication, climatic changes and population outbreak of the gelatinous invader Mnemiopsis leidyi. The model circulation field is simulated using the high frequency ERA40 atmospheric forcing as well as assimila...

Belokopytov, V. N. and Shokurova, I. G.: Estimation of temperature and salinity interdecadal variability in the Black Sea during time period 1951–1995, Ecological safety of coastal and shelf zone and complex use of their resources, 12, 12–21, 2005 (in Russian).; Blumberg, A. F. and Mellor, G. L.: A description of a three-dimensional coastal ocean model, three dimensional shelf models, Coast. Estuar. Sci., 5. 1–16, 1987.; Dorofeyev, V. L.: Modeling of the decadal evolutio...

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Coastal Sea Responses to Atmospheric Forcings at Two Different Res...

By: P. Oddo; G. Beg Paklar; Z. Pasarić; Z. B. Klaić

Description: Andrija Mohorovičić Geophysical Institute, Department of Geophysics, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia. We investigated coastal sea responses to three, multi-day strong wind episodes that occurred in the middle Adriatic during the Target Operational Period (TOP) of the European COastal sea OPerational observing and forecasting system (ECOOP) project. A high-resolution oceanographic model (1 km horizontal, 16 σ vertical layers) bas...

Pasarić, M.: Annual cycle of river discharge along the Adriatic coast of Croatia, Rapports et proces-verbaux des reunions CIESMM 37, 132, CIESM, Monaco, 2004.; Andročec, V., Beg Paklar, G., Dadić, V., Djakovac, T., Grbec, B., Janeković, I., Krstulović, N., Kušpilić, G., Leder, N., Lončar, G., Marasović, I., Precali, R., and Šolić, M.: The Adriatic Sea Monitoring Program – Final Report, MZOPUG, Zagreb, 2009.; Bajić, A.: Cold outbreak and the Adriatic bora, Geofizika, 4, 2...

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On the Feasibility of the Use of Wind Sar to Downscale Waves on Sh...

By: A. Taramelli; E. Valentini; F. J. Méndez; P. Camus; O. Q. Gutiérrez; F. Filipponi

Description: Environment Hydraulics Institute IH Cantabria, Universidad de Cantabria, Santander, Spain. On the recent years wave reanalysis have become popular as a powerful source of information for wave climate research and engineering applications. These wave reanalysis provide continuous time-series of offshore wave parameters, nevertheless on coastal areas or shallow water waves are poorly described because spatial resolution is not detailed. By means of wave ...

Adamo, M., De Carolis, G., Morelli, S., and Rana, F.: Combined observations of a Bora event in the Adriatic Sea by means of ETA model and SAR data, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 15, EGU2013-5062, 2013 EGU General Assembly, Vienna, Austria, eISSN: 1029-7006, 7–12 April 2013.; Artegiani, A., Paschini, E., Russo, A., Bregant, D., Raicich, F., and Pinardi, N.: The Adriatic Sea general circulation. Part II: baroclinic circulation structure, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27, 1515...

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