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Managerial Economics


Managerial economics (sometimes referred to as business economics) is a branch of economics that applies microeconomic analysis to decision methods of businesses or other management units. As such, it bridges economic theory and economics in practice. It draws heavily from quantitative techniques such as regression analysis and correlation, Lagrangian calculus (linear).

 
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The Fate of Lake Ice in the North American Arctic : Volume 5, Issu...

By: L. C. Brown; C. R. Duguay

Description: Department of Geography and Environmental Management and Interdisciplinary Centre for Climate Change (IC3), University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1, Canada. Lakes comprise a large portion of the surface cover in northern North America, forming an important part of the cryosphere. The timing of lake ice phenological events (e.g. break-up/freeze-up) is a useful indicator of climate variability and change, which is of particular relevan...

Anderson, W. L., Robertson, D. M., and Magnuson, J. J.: Evidence of climatic change and projected future change, Limnol. Oceanogr., 41, 815–821,1996.; ACIA: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment: Cambridge University Press, New York, 1042 pp., 2005.; Beljaars, A. C. M., Holtslag, A. A. M., and van Westrhenen, R. M.: Description of a software library for the calculation of surface fluxes. KNMI Technical Report; TR-112, Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), Netherl...

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Stable Water Isotopes of Precipitation and Firn Cores from the Nor...

By: F. Fernandoy; H. Meyer; M. Tonelli

Description: Foundation Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in the Helmholtz Association, Research Unit Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany. In order to investigate the climate variability in the northern Antarctic Peninsula region, this paper focuses on the relationship between stable isotope content of precipitation and firn, and main meteorological variables (air temperature, relative humidity, sea surface temperature, and sea ice extent). Between 2008 and...

Abram, N. J., Thomas, E. R., McConnell, J. R., Mulvaney, R., Bracegirdle, T. J., Sime, L. C., and Aristarain, A. J.: Ice core evidence for a 20th century decline of sea ice in the Bellingshausen Sea, Antarctica, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D23101, doi:10.1029/2010jd014644, 2010.; Blindow, N., Suckro, S., Rückamp, M., Braun, M., Schindler, M., Breuer, B., Saurer, H., Simoes, J., and Lange, M.: Geometry and thermal regime of th...

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Snow Specific Surface Area Simulation Using the One-layer Snow Mod...

By: A. Royer; B. Montpetit; P. A. Bartlett; A. Langlois; A. Roy

Description: Centre d'Applications et de Recherches en Télédétection (CARTEL), Université de Sherbrooke, 2500 Boulder Université, J1K2R1 Sherbrooke, QC, Canada. Snow grain size is a key parameter for modeling microwave snow emission properties and the surface energy balance because of its influence on the snow albedo, thermal conductivity and diffusivity. A model of the specific surface area (SSA) of snow was implemented in the one-layer snow model in the Canadia...

Adams, E. and Sato, A.: Model for effective thermal conductivity of a dry snow cover composed of uniform ice spheres, Ann. Glaciol., 18, 300–304, 1993.; Andreadis, K. M., Liang, D., Tsang, L., Lettenmaier, D. P., and Josberger, E. G.: Characterization of errors in a coupled snow hydrology microwave emission model, J. Hydrometeorol., 9, 149–164, 2008.; Armstrong, R. and Brun, E.: Snow and climate: physical processes, surface energy exchange and modeling, Cambridge Univers...

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Brief Communication: Trends in Sea Ice Extent North of Svalbard an...

By: J. Hartmann; T. Vihma; G. Birnbaum; C. Lüpkes; A. Tetzlaff; T. Nygård

Description: Climate Sciences, Alfred-Wegener-Institut Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven, Germany. An analysis of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) satellite data reveals that the Whaler's Bay polynya north of Svalbard was considerably larger in the three winters from 2012 to 2014 compared to the previous 20 years. This increased polynya size leads to strong atmospheric convection during cold air outbreaks in a region north of Sval...

Aagaard, K., Foldvik, A., and Hillman, S. R.: The West Spitsbergen Current: disposition and water mass transformation, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 3778–3784, doi:10.1029/JC092iC04p03778, 1987.; Brümmer, B.: Boundary layer mass, water, and heat budgets in wintertime cold-air outbreaks from the Arctic sea ice, Mon. Weather Rev., 125, 1824–1837, 2.0.CO;2>doi:10.1...

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Atmosphere–ice Forcing in the Transpolar Drift Stream: Results fro...

By: B. Brümmer; G. Müller; M. Haller

Description: Institute of Coastal Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Germany. During the EU research project Developing Arctic Modelling and Observing Capabilities for Long-term Environmental Studies (DAMOCLES), 18 ice buoys were deployed in the region of the Arctic transpolar drift (TPD). Sixteen of them formed a quadratic grid with 400 km side length. The measurements lasted from 2007 to 2009. The properties of the TPD and the impact of synoptic weather system...

Affeld, B.: Zyklonen in der Arktis und ihre Bedeutung für den Eistransport durch die Framstraße, PhD thesis, 125 pp., University Hamburg, Germany, 2003.; Brümmer, B., Schröder, D., Müller, G., Spreen, G., Jahnke-Bornemann, A., and Launiainen, J.: Impact of a Fram Strait cyclone on ice edge, drift, divergence, and concentration: possibilities and limits of an observational analysis, J. Geophys. Res., 113, C12003, doi:10.1029/...

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Spatial–temporal Dynamics of Chemical Composition of Surface Snow ...

By: Yu. A. Shibaev; L. P. Golobokova; E. Yu. Osipov; O. P. Osipova; J. R. Petit; T. V. Khodzher; V. Ya. Lipenkov

Description: Limnological Institute SB RAS, Irkutsk, Russia. In January of 2008, during the 53rd Russian Antarctic Expedition, surface snow samples were taken from 13 shallow (0.7 to 1.5 m depth) snow pits along the first tractor traverse from Progress to Vostok stations, East Antarctica. Sub-surface snow/firn layers are dated from 2.1 to 18 yr. The total length of the coast to inland traverse is more than 1280 km. Here we analysed spatial variability of concentrati...

Aristarain, A. and Delmas, R.: Snow chemistry measurements on James Ross Island (Antarctic Peninsula) showing sea-salt aerosol modifications, Atmos. Environ., 36, 765–772, 2002.; Baram, G. I., Vereshchagin, A. L., and Golobokova, L. P.: Microcolumn HPLC with UV Detection for the Determination of Anions in Environmental Materials, J. Anal. Chem., 54, 854–857, 1999.; Becagli, S., Proposito, M., Benassai, S., Flora, O., Genoni, L., Gragnani, R., Largiuni, O., Pili, S. L., S...

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On Producing Sea Ice Deformation Data Sets from Sar-derived Sea Ic...

By: P. Rampal; S. Bouillon

Description: Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen, Norway. We propose a method to reduce the error generated when computing sea ice deformation fields from synthetic aperture radar (SAR)-derived sea ice motion. The method is based on two steps. The first step consists of using a triangulation of the positions taken from the sea ice trajectories to define a mesh on which a first estimate of sea ice deformation is computed. The second ...

Bremner, D., Hurtado, F., Ramaswami, S., and Sacristán, V.: Small convex quadrangulations of point sets, in: Algorithms and Computation, edited by: Eades, P. and Takaoka, T.: of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2223, 623–635, doi:10.1007/3-540-45678-3_53, 2001.; Fily, M. and Rothrock, D.: Opening and closing of sea ice leads: digital measurements from synthetic aperture radar, J. Geophys...

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The Fate of Lake Ice in the North American Arctic : Volume 5, Issu...

By: C. R. Duguay; L. C. Brown

Description: Department of Geography and Environmental Management and Interdisciplinary Centre for Climate Change (IC3), University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1, Canada. Lakes comprise a large portion of the surface cover in northern North America forming an important part of the cryosphere. The timing of lake ice phenological events (e.g. break-up/freeze-up) are useful indicators of climate variability and change, which is of particular...

ACIA, Arctic Climate Impact Assessment: Cambridge University Press, New York, 1042 pp., 2005.; Anderson, W. L., Robertson, D. M., and Magnuson, J. J.: Evidence of climatic change and projected future change, Limnol. Oceanogr., 41 (5), 815–821, 1996.; Beljaars, A. C. M., Holtslag, A. A. M., and van Westrhenen, R. M.: Description of a Software Library for the Calculation of Surface Fluxes, KNMI Technical Report, TR-112, Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), Ne...

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Stable Water Isotopes of Precipitation and Firn Cores from the Nor...

By: H. Meyer; M. Tonelli; F. Fernandoy

Description: Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in the Helmholtz Association, Potsdam, Germany. In order to investigate the climate variability in the north Antarctic Peninsula region, this paper focuses on the relationship between stable isotope content of precipitation and firn, and main meteorological variables (air temperature, relative humidity, sea surface temperature, and sea ice extent). Between 2008 and 2010, we collected precipitation sa...

Carrasco, J. and González, M. (Eds.): Climatología de la Península Antártica y de la Base Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva, Dirección Meteorológica de Chile, 2007.; Abram, N. J., Thomas, E. R., McConnell, J. R., Mulvaney, R., Bracegirdle, T. J., Sime, L. C., and Aristarain, A. J.: Ice core evidence for a 20th century decline of sea ice in the Bellingshausen Sea, Antarctica, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D23101, doi:10.1029/2010jd01...

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Snow Specific Surface Area Simulation Using the One-layer Snow Mod...

By: A. Royer; B. Montpetit; P. A. Bartlett; A. Langlois; A. Roy

Description: Centre d'Applications et de Recherches en Télédétection (CARTEL), Université de Sherbrooke, 2500 boul. Université, Sherbrooke, QC, J1K 2R1, Canada. Snow grain size is a key parameter for modeling microwave snow emission properties and the surface energy balance because of its influence on the snow albedo, thermal conductivity and diffusivity. A model of the specific surface area (SSA) of snow was implemented in the one-layer snow model in the Canadian LA...

Adams, E. and Sato, A.: Model for effective thermal conductivity of a dry snow cover composed of uniform ice spheres, Ann. Glaciol., 18, 300–304, 1993.; Andreadis, K. M., Liang, D., Tsang, L., Lettenmaier, D.P., and Josberger, E. G.: Characterization of errors in a coupled snow hydrology microwave emission model, J. Hydrometeorol., 9, 149–164, 2008.; Aoki, T., Kuchiki, K., Niwano, M., Kodama, Y., Hosaka, M., and Tanaka, T.: Physically based snow albedo model for calculat...

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Arctic Ocean Sea Ice Snow Depth Evaluation and Bias Sensitivity in...

By: M. M. Holland; E. C. Hunke; B. A. Blazey

Description: Center for Marine Environmental Sciences (MARUM), Universität Bremen, Bremen, Germany. Sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean is a continued focus of attention. This study assesses the capability of hindcast simulations of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) to reproduce observed snow depths and densities overlying the Arctic Ocean sea ice. The model is evaluated using measurements provided by historic Russian polar drift stations. Following the identi...

Lipscomb, W. H. and Hunke, E. C.: Modeling sea ice transport using incremental remapping. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132, 1341–1354, 2004.; Arctic Climatology Project: Environmental working group Arctic meteorology and climate atlas, edited by: Fetterer, F. and Radionov, V., Boulder, CO, National Snow and Ice Data Center, CD-ROM, 2000.; Bailey, D., Hannay, C., Holland, M., Neale, R., and NCAR: Slab Ocean Model Forcing, NCAR, 10 April 2012, available at: 

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Brief Communication: Trends in Sea Ice Extent North of Svalbard an...

By: A. Tetzlaff; T. Nygård; T. Vihma; C. Lüpkes; J. Hartmann; G. Birnbaum

Description: Climate Sciences, Alfred-Wegener-Institut Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven, Germany. An analysis of SSM/I satellite data reveals that the Whaler's Bay Polynya north of Svalbard was considerably larger in the last three winters from 2012 to 2014 compared to the previous 20 years. This increased polynya size leads to strong atmospheric convection during cold air outbreaks in a region north of Svalbard that typically was ice c...

Aagaard, K., Foldvik, A., and Hillman, S. R.: The West Spitsbergen Current: disposition and water mass transformation, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 3778–3784, doi:10.1029/JC092iC04p03778, 1987.; Brümmer, B.: Boundary layer mass, water, and heat budgets in wintertime cold-air outbreaks from the Arctic sea ice, Mon. Weather Rev., 125, 1824–1837, 2.0.CO;2>doi:10.1...

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On Producing Sea Ice Deformation Dataset from Sar-derived Sea Ice ...

By: S. Bouillon; P. Rampal

Description: Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen, Norway. We propose a method to compute nearly noise-free sea ice deformation fields from SAR-derived motion and present the results of its application to RGPS sea ice trajectories. The method is based on two steps. The first step consists of using a triangulation of the positions taken from the sea ice trajectories to define a mesh on which a first estimate of sea ice deformation is ...

Girard, L., Weiss, J., Molines, J.-M., Barnier, B., and Bouillon, S.: Evaluation of high-resolution sea ice models on the basis of statistical and scaling properties of Arctic sea ice drift and deformation, J. Geophys. Res., 114, 2156–2202, doi:10.1029/2008JC005182, 2009.; Girard, L., Bouillon, S., Weiss, J., Amitrano, D., Fichefet, T., and Legat, V.: A new modelling framework for sea ice mechanics based on elasto-brittl...

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An Analytical Model for Wind-driven Arctic Summer Sea Ice Drift : ...

By: A. L. Stewart; H.-s. Park

Description: Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon, South Korea. The authors present an approximate analytical model for wind-induced sea-ice drift that includes an ice–ocean boundary layer with an Ekman spiral in the ocean velocity. This model provides an analytically tractable solution that is most applicable to the marginal ice zone, where sea-ice concentration is substantially below 100%. The model closely reproduces the ice and upper-oce...

McPhee, M. G.: On the turbulent mixing length in the oceanic boundary layer, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24, 2014–2031, 1994.; Bitz, C. M., Fyfe, J., and Flato, G.: Sea ice response to wind forcing from AMIP models, J. Climate, 15, 522–536, 2002.; Bitz, C. M. and Polvani, L. M.: Antarctic climate response to stratospheric ozone depletion in a fine resolution ocean climate model, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L20705, doi:10.1029/2012GL053...

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Extreme Events in Total Ozone Over Arosa – Part 1: Application of ...

By: H. E. Rieder; J. A. Maeder; J. Staehelin; T. Peter; F. Holawe; R. Stübi; M. Ribatet; P. Weihs; A. C. Davison

Description: Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. In this study ideas from extreme value theory are for the first time applied in the field of stratospheric ozone research, because statistical analysis showed that previously used concepts assuming a Gaussian distribution (e.g. fixed deviations from mean values) of total ozone data do not adequately address the structure of the extremes. We show that statistical extreme valu...

Appenzeller, C., Weiss, A. K., and Staehelin, J.: North Atlantic oscillation modulates total ozone winter trends, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 1131–1134, 2000.; Anton, M., Serrano, A., Cancillo, M. L., and Garcia, J. A.: Total ozone and solar erythemal irradiance in southwestern Spain: Day-to-day variability and extreme episodes, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L20804, doi:10.1029/2008gl035290, 2008.; Bojkov, R. D. and Balis, D. S.: Characteristics of episodes with extremely low oz...

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Environmental Risk Assessment of Dredging Processes – Application ...

By: A. Puente; A. G. Gómez; J. A. Juanes; J. García Alba

Description: Environmental Hydraulics Institute IH Cantabria, Universidad de Cantabria, Santander, Spain. A methodological procedure to estimate the environmental risk of dredging operations in aquatic systems has been developed. Environmental risk estimations are based on numerical models results, which provide an appropriated spatio-temporal framework analysis to guarantee an effective decision-making process. The methodological procedure has been applied on a rea...

Birkmann, J.: Risk and vulnerability indicators at different scales:: Applicability, usefulness and policy implications, Environ. Hazards, 7, 20–31, 2007.; CIRCA: Prioritisation process: Final monitoring-based ranking, Annex VII: PNEC values and hazard information for candidate substances, 2009.; EEA: The changing faces of Europe's coastal areas, European Environmental Agency, Copenhagen, 112, 2006.; CIRCA: Priority substance; No. 1 Alachlor; No. 2 Anthracene; No. 3 Antr...

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Alfvén Wings at Earth's Magnetosphere Under Strong Interplanetary ...

By: A. J. Ridley

Description: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. A number of recent studies have shown that the upstream Mach number may play a significant role in the energy transfer between the solar wind and the magnetosphere. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation results of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system are presented that show the transition from nominal solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field driving to extremely strong driving. One of the predominant featur...

Borovsky, J E. and Denton, M H.: Differences between CME-driven storms and CIR-driven storms, J. Geophys. Res., 111, A07S08, doi:10.1029/2005JA011447, 2006.; Boudouris, A., Zesta, E., Lyons, L., and Anderson, P.: Evaluation of the Hill-Siscoe transpolar potential saturation model during a solar wind dynamic pressure pulse, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L23 802, doi:10.1029/2004GL021252, 2004.; Boyle, C., Reiff, P., and Hairston, M.: Empirical polar cap potentials, J. Geophys....

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Seasonal Changes in Photochemical Properties of Dissolved Organic ...

By: P. Porcal; L. A. Molot; P. J. Dillon

Description: Environmental and Resource Studies, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8, Canada. The fate of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in lakes and streams is significantly affected by photochemical transformation of DOM. A series of laboratory photochemical experiments was conducted to describe seasonal changes in photochemical properties of DOM. The stream samples used in this study originated from three different catchments in the s...

Bertilsson, S. and Tranvik, L. J.: Photochemical transformation of dissolved organic matter in lakes, Limnol. Oceanogr., 45, 753–762, 2000; Anesio, A. M. and Granéli, W.: Increased photoreactivity of DOC by acidification: Implications for the carbon cycle in humic lakes, Limnol. Oceanogr., 48, 735–744, 2003.; Brinkmann, T., Sartorius, D., and Frimmel, F. H.: Photobleaching of humic rich dissolved organic matter, Aquat. Sci., 65, 415–424, 2003.; Brooks, M. L., McKnight, D...

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Preliminary Results of the Social Impact Research Group of Medex: ...

By: M. Gayà; M. Aran; M. C. Llasat; J. Amaro

Description: Meteorological Service of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain. One of the aims of the MEDEX project is to improve the knowledge of high-impact weather events in the Mediterranean. According to the guidelines of this project, a pilot study was carried out in two regions of Spain (the Balearic Islands and Catalonia) by the Social Impact Research group of MEDEX. The main goal is to suggest some general and suitable criteria about how to analyse requests received i...

Campins, J., Jansà, A., and Genovés, A.: Heavy rain and strong wind events and cyclones in the Balearics, Adv. Geosci., 7, 73–77, doi:10.5194/adgeo-7-73-2006, 2006b.; Barredo, J. I.: Normalised flood losses in Europe: 1970�-2006, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 9, 97–104, doi:10.5194/nhess-9-97-2009, 2009.; Barriendos, M. and Martín-Vide, J.: Secular climatic oscillations as indicated by catastrophic floods in the Spanish Mediterranean coastal area (14th–19th Centuries), ...

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Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment in Greece – Part 2: Accele...

By: E. Sokos; L. Danciu; G-a. Tselentis

Description: University of Patras, Seismological Lab, Rio 265 00, Patras, Greece. This second part of the study, deals with the evaluation of the earthquake hazard in Greece in terms of the response spectral acceleration and the elastic input energy equivalent velocity. Four sets of predictive equations were selected, two for each type of spectra. Probabilistic hazard maps were created by determining the seismic hazard at grid points covering the region of interest....

Ambraseys, N., Douglas, J., Sarma, S. K., and Smit, P. M.: Equations for the estimation of strong ground motion from shallow crustal earthquakes using data from Europe and the Middle-Est: horizontal peak ground acceleration and spectral acceleration, B. Earthq. Eng., 3, 1–53, 2005.; Bazzurro, P. and Cornell, A. C.: Dissagregation of Seismic Hazard, B. Seismol. Soc. Am., 89(2), 501–520, 1999.; Bender, B.: Incorporating acceleration variability into seismic hazard analysis...

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