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Comparative Psychology


Comparative psychology usually refers to the study of the behavior and mental life of animals other than human beings. However, scientists from different disciplines do not always agree on this definition. Comparative psychology has also been described as a branch of psychology in which emphasis is placed on cross-species comparisons—including human-to-animal comparisons.

 
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Identification of Sensitive Indicators to Assess the Interrelation...

By: F. Bastida; A. Faz; J. A. Acosta; S. G. Domínguez; D. M. Toledo; R. Zornoza

Description: Sustainable Use, Management and Reclamation of Soil and Water Research Group. Department of Agrarian Science and Technology, Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, Paseo Alfonso XIII, 48, 30203 Cartagena, Spain. Soil quality (SQ) assessment has long been a challenging issue, since soils present high variability in properties and functions. This paper aims to increase the understanding of SQ through the review of SQ assessments in different scenarios provid...

Abrahams, P. W.: Soils: their implications to human health, Sci. Total Environ., 291, 1–32, 2002.; Albaladejo, J., Ortiz, R., García-Franco, N., Ruíz-Navarro, A., Almagro, M., García-Pintado, J., and Martínez-Mena, M.: Land-use and climate change impacts on soil organic carbon stocks in semi-arid Spain, J. Soils Sediments, 13, 265–277, 2013.; Alexander, M.: Agriculture's responsibility in establishing soil quality criteria, Environmental improvement – agriculture's chall...

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Identification of Sensitive Indicators to Assess the Interrelation...

By: J. A. Acosta; F. Bastida; S. G. Domínguez; A. Faz; R. Zornoza; D. M. Toledo

Description: Sustainable Use, Management and Reclamation of Soil and Water Research Group, Department of Agrarian Science and Technology, Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, Paseo Alfonso XIII, 48, 30203 Cartagena, Spain. Soil quality (SQ) assessment has been a challenging issue since soils present high variability in properties and functions. This paper aims to increase understanding of SQ through review of SQ assessments in different scenarios providing evidence a...

Abrahams, P. W.: Soils: their implications to human health, Sci. Total Environ., 291, 1–32, 2002.; Albaladejo, J., Ortiz, R., García-Franco, N., Ruíz-Navarro, A., Almagro, M., García-Pintado, J., and Martínez-Mena, M.: Land-use and climate change impacts on soil organic carbon stocks in semi-arid Spain, J. Soil. Sediment., 13, 265–277, 2013.; Andrews, S. S. and Carroll, C. R.: Designing a soil quality assessment tool for sustainable agroecosystem management, Ecol. Appl.,...

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The Time Lag Between Introduction and Escape from Cultivation of A...

By: M. Brändle; R. Brandl

Description: Animal Ecology, Department of Ecology, Faculty of Biology, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Karl-von-Frisch Str. 8, 35032 Marburg, Germany. The time between introduction of an alien species and escape from cultivation shows considerable variation among species. One hypothesis to explain this variation of the time lag invokes the evolution of genotypes adapted to the conditions of the new environment. Here, we analyse the variation in time lags among 53 alie...

Bennett, M. D. and Leitch, I. J.: Plant DNA C-values Database release 4.0, October 2005, http://www.kew.org/cval/homepage.html, 2005.; Bennett, M. D., Bhandol, P., and Leitch, I. J.: Nuclear DNA amounts in angiosperms and their modern uses – 807 new estimates, Ann. Bot., 86, 859–909, 2000.; Bossdorf, O., Richards, C. L., and Pigliucci, M.: Epigenetics for ecologists, Ecol. Lett., 11, 106–115, 2008.; Brown, A. H. D. and Ma...

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MacRo-habitat Preferences by the African Manatee and Crocodiles – ...

By: F. M. Angelici; N. Ebere; E. Politano; G. Amori; L. Luiselli; G. C. Akani

Description: Environmental Studies Centre Demetra s.r.l. and Eni s.p.a. Environmental Department, corresponding address: via Olona 7, 00198 Roma, Italy. African manatees (Trichechus senegalensis) and crocodiles are threatened species in parts of their range. In West Africa, crocodiles may constitute the main predators for manatees apart from humans. Here, we explore the macro-habitat selection of manatees and two species of crocodiles (West African crocodiles <...

Akani, G. C. and Luiselli, L.: Diversity and distribution of sea turtles in the Niger Delta, Nigeria, Rev. Ecol. (Terre Vie), 64, 369–374, 2009.; Akani, G. C., Luiselli, L., Angelici, F. M., and Politano, E.: Preliminary data on distribution, habitat and status of crocodiles (\textitCrocodylus niloticus, Crocodylus cataphractus and \textitOsteolaemus tetraspis) in the eastern Niger delta (Nigeria), Bull. Soc. Herp. Fr., 87–88, 35–43, 1998.; Angelici, F. M., Egbide, B., a...

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Opinion Paper: Forest Management and Biodiversity : Volume 14, Iss...

By: E. D. Schulze; H. Walentowski; O. Bouriaud; L. Bouriaud; D. Hessenmöller; K. V. Gadow; H. Bussler; M. Gossner

Description: Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, P.O. Box 100164, 07701 Jena, Germany. In this opinion paper we investigate the effects of forest management on animal and plant biodiversity by comparing protected areas with intensively and extensively managed forests in Germany and in Romania. We want to know the extent to which differences in diversity of Romanian compared to German forests are based on management.

The number of tree species was not...

Gossner, M. M., Lachat, T., Brunet, J., Isacsson, G., Bouget, C., Brustel, H., Brandl, R., Weisser W. W., and Müller, J.: Current near-to-nature forest management effects on functional trait composition of saproxylic beetles in beech forests, Conserv. Biol., 27, 605–614, 2013.; Greenpeace, Forest Cover changes in Romania in 2000–2011, http://www.greenpeac...

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Comment on Opinion Paper: Forest Management and Biodiversity: the ...

By: V. Trotsiuk; M. Svoboda; D. Kraus; V. Pouska; P. Janda; H. Mrhalová; L. Rozylowicz; F. Krumm; Z. Michalová; R. C. Morrissey; J. Müller; C. Bässler; D. C. Donato; T. A. Nagel; J. Knorn; C. M. Enescu; V. D. Popescu; M. Mikoláš; W. S. Keeton

Description: Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Kamýcká 129, 16521 Praha 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic. No abstract available.

Berglund, H. and Jonsson, B. G.: Verifying an extinction debt among lichens and fungi in northern Swedish boreal forests, Conserv. Biol., 19, 338–348, 2005.; Bobiec, A.: The mosaic diversity of field layer vegetation in the natural and exploited forests of Białowie\.{z}a, Plant Ecol., 136, 175–175, 1998.; Bollmann, K. and Braunisch, V.: To integrate or to segregate: balancing commodity production and biodiversity conservation in European forests, in: Integrative approach...

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World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 402: Gene...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

1. INTRODUCTION This report surveys current knowledge of genetic factors controlling immune responses. It covers areas in which immunology and genetics overlap and complement one another. Other disciplines have also contributed essential information ; immune responses require,, for example, cell division and protein synthesis, and any factor affecting those processes will alter the responses. However, such general influences are not discussed in the report, which is main...

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Technical Note: Approximate Bayesian Parameterization of a Process...

By: T. Wiegand; A. Huth; C. Dislich; F. Hartig

Description: UFZ – Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Ecological Modelling, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany. Inverse parameter estimation of process-based models is a long-standing problem in many scientific disciplines. A key question for inverse parameter estimation is how to define the metric that quantifies how well model predictions fit to the data. This metric can be expressed by general cost or objective functions, but statistic...

Beaumont, M. A.: Approximate Bayesian computation in evolution and ecology, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst., 41, 379–406, 2010.; Blum, M. G. B., Nunes, M. A., Prangle, D., and Sisson, S. A.: A comparative review of dimension reduction methods in approximate Bayesian computation, Stat. Sci., 28, 189–208, 2013.; Bossel, H.: Real-structure process description as the basis of understanding ecosystems and their development, Ecol. Model., 63, 261–276, 1992.; Bugmann, H. K. M.: A ...

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Changes in the Spectrum and Rates of Extracellular Enzyme Activiti...

By: A. D. Steen; C. Arnosti; K. Ziervogel

Description: Department of Marine Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapman Hall, CB#3300, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3300, USA. Marine snow aggregates are heavily colonized by heterotrophic microorganisms that express high levels of hydrolytic activities, making aggregates hotspots for carbon remineralization in the ocean. To assess how aggregate formation influences the ability of seawater microbial communities to access organic carbon, we compared ...

Alderkamp, A. C., van Rijssel, M., and Bolhuis, H.: Characterization of marine bacteria and the activity of their enzyme systems involved in degradation of the algal storage glucan laminarin, FEMS Microbiol. Ecol., 59, 108–117, 2007.; Alldredge, A. L. and Gotschalk, C.: In situ settling behavior of marine snow, Limnol. Oceanogr., 33, 339–351, 1988.; Alldredge, A. L., Cole, J. J., and Caron, D. A.: Production of heterotrophic bacteria inhabiting macroscopic organic aggreg...

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Changes in the Spectrum and Rates of Extracellular Enzyme Activiti...

By: C. Arnosti; A. D. Steen; K. Ziervogel

Description: Department of Marine Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapman Hall, CB#3300, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3300, USA. Marine snow aggregates are heavily colonized by heterotrophic microorganisms that express high levels of hydrolytic activities, making aggregates hotspots for carbon remineralization in the ocean. To assess how aggregate formation influences the ability of seawater microbial communities to access organic carbon, we compared ...

Alderkamp, A. C., van Rijssel, M., and Bolhuis, H.: Characterization of marine bacteria and the activity of their enzyme systems involved in degradation of the algal storage glucan laminarin, FEMS Microbiol. Ecol., 59, 108–117, 2007.; Alldredge, A. L. and Gotschalk, C.: In situ settling behavior of marine snow, Limnol. Oceanogr., 33, 339–351, 1988.; Arnosti, C.: Measurement of depth- and site-related differences in polysaccharide hydrolysis rates in marine sediments, Geo...

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Vegetation and Proximity to the River Control Amorphous Silica Sto...

By: H. Backx; S. Jacobs; P. Meire; W. Opdekamp; E. Struyf; D. J. Conley

Description: Lund University, GeoBiosphere Science Centre, Department of Geology, Sölvegatan 12, 22362 Lund, Sweden. Wetlands can modify and control nutrient fluxes between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, yet little is known of their potential as biological buffers and sinks in the biogeochemical silica cycle. We investigated the storage of amorphous silica (ASi) in a central-European riparian wetland. The variation in storage of ASi in the soil o...

Asselman,~N E M. and Middelkoop,~H.: Floodplain Sedimentation – Quantities, Patterns and Processes, Earth Surf. Proc. Land, 20, 481–499, 1995.; Bartoli,~F. and Souchier,~B.: Cycle et rôle du silicium d'origine végétable dans les écosystèmes forestiers tempérés, Ann. Sci. For., 35, 187–202, 1978.; Bartoli~F.: The biogeochemical cycle of silicon in two temperate forest ecosystems, Ecol. Bull., 35, 469–476, 1983.; Beckwith,~R S. and Reeve,~R.: Studies on soluble silica in s...

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Data Mining and the Human Genome

By: Henry Abarbanel

Excerpt: As genomics research moves from an era of data acquisition to one of both acquisition and interpretation, new methods are required for organizing and prioritizing the data. These methods would allow an initial level of data analysis to be carried out before committing resources to a particular genetic locus. This JASON study sought to delineate the main problems that must be faced in bioinformatics and to identify information technologies that can help to overco...

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High Performance Biocomputation

By: Henry Abarbanel

Excerpt: This section summarizes the conclusions and recommendations of the 2004 JASON summer study commissioned by the Department of Energy (DOE) to explore the opportunities and challenges presented by applying advanced computational power and methodology to problems in the biological sciences. JASON was tasked to investigate the current suite of computationally intensive problems as well as potential future endeavors. JASON was also tasked to consider how advanced com...

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World Health Organization : Year 1996 ; World Health Organization,...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

During a consultation on the 11ewly reported variant of Creutzfeldt-lakob disease (CJD) and other human and animal Transmissible Spongifom Encephalopathies (TSE), which was convened in Geneva from 14 to 16 May 1996, a group of international experts rcviewed thc clinical and neuropathological characteristics of these diseases. The consultation was opened by Dr H. Nakajima, Director-Gencral of WHO, who stressed the importance of the subject in vicw of the putative associat...

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