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Physical Chemistry


Physical chemistry is the study of macroscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems in terms of physical laws and concepts. It applies the principles, practices and concepts of physics such as motion, energy, force, time, thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics and dynamics.

 
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The Organic Fraction of Bubble-generated, Accumulation Mode Sea Sp...

By: Z. D. Ristovski; B. Harris; R. L. Modini

Description: ILAQH, Queensland University of Technology, P.O. Box 4233, Brisbane QLD, 4001, Australia. Recent studies have detected a dominant accumulation mode (~100 nm) in the Sea Spray Aerosol (SSA) number distribution. There is evidence to suggest that particles in this mode are composed primarily of organics. To investigate this hypothesis we conducted experiments on NaCl, artificial SSA and natural SSA particles with a Volatility-Hygroscopic...

Albert, S., O'Neil, J. M., Udy, J. W., Ahern, K. S., O'Sullivan, C. M., and Dennison, W. C.: Blooms of the cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula in coastal Queensland, Australia: disparate sites, common factors, Mar. Pollut. Bull., 51, 428–437, 2005.; Andreae, M. O. and Rosenfeld, D.: Aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions, Part 1. The nature and sources of cloud-active aerosols, Earth-Sci. Rev., 89, 13–41, 2008.; Barker, D. R. and Zeitlin, H.: Metal-ion concentrations in s...

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A Marine Aerosol Reference Tank System as a Breaking Wave Analogue...

By: T. H. Bertram; G. B. Deane; M. D. Stokes; O. S. Ryder; J. M. Brady; M. J. Ruppel; K. Prather; D. Zhao

Description: Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA, USA. In order to better understand the processes governing the production of marine aerosols a repeatable, controlled method for their generation is required. The Marine Aerosol Reference Tank (MART) has been designed to closely approximate oceanic conditions by producing an evolving bubble plume and surface foam patch. The tank utilizes an intermittently plunging sheet of wa...

Bezzabotnov, V. S., Bortkovskii, R. S., and Timanovskii, D. F.: On the structure of the two-phase medium generated at wind-wave breaking, Izvestiya Akedemii Nauk SSR, Fizika Atmosfery I Okeana, 22, 1186–1193, 1986.; Bowyer, P. A.: Video measurements of near-surface bubble spectra, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 14179–14190, 2001.; Braban, C. F., Adams, J. W., Rodriguez, D., Cox, R. E., Crowley, J. N., and Schuster, G.: Heterogeneous reactions of HOI, ICl and IBr on sea salt and ...

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A Method for Sizing Submicrometer Particles in Air Collected on Fo...

By: K. Jansson; C. Leck; E. Hamacher-barth

Description: Department of Meteorology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden. A method was developed to systematically investigate individual aerosol particles collected onto a polyvinyl formal (Formvar)-coated copper grid with scanning electron microscopy. At very mild conditions with a low accelerating voltage of 2 kV and Gentle Beam mode aerosol particles down to 20 nm in diameter can be observed. Subsequent processing of the images with digital image analysis...

Allen, T.: Particle Size Measurement, Vol. 1, Chapman & Hall, London, 1997.; Andreae, M. O. and Crutzen, P. J.: Atmospheric aerosols: biogeochemical sources and role in atmospheric chemistry, Science, 276, 1052–1058, 1997.; Baker, M. B.: Cloud microphysics and climate, Science, 276, 1072–1078, 1997.; Bigg, E. K. and Leck, C.: Properties of the aerosol over the central Arctic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 32101–32109, 2001a.; Bigg, E. K. and Leck, C.: Cloud active particl...

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Laboratory-generated Primary Marine Aerosol Via Bubble-bursting an...

By: D. Green; G. McFiggans; H. Coe; E. Fuentes

Description: Centre for Atmospheric Sciences, School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, Manchester M13 9PL, UK. A range of bubble and sea spray aerosol generators has been tested in the laboratory and compared with ocean measurements. We have shown that the method of generation has a significant influence on the properties of the aerosol particles produced. Hence, the validity of a generation system to mimic atmospheric aerosol is dependent on its capac...

de Leeuw, G. and Cohen, L. H.: Bubble size distributions on the North atlantic and North Sea, Geophysical monograph, Am. Geo. Union, 127, 271–277, 2002.; Aluwihare, L. I. and Repeta, D. J.: A comparison of the chemical characteristics of oceanic DOM and extracellular DOM produced by marine algae, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 186, 105–117, 1999.; Batchelor, G. K.: An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1967.; Blanchard, D. C.: Sea-to-air trans...

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A Marine Aerosol Reference Tank System as a Breaking Wave Analogue...

By: G. B. Deane; K. Prather; O. S. Ryder; T. H. Bertram; J. M. Brady; M. D. Stokes; M. J. Ruppel; D. Zhao

Description: Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA, USA. In order to better understand the processes governing the production of marine aerosols a repeatable, controlled method for their generation is required. The Marine Aerosol Reference Tank (MART) has been designed to closely approximate oceanic conditions by producing an evolving bubble plume and surface foam patch. The tank utilizes an intermittently plunging sheet of wa...

Bezzabotnov, V. S., Bortkovskii, R. S., and Timanovskii, D. F.: On the structure of the two-phase medium generated at wind-wave breaking, Izvestiya Akedemii Nauk SSR, Fizika Atmosfery I Okeana, 22, 1186–1193, 1986.; Bowyer, P. A.: Video measurements of near-surface bubble spectra, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 14179–14190, 2001.; Braban, C. F, Adams, J. W., Rodriguez, D., Cox, R. E., Crowley, J. N., and Schuster, G.: Heterogeneous reactions of HOI, ICl and IBr on sea salt and s...

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Phosphorus Recycling in Sediments of the Central Baltic Sea : Volu...

By: M. Kononets; M. Nilsson; N. Ekeroth; L. Viktorsson; P. O. J. Hall

Description: University of Gothenburg, Department of Earth Sciences, Sweden. Benthic fluxes of phosphorus (P) were measured in situ in the Eastern Gotland Basin (EGB), central Baltic Sea, using benthic landers. A total of 40 flux measurements of dissolved inorganic P (DIP) on 13 stations at water depths ranging 30–210 m and under different oxygen regimes were carried out on three cruises during three consecutive years (2008–2010) in August–September. Our study is th...

Almroth, E., Tengberg, A., Andersson, J. H., Pakhomova, S., and Hall, P. O.: Effects of resuspension on benthic fluxes of oxygen, nutrients, dissolved inorganic carbon, iron and manganese in the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea, Cont. Shelf. Res., 29, 807–818, doi:10.1016/j.csr.2008.12.011, 2009.; Anderson, L. G., Hall, P. O. J., Iverfeldt, A., Rutgers van der Loeff, M. M., Sundby, B., and Westerlund, S. F. G.: Benthic R...

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Atmospheric Water-soluble Organic Nitrogen (Wson) Over Marine Envi...

By: J. Sciare; N. Mihalopoulos; J. Williams; K. Violaki; A. R. Baker; M. Martino

Description: Environmental Chemistry Processes Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, 71003 Heraklion, Greece. To obtain a comprehensive picture of the spatial distribution of water-soluble organic nitrogen (WSON) in marine aerosols, samples were collected during research cruises in the tropical and southern Atlantic Ocean and also in the southern Indian Ocean (Amsterdam Island) for a 1-year period (2005). Samples were analyzed for bo...

Altieri, K. E., Hastings, M. G., Peters, A. J., and Sigman, D. M.: Molecular characterization of water soluble organic nitrogen in marine rainwater by ultra-high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 3557–3571, doi:10.5194/acp-12-3557-2012, 2012.; Altieri, K. E., Hastings, M. G., Peters, A. J., Oleynik, S., and Sigman, D. M.: Isotopic evidence for a marine ammonium source in ra...

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Iron Profiles and Speciation of the Upper Water Column at the Berm...

By: A. Oschlies; C. Völker; H. Burchard; L. Weber

Description: National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, UK. A one-dimensional model of the biogeochemistry and speciation of iron is coupled with the General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM) and a NPZD-type ecosystem model. The model is able to simulate the temporal patterns and vertical profiles of dissolved iron (dFe) in the upper ocean at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site reasonably well. Subsurface model profiles strongly depend on the parameter values ...

Baker, A., Jickells, T., Witt, M., and Linge, K.: Trends in the solubility of iron, aluminium, manganese and phosphorus in aerosol collected over the Atlantic Ocean, Mar. Chem., 98, 43–58, 2006.; Barbeau, K. and Moffett, J.: Dissolution of iron oxides by phagotrophic protists: Using a novel method to quantify reaction rates, Environ. Sci. Technol., 32, 2969–2975, 1998.; Barbeau, K., Rue, E., Trick, C., Bruland, K., and Butler, A.: Photochemical reactivity of siderophores...

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A Possible Role of Ground-based Microorganisms on Cloud Formation ...

By: M. Hultberg; E. D. Nilsson; T. Alsberg; P. Artaxo; S. Ekström; J. Magnér; B. Nozière

Description: Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Svante Arrhenius väg 8, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. The formation of clouds is an important process for the atmosphere, the hydrological cycle, and climate, but some aspects of it are not completely understood. In this work, we show that microorganisms might affect cloud formation without leaving the Earth's surface by releasing biological surfactants (or biosurfactants) in the enviro...

Ahern, H. E., Walsh, K. A., Hill, T. C. J., and Moffett, B. F.: Fluorescent pseudomonads isolated from Hebridean cloud and rain water produce biosurfactants but do not cause ice nucleation, Biogeosciences, 4, 115–124, 2007.; Asa-Awuku, A., Sullivan, A. P., Hennigan, C. J., Weber, R. J., and Nenes, A.: Investigation of molar volume and surfactant characteristics of water-soluble organic compounds in biomass burning aerosol, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 799–812, 2008.; Bauer, H....

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Towards Accounting for Dissolved Iron Speciation in Global Ocean M...

By: C. Völker; A. Tagliabue

Description: Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, IPSL-CEA-CNRS-UVSQ Orme des Merisiers, 91198, Gif sur Yvette, France. The trace metal iron (Fe) is now routinely included in state-of-the-art ocean general circulation and biogeochemistry models (OGCBMs) because of its key role as a limiting nutrient in regions of the world ocean important for carbon cycling and air-sea CO2 exchange. However, the complexities of the seawater Fe cycle, w...

Aumont, O. and Bopp, L.: Globalizing results from ocean in situ iron fertilization studies, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 20, GB2017, doi:10.1029/2005GB002591, 2006.; Aumont, O., Orr, J., Monfray, P., Ludwig, W., Amiotte-Suchet, P., and Probust, J. L.: Riverine-Driven Interhemispheric Transport of Carbon, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 15, 393–405, 2001.; Aumont, O., Bopp, L., and Schulz, M.: What does temporal variability in aeolian...

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Increasing Iron Concentrations in Surface Waters – a Factor Behind...

By: S. M. Ekström; E. S. Kritzberg

Description: Department of Biology/Aquatic Ecology, Lund University, Sölvegatan 37, 223 62 Lund, Sweden. Browning of inland waters has been noted over large parts of the Northern hemisphere and is a phenomenon with both ecological and societal consequences. The increase in water color is generally ascribed to increasing concentrations of dissolved organic matter of terrestrial origin. However, oftentimes the increase in water color is larger than that of organic mat...

Chow, A. T., Dahlgren, R. A., and Harrison, J. A.: Watershed sources of disinfection byproduct precursors in the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers, California, Environ. Sci. Technol., 41, 7645–7652, 2007.; Correll, D. L., Jordan, T. E., and Weller, D. E.: Effects of precipitation, air temperature, and land use on organic carbon discharges from rhode river watersheds, Water, Air Soil Poll., 128, 139-159, 2001.; Dillon, P. J. and Molot, L. A.: Effect of landscape form on e...

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Dissolved Organic Matter in Sea Spray: a Transfer Study from Marin...

By: G. Liger-belair; M. Harir; R. Flerus; B. P. Koch; I. Gebefügi; P. Schmitt-kopplin; B. Kanawati; D. Tziotis; G. Kattner; N. Hertkorn; M. Lucio

Description: Research Unit Analytical Biogeochemistry, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany. Atmospheric aerosols impose direct and indirect effects on the climate system, for example, by absorption of radiation in relation to cloud droplets size, on chemical and organic composition and cloud dynamics. The first step in the formation of Organic primary aerosols, i.e. the transfer of dissolved organic matter from the marine sur...

Backleh-Sohrt, M., Ekici, P., Leupold, G., and Parlar, H.: Efficiency of foam fractionation for the enrichment of nonpolar compounds from aqueous extracts of plant materials, J. Nat. Prod., 68, 1386–1389, 2005.; Bajt, O., Sket, B., and Faganeli, J.: The aqueous photochemical transformation of acrylic acid, Mar. Chem., 58, 255–259, 1997.; Barger, W. R. and Garret, W. D.: Surface-active organic material in the marine atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 75, 4561–4566, 1970.; Blan...

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Distributions of Low Molecular Weight Dicarboxylic Acids, Ketoacid...

By: K. Ono; K. Kawamura; B. Charriére; R. Sempéré; E. Tachibana

Description: Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0819, Japan. Oxalic and other small dicarboxylic acids have been reported as important water-soluble organic constituents of atmospheric aerosols from different environments. Their molecular distributions are generally characterized by the predominance of oxalic acid (C2) followed by malonic (C3) and/or succinic (C4) acids. In this study, we collected ...

Aggarwal, S. G. and Kawamura, K.: Molecular distributions and stable carbon isotopic compositions of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds in aerosols from Sapporo, Japan: Implications for photochemical aging during long-range atmospheric transport, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 113, D14301, doi:10.1029/2007jd009365, 2008.; Barrie, L. A.: Arctic air pollution: an overview of current knowledge, Atmos. Environ., 20, 643–663,...

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Absorption Features of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (Cdom...

By: X. Chen; H. Deng; Y. Du; X. Y. Zhang; H. Y. Jin

Description: Department of Earth Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) represents the light absorbing fraction of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Studies have shown that the optical properties of CDOM can be used to infer the distribution and diffusion characteristics of DOC in the estuary and coastal zone. The inversion of DOC concentrations from remote sensing has been implemented in certain regions. In th...

Blough, N., Zafiriou, O., and Bonilla, J.: Optical absorption spectra of waters from the Orinoco River outflow: terrestrial input of colored organic matter to the Caribbean, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 2271–2278, 1993.; Carder, K. L., Steward, R. G., Harvey, G. R., and Ortner, P. B.: Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll, Limnol. Oceanogr., 34, 68–81, 1989.; Astoreca, R., Rousseau, V., and Lancelot, C.: Coloured dissolved organic m...

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Atmospheric Water Soluble Organic Nitrogen (Wson) Over Marine Envi...

By: J. Sciare; N. Mihalopoulos; J. Williams; A. R. Baker; M. Martino; K. Violaki

Description: Environmental Chemistry Processes Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, 71003 Heraklion, Greece. To obtain a comprehensive picture on the spatial distribution of water soluble organic nitrogen (WSON) in marine aerosols, samples were collected during research cruises in the tropical and south Atlantic Ocean and during a one year period (2005) over the southern Indian Ocean (Amsterdam island). Samples have been analyz...

Altieri, K. E., Hastings, M. G., Peters, A. J., and Sigman, D. M.: Molecular characterization of water soluble organic nitrogen in marine rainwater by ultra-high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 3557–3571, doi:10.5194/acp-12-3557-2012, 2012.; Andreae, M. O.: Aerosols before pollution, Science, 315, 50–51, doi:10.1126/scienc...

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Effect of Ammonium Input Over the Distribution of Iron in the Seaw...

By: J. L. Iriarte; N. Bizsel; M. V. Ardelan; N. Sanchez

Description: Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Department of Chemistry, Trondheim 7491, Norway. The distribution and concentration of iron in seawater and plankton were studied under different ammonium concentrations along a 22 day mesocosm experiment in order to assess possible effects of aquaculture over the phytoplankton and the biogeochemistry in fjords of Chile. Brackish and marine water were used in two different setups, each one with...

Ardelan, M. V., Steinnes, E., Lierhagen, S., and Linde, S. O.: Effects of experimental CO2 leakage on solubility and transport of seven trace metals in seawater and sediment, Sci. Total Environ., 407, 6255–6266, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.09.004, 2009.; Ardelan, M. V., Holm-Hansen, O., Hewes, C. D., Reiss, C. S., Silva, N. S., Dulaiova, H., Steinnes, E., and Sakshaug, E.: Natural iron enrichment a...

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Salinization Alters Fluxes of Bioreactive Elements from Streams an...

By: S. S. Kaushal; S.-w. Duan

Description: Department of Geology and Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA. There has been increased salinization of fresh water over decades due to the use of road salt deicers, wastewater discharges, human-accelerated weathering, and groundwater irrigation. The effects of increased salinization on biogeochemical cycles in freshwater ecosystems are still not well understood. We investigated potential impacts o...

Agren, A. M., Haei, M., Blomkvist, P., Nilsson, M. B., and Laudon, H.: Soil frost enhances stream dissolved organic carbon concentrations during episodic spring snow melt from boreal mires, Global Change Biol., 18, 1895–1903, 2012.; Aiken, G. R., McKnight, D. M., Wershaw, R. L., and MacCarthy, P.: Humic Substances in Soil, Sediment, and Water: Geochemistry, Isolation and Characterization, Wiley, New York, 1985.; Aitkenhead-Peterson, J. A., Steele, M. K., Nahar, N., and S...

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Seasonal Hydrology Drives Rapid Shifts in the Flux and Composition...

By: V. Galy; R. G. M. Spencer; T. I. Eglinton; S. L. Gillies; J. Fanslau; E. Bulygina; D. B. Montluçon; R. Luymes; B. Peucker-ehrenbrink; S. Marsh; A. Epp; B. M. Voss; C. H. Lamborg; P. M. Ganguli

Description: Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 360 Woods Hole Road, Woods Hole MA 02543, USA. Rapid changes in the volume and sources of discharge during the spring freshet lead to pronounced variations in biogeochemical properties in snowmelt-dominated river basins. We used daily sampling during the onset of the freshet in the Fraser River (southwestern Canada) in 2013 to identify rapid changes in the flux and composition of dissolved material, with a focu...

Aiken, G. R., Hsu-Kim, H., and Ryan, J. N.: Influence of dissolved organic matter on the environmental fate of metals, nanoparticles, and colloids, Environ. Sci. Technol., 45, 3196–3201, doi:10.1021/es103992s, 2011.; Amos, H. M., Jacob, D. J., Kocman, D., Horowitz, H. M., Zhang, Y., Dutkiewicz, S., Horvat, M., Corbitt, E. S., Krabbenhoft, D. P., and Sunderland, E. M.: Global biogeochemical implications of mercury discharges...

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A Possible Role of Ground-based Microorganisms on Cloud Formation ...

By: E. D. Nilsson; B. Nozière; P. Artaxo; M. Hultberg; J. Magnér; S. Ekström; T. Alsberg

Description: Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Svante Arrhenius väg 8, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden. The formation of clouds is an important process for the atmosphere, the hydrological cycle, and climate, but also a difficult one to predict because some aspects of the transformations of aerosol particles into cloud droplets are still not well understood. In this work, we show that microorganisms might affect cloud formation without ...

Ahern, H. E., Walsh, K. A., Hill, T. C. J., and Moffett, B. F.: Fluorescent pseudomonads isolated from Hebridean cloud and rain water produce biosurfactants but do not cause ice nucleation, Biogeosciences, 4, 115–124, 2007.; Asa-Awuku, A., Sullivan, A. P., Hennigan, C. J., Weber, R. J., and Nenes, A.: Investigation of molar volume and surfactant characteristics of water-soluble organic compounds in biomass burning aerosol, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 799–812, 2008.; Bauer, H....

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Bioavailability of Organically Bound Fe to Model Phytoplankton of ...

By: V. Schoemann; C. S. Hassler

Description: Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research (CAWCR), a partnership between CSIRO and the Bureau of Meteorology, Castray Esplanade, Hobart, TAS, Australia. Iron (Fe) is known to be mostly bound to organic ligands and to limit primary productivity in the Southern Ocean. It is thus important to investigate the bioavailability of organically bound Fe. In this study, we used four keystone phytoplankton species of the Southern Ocean (Phaeocystis s...

Strzepek, R. F., Maldonado, M. T., Higgins, J. L., Hall, J., Safi, K., Wilhelm, S. W., and Boyd, P. W.: Spinning the Ferrous Wheel: The importance of the microbial community in an iron budget during the FeCycle experiment, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 19, GB4S26, doi:10.1029/2005GB002490, 2005.; Tang, D. and Morel, F. M. M.: Distinguishing between cellular and Fe-oxide-associated trace elements in phytoplankton, Mar. Chem., 98, 18–30, 2006.; Tian, F., Frew, R. D., Sander, ...

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