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Disarmament Documents


The United Nations International Disarmament Documents Collections are publications, documents, and reports is one of the most complete collections on international treaties, acts, and global assessment research reports ever assembled.

 
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Reduced Intellectual Development in Children with Prenatal Lead Ex...

By: Lourdes Schnaas

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: OBJECTIVE: Low-level postnatal lead exposure is associated with poor intellectual development in children, although effects of prenatal exposure are less well studied. We hypothesized that prenatal lead exposure would have a more powerful and lasting impact on child development than postnatal exposure. DESIGN: We used generalized linear mixed models with random intercept and slope to analyze the pattern of lead effect of the cohort from pregnancy through 10 year...

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Low-Level Ozone Exposure and Respiratory Symptoms in Infants

By: Elizabeth W. Triche

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: OBJECTIVE: Recent studies indicate that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ozone standards may not protect sensitive individuals. In this study we examined respiratory effects of ozone in infants who may be vulnerable, particularly if they are children of asthmatic mothers. DESIGN: Women delivering babies at one of five hospitals in southwestern Virginia between 1994 and 1996 were invited to participate in a cohort study; 780 women enrolled. Ambient ...

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National Prevalence and Exposure Risk for Cockroach Allergen in U....

By: Richard D. Cohn

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: We characterized the prevalence of cockroach allergen exposure in a nationally representative sample of U.S. homes and assessed risk factors for elevated concentrations. DESIGN: We used data from the National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing, a populationbased cross-sectional survey. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were residents of 831 U.S. homes in the survey. EVALUATIONS/MEASUREMENTS: We analyzed allergen, questionnaire, and observational data of 831 U.S. h...

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Elevated Levels of Urinary 8-Hydroxy-2-Deoxyguanosine, Lymphocytic...

By: Ai Lin Liu

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: To investigate associations among occupational exposure to coke oven emissions (COEs), oxidative stress, cytogenotoxic effects, change in the metabolizing enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST), and internal levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coke oven workers, we recruited 47 male coke oven workers and 31 male control subjects from a coke oven plant in northern China. We measured the levels of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguano...

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Perinatal Immunotoxicity : Why Adult Exposure Assessment Fails to ...

By: Rodney R. Dietert

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Recent research has pointed to the developing immune system as a remarkably sensitive toxicologic target for environmental chemicals and drugs. In fact, the perinatal period before and just after birth is replete with dynamic immune changes, many of which do not occur in adults. These include not only the basic maturation and distribution of immune cell types and selection against autoreactive lymphocytes but also changes designed specifically to protect the pre...

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Weather Variability, Tides, And Barmah Forest Virus Disease in the...

By: Suchithra Naish

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: In this study we examined the impact of weather variability and tides on the transmission of Barmah Forest virus (BFV) disease and developed a weather-based forecasting model for BFV disease in the Gladstone region, Australia. We used seasonal autoregressive integrated moving-average (SARIMA) models to determine the contribution of weather variables to BFV transmission after the time-series data of response and explanatory variables were made stationary through ...

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Comparison of Oxidative Properties, Light Absorbance, And Total an...

By: Nino Kunzli

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: OBJECTIVE: It has been proposed that the redox activity of particles may represent a major determinant of their toxicity. We measured the in vitro ability of ambient fine particles [particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters ? 2.5 micrometer (PM2.5)] to form hydroxyl radicals (?OH) in an oxidant environment, as well as to deplete physiologic antioxidants (ascorbic acid, glutathione) in the naturally reducing environment of the respiratory tract lining fluid (...

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Race, Poverty, And Potential Exposure of Middle-School Students to...

By: Maria C. Mirabelli

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Previous studies suggest that airborne effluent from swine confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) may affect the health and quality of life of adults and the prevalence of asthma symptoms among children. To investigate the extent to which public school students may be exposed to airborne effluent from swine CAFOs and to evaluate the association between schools demographic characteristics and swine CAFO exposures, we assessed the proximity of 226 schools to t...

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A Survival-Adjusted Quantal-Response Test for Analysis of Tumor In...

By: Shyamal D. Peddada

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: In rodent cancer bioassays, groups of animals are exposed to different doses of a chemical of interest and followed for tumor occurrence. The resulting tumor rates are commonly analyzed using a survival-adjusted Cochran-Armitage (CA) trend test. The CA trend test has reasonable power when the tumor-response curve is linear in dose, but it may be underpowered for a nonlinear response. An alternative survival-adjusted test procedure based on isotonic regression me...

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Methylarsonous Acid Transport by Aquaglyceroporins

By: Miroslav Styblo

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Many mammals methylate trivalent inorganic arsenic in liver to species that are released into the bloodstream and excreted in urine and feces. This study addresses how methylated arsenicals pass through cell membranes. We have previously shown that aquaglyceroporin channels, including Escherichia coli GlpF, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fps1p, AQP7, and AQP9 from rat and human, conduct trivalent inorganic arsenic [As(III)] as arsenic trioxide, the protonated form of ...

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Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Diox...

By: Sonomi Nakajima

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Several studies have shown that prenatal and/or postnatal background-level exposure to environmental chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins, induces adverse effects on the neurodevelopment of children. However, other studies have not detected any harmful influences on neurodevelopment. Furthermore, except in western countries, no developmental tests have been carried out in relation to detailed assessment of exposure to PCBs and dioxins....

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A Human-Health Risk Assessment for West Nile Virus and Insecticide...

By: Robert K. D. Peterson

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: West Nile virus (WNV) has been a major public health concern in North America since 1999, when the first outbreak in the Western Hemisphere occurred in New York City. As a result of this ongoing disease outbreak, management of mosquitoes that vector WNV throughout the United States and Canada has necessitated using insecticides in areas where they traditionally have not been used or have been used less frequently. This has resulted in concerns by the public abou...

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Impact of Pcb and P, P-Dde Contaminants on Human Sperm Y: X Chromo...

By: Tarmo Tiido

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: OBJECTIVE: Recent studies indicate that persistent organohalogen pollutants (POPs) may contribute to sex ratio changes in offspring of exposed populations. Our aim in the present study was to investigate whether exposure to 2,2,4,4,5,5-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-153) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (p,p-DDE) affects sperm Y:X chromosome distribution. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We obtained semen and blood for analysis of PCB-153 and p,p-DDE levels from 547 men from Sw...

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First Experimental Demonstration of the Multipotential Carcinogeni...

By: Morando Soffritti

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The Cesare Maltoni Cancer Research Center of the European Ramazzini Foundation has conducted a long-term bioassay on aspartame (APM), a widely used artificial sweetener. APM was administered with feed to 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats (100?150/sex/group), at concentrations of 100,000, 50,000, 10,000, 2,000, 400, 80, or 0 ppm. The treatment lasted until natural death, at which time all deceased animals underwent complete necropsy. Histopathologic evaluation of al...

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Chlorpyrifos Affects Phenotypic Outcomes in a Model of Mammalian N...

By: Ruth R. Jameson

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) adversely affects mammalian brain development through multiple mechanisms. To determine if CPF directly affects neuronal cell replication and phenotypic fate, and to identify the vulnerable stages of differentiation, we exposed PC12 cells, a model for mammalian neurodevelopment, to CPF concentrations spanning the threshold for cholinesterase inhibition (5?50 micrometer) and conducted evaluations during mitosis a...

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In Katrina’S

By: Patricia A. Enneking

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Hurricane Katrina has been called the most devastating natural environmental calamity in U.S. history. Visitors to the scene say the destruction is worse than anyone can imagine. Scientists also say that some perceived health threats have been overblown and others understated. Months after Katrina roared into the Gulf Coast, the environmental health implications of the storm are still being assessed. Katrina presented residents of the Gulf Coast with a bewilderi...

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Louisiana's a Lesson in Nature Appreciation

By: John Tibbetts

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Over the next two centuries, the city drained surrounding wetlands to prevent disease and encourage development. The city eliminated swamps following mosquito- borne yellow fever epidemics that killed 40,000 residents between 1817 and 1905. As the city grew, the only lands available for development were low-lying areas north toward Lake Pontchartrain. At the turn of the twentieth century, the city created an integrated public works department, which was responsi...

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Raising the Bar for Levees

By: Tim Lougheed

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Human beings have likely been battling rising waters since the dawn of organized agriculture. Farmers around the world have traditionally been drawn to the rich soils of floodplains, which are generally well worth the trouble occasionally caused by surrounding waterways. Densely populated urban areas subsequently grew up around many of these same places, attracted by additional assets such as access to fishing and easy navigation. These settlements often require...

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Newthinking on Neurodevelopment

By: Michael Szpir

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The notion that some substances in the environment can damage the nervous system has an ancient history. The neurotoxicity of lead was recognized more than 2,000 years ago by the Greek physician Dioscerides, who wrote, ?Lead makes the mind give way.? In the intervening millennia many other substances have been added to the list of known or suspected neurotoxicants. Despite this accumulation of knowledge, there is still much that isnt understood about how neuroto...

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Flu Vaccine Production Gets a Shot in the Arm

By: Ernie Hood

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The world is holding its collective breath. Governments and health organizations are feverishly preparing, stockpiling drugs and vaccines, and formulating contingency plans. Headlines are coughing out dire predictions of up to 100 million deaths worldwide and devastating economic consequences. Experts are chillingly warning that its not a matter of if, but when?when a pandemic of avian influenza will strike the human population. Although the H5N1 avian flu is al...

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