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Mathematics (179 Books)


The category of mathematics are works on the abstract study of subjects encompassing quantity, structure, space, change, and more; it has no generally accepted definition.

 
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Scientia Magna : An International Journal : Volume 2, No. 2, 2006

By: Shaanxi Xi'an, Editor

In the volume we assemble not only those papers which were presented at the conference but also those papers which were submitted later and are concerned with the Smarandache type problems. There are a few papers which are not directly related to but should fall within the scope of Smarandache type problems. They are 1. L. Liu and W. Zhou, On conjectures about the class number of binary quadratic forms; 2. W. Liang, An identity for Stirling numbers of the second kind; 3....

On Algebraic Multi-Vector Spaces Abstract A Smarandache multi-space is a union of n spaces A1;A2;An with some additional conditions hold. Combining these Smarandache multi-spaces with linear vector spaces in classical linear algebra, the conception of multi-vector spaces is introduced. Some characteristics of multi-vector spaces are obtained in this paper. Keywords Vector, multi-space, multi-vector space, dimension of a space. x1. Introduction These multi-spaces was ...

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Scientia Magna : An International Journal : Volume 2, No. 1, 2006

By: Shaanxi Xi'an, editor

Scientia Magna is published annually in 200-300 pages per volume and 1,000 copies on topics such as mathematics, physics, philosophy, psychology, sociology, and linguistics.

x1. Introduction The study of Smarandache loops was initiated by W.B. Vasantha Kandasamy in 2002. In her book [19], she defined a Smarandache loop (S-loop) as a loop with at least a subloop which forms a subgroup under the binary operation of the loop. For more on loops and their properties, readers should check [16], [3], [5], [8], [9] and [19]. In her book, she introduced over 75 Smarandache concepts on loops. In her ¯rst paper [20], she introduced Smarandache : left(...

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Scientia Magna : An International Journal : Volume 1, No. 2, 2005

By: Shaanxi Xi'an, Editor

Scientia Magna is published annually in 200-300 pages per volume and 1,000 copies on topics such as mathematics, physics, philosophy, psychology, sociology, and linguistics.

0. In 1999, the second author of this remarks published a book over 30 of Smarandache's problems in area of elementary number theory (see [1, 2]). After this, we worked over new 20 problems that we collected in our book [28]. These books contain Smarandache's problems, described in [10, 16]. The present paper contains some of the results from [28]. In [16] Florentin Smarandache formulated 105 unsolved problems, while in [10] C.Dumitresu and V. Seleacu formulated 140 unso...

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Scientia Magna : An International Journal : Volume 1, No. 1, 2005

By: Liu Yanni; Shaanxi Xi'an, editor

The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary method to study the mean value properties of the Smarandache function, and give an interesting asymptotic formula.

x1. Introduction In reference [1], the Smarandache Sum of Composites Between Factors function SCBF(n) is defined as: The sum of composite numbers between the smallest prime factor of n and the largest prime factor of n. For example, SCBF(14)=10, since 2£7 = 14 and the sum of the composites between 2 and 7 is: 4 + 6 = 10. In reference [2]: A number n is called simple number if the product of its proper divisors is less than or equal to n. Let A denotes set of all simple ...

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Romanul Care L-A Contrazis Pe Einstein : Culegere de Eseuri (Novel...

By: Marinela Preoteasa, Editor

În anul 1972 Florentin Smarandache prezentase o ipoteză supraluminala (prin care susţinea că nu există barieră a vitezei în univers), infirmând postulatul einsteinian. Autorul l-a contrazis din nou pe Einstein în 1982 construind, prin calcule matematice simple, o Teorie Absolută a Relativităţii (T.A.R.), din care erau înlăturate fanteziile ştiinţifice din Teoria Specială a Relativităţii precum dilatare a timpului, contractare a spaţiului, simultaneitate relativistă, sau ...

„Neutrosofia” deschide uşi noi în matematică şi în fizică Florentin Smarandache, şef de promoţie al Facultăţii de Matematică din Craiova, nu este doar matematician, ci şi scriitor (poet, prozator, dramaturg), întemeietor al mişcării literare de avangardă numită de el „Paradoxism” (pentru că utilizează în mod programmatic paradoxuri, antiteze, oximoroane), editând şase antologii internaţionale paradoxiste. Are contribuţii şi în alte ştiinţe (filozofie şi fizică), baza...

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Rank Distance Bicodes and Their Generalization

By: Florentin Smarandache; W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy

This book has four chapters. In chapter one we just recall the notion of RD codes, MRD codes, circulant rank codes and constant rank codes and describe their properties. In chapter two we introduce few new classes of codes and study some of their properties. In this chapter we introduce the notion of fuzzy RD codes and fuzzy RD bicodes. Rank distance m-codes are introduced in chapter three and the property of m-covering radius is analysed. Chapter four indicates some app...

DEFINITION 1.12: The ‘norm’ of a word v _ VN is defined as the ‘rank’ of v over GF(2) (By considering it as a circulant matrix over GF(2)). We denote the ‘norm’ of v by r(v). We just prove the following theorem. THEOREM 1.2: Suppose ____GF(2N) has the polynomial representation g(x) over GF(2) such that the gcd(g(x), xN +1) has degree N – k, where 0 _ k _ N. Then the ‘norm’ of the word generated by _ is ‘k’.

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Quasi Set Topological Vector Subspaces

By: Florentin Smarandache; W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy

Chapter one is introductory in nature and chapter two uses vector spaces to build quasi set topological vector subspaces. Not only we use vector spaces but we also use S-vector spaces, set vector spaces, semigroup vector spaces and group vector spaces to build set topological vector subspaces. These also give several finite set topological spaces. Such study is carried out in chapters three and four.

To every quasi set topological vector subspace T relative to the set P  F, we have a lattice associated with it we call this lattice as the Representative Quasi Set Topological Vector subspace lattice (RQTV-lattice) of T relative to P. When T is finite we have a nice representation of them. In case T is infinite we have a lattice which is of infinite order. We can in all cases give the atoms of the lattice which is in fact the basic set of T over P. It is pertinent ...

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Proceedings of the Introduction to Neutrosophic Physics : Unmatter...

By: Florentin Smarandache, Editor

Neutrosophic Physics. Let be a physical entity (i.e. concept, notion, object, space, field, idea, law, property, state, attribute, theorem, theory, etc.), be the opposite of , and be their neutral (i.e. neither nor but in between). Neutrosophic Physics is a mixture of two or three of these entities , , and that hold together. Therefore, we can have neutrosophic fields, and neutrosophic objects, neutrosophic states, etc. Neutrosophic Physics is an exten...

2. The Gist of the Present Epistemology: The Surjective Qualon “Mere eruditic logic often turns – as has been generically said – philosophy into folly, science into superstition, and art into pedantry. How far away from creation and solitude, from play and imagination, from day and night, from noon and silhouette it is! How Genius is precisely everything other than being merely situational, alone as the Universe.” Herein we present a four-fold asymmetric theory of R...

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Research on Number Theory and Smarandache Notions : Proceedings of...

By: Florentin Smarandache; Zhang Wenpeng, Editor

This book contains 23 papers, most of which were written by participants to the fifth International Conference on Number Theory and Smarandache Notions held in Shangluo University, China, in March, 2009. In this Conference, several professors gave a talk on Smarandache Notions and many participants lectured on them both extensively and intensively. All these papers are original and have been refereed. The themes of these papers range from the mean value or hybrid mean va...

3. Remarks Sandor [2] has considered the problem of finding the S-perfect and completely S-perfect numbers, but his proof is not complete. He has proved that the only S-perfect of the form n = p q is n = 6 and there is no S-perfect number of the form n = 2kq where k ¸ 2 is an integer and q is an odd prime. On the other hand, Theorem 2.1 gives all the S-perfect numbers. Again, Sandor only proved that, the only completely S-perfect number of the form n = p2q is n = 28, an...

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Sixth International Anthology on Paradoxism

By: Florentin Smarandache, Editor

This is an amazing little volume and a paradox all of its own. It is published in the United States, in a French translation of a compilation of essays from the original Romanian made jointly by Paul Georgelin and the man it is all about: Smarandache.

POEMATIO LUDENS A1. En bas d’en haut Rien n’est plus beau En haut d’en bas… Quel bla bla bla : Règnent Ne et Pas !

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Reservation for Other Backward Classes in Indian Central Governmen...

By: Florentin Smarandache; W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy

This book has four chapters. In chapter one the authors introduce the three types of super FRM models. Chapter two uses these three new super fuzzy models to study the role of media which feverishly argued against 27 percent reservation for OBCs in Central Government-run institutions in India. The experts we consulted were divided into 19 groups depending on their profession. These groups of experts gave their opinion and comments on the news-items that appeared about re...

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Notes on Number Theory and Discrete Mathematics : Volume 9, Number 2

By: Various

A short collection of mathematical papers from various authors relating to Florentin Smaradache's theories.

This dual will be studied in a separate paper (in preparation). 2. The additive analogues of the functions 5 and 5. are real variable functions, and have been defined and studied in paper [31. (See also one book [61, pp. 171-174). These functions have been recently further extended, by the use of Euler's gamma function, ill place of the factorial (see [1]). We note that in what follows, we could define also the additive analogues functions by the use of Euler's gamma ...

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Non-Associative Linear Algebras

By: Florentin Smarandache; W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy

This book has six chapters. First chapter is introductory in nature. The new concept of non-associative semi-linear algebras is introduced in chapter two. This structure is built using groupoids over semi-fields. Third chapter introduces the notion of non-associative linear algebras. These algebraic structures are built using the new class of loops. All these non-associative linear algebras are defined over the prime characteristic field Zp, p a prime. However if we take...

Ln(m) is a loop of order n + 1 that is Ln(m) is always of even order greater than or equal to 6. For more about these loops please refer [37]. All properties discussed in case of groupoids can be done for the case of loops. However the resultant product may not be a loop in general. For the concept of semifield refer [41]. We will be using these loops and groupoids to build linear algebra and semilinear algebras which are non associative.

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Non Associative Algebraic Structures Using Finite Complex Numbers

By: Florentin Smarandache; W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy

This book has six chapters. The first one is introductory in nature. Second chapter introduces complex modulo integer groupoids and complex modulo integer loops using C(Zn). This chapter gives 77 examples and forty theorems. Chapter three introduces the notion of nonassociative complex rings both finite and infinite using complex groupoids and complex loops. This chapter gives over 120 examples and thirty theorems. Forth chapter introduces nonassociative structures us...

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New Relativistic Paradoxes and Open Questions

By: Florentin Smarandache

In chapter 1, following the Special Theory of Relativity, we generalize the Lorentz Contraction Factor C(v) to an Oblique-Contraction Factor OC(v, θ), which gives the contraction factor of the lengths moving at an oblique angle with respect to the motion direction. In the chapters 2-5 we show several inconsistencies, contradictions, and anomalies in the Special and General Theories of Relativity

1.3. Oblique-Length Contraction Factor The Special Theory of Relativity asserts that all lengths in the direction of motion are contracted, while the lengths at right angles to the motion are unaffected. But it didn’t say anything about lengths at oblique angle to the motion (i.e. neither perpendicular to, nor along the motion direction), how would they behave? This is a generalization of Galilean Relativity, i.e. we consider the oblique lengths. The length contracti...

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New Classes of Neutrosophic Linear Algebras

By: Florentin Smarandache; W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy

This book is organized into seven chapters. Chapter one is introductory in content. The notion of neutrosophic set linear algebras and neutrosophic neutrosophic set linear algebras are introduced and their properties analysed in chapter two. Chapter three introduces the notion of neutrosophic semigroup linear algebras and neutrosophic group linear algebras. A study of their substructures are systematically carried out in this chapter. The fuzzy analogue of neutrosophic g...

Now we proceed onto define the notion of neutrosophic subgroup of a neutrosophic group. DEFINITION 1.2: Let N(G) = (GuI) be a neutrosophic group generated by G and I. A proper subset P(G) is said to be a neutrosophic subgroup if P(G) is a neutrosophic group i.e. P(G) must contain a (sub) group. Example 1.3: Let N(Z2) = 􀂢Z2 􀂉 I􀂲 be a neutrosophic group under addition. N(Z2) = {0, 1, I, 1 + I}. Now we see {0, I} is a group under + in fact a neutrosophic group {0, ...

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Neutrosophic Interpretation of Tao Te Ching

By: Florentin Smarandache

Our book will update the old Chinese thinking in Tao Te Ching to the modern way of life, where contradictions are accepted and two opposite ideas 'A' and 'nonA' and their neutrality 'neutA' can all three be true at the same time. Firstly, we are willing to point out that 'Tao Te Ching' already has some limitation, because many questions we are interested in cannot be answered within 'Tao Te Ching'. For example, 'Tao Te Ching' basically discussed the matters in China, how...

Positive (Original) Chapter 1 The Way that can be followed is not the eternal Way. The name that can be called is not the eternal name. The Principle that can be explained is not the eternal Principle. “Nonexistence” is the name of the origin of heaven and earth; “Existence” is the name of creating the myriad things. Therefore, the essence of Principle always can be seen from “Nonexistence”; The operation of Principle always can be seen from “Existence”. These tw...

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Neutrosophic Rings

By: Florentin Smarandache; W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy

This book has four chapters. Chapter one is introductory in nature, for it recalls some basic definitions essential to make the book a self-contained one. Chapter two, introduces for the first time the new notion of neutrosophic rings and some special neutrosophic rings like neutrosophic ring of matrix and neutrosophic polynomial rings. Chapter three gives some new classes of neutrosophic rings like group neutrosophic rings, neutrosophic group neutrosophic rings, semigro...

Now we proceed onto define the notion of neutrosophic subgroup of a neutrosophic group. DEFINITION 1.1.2: Let N(G) = 〈G ∪ I〉 be a neutrosophic group generated by G and I. A proper subset P(G) is said to be a neutrosophic subgroup if P(G) is a neutrosophic group i.e. P(G) must contain a (sub) group. Example 1.1.3: Let N(Z2) = 〈Z2 ∪ I〉 be a neutrosophic group under addition. N(Z2) = {0, 1, I, 1 + I}. Now we see {0, I} is a group under + in fact a neutrosophic group {...

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Neutrosophic Book Series : Neutrosophic Methods in General Relativ...

By: Florentin Smarandache; Dmitri Rabounski

In this work the authors apply concepts of Neutrosophic Logic to the General Theory of Relativity to obtain a generalisation of Einstein’s four dimensional pseudo-Riemannian differentiable manifold in terms of Smarandache Geometry (Smarandache manifolds), by which new classes of relativistic particles and non-quantum teleportation are developed.

1.2 The basics of neutrosophy Neutrosophy studies the origin, nature, and scope of neutralities, as well as their interactions with different ideational spectra. It considers that every idea tends to be neutralized, balanced by ideas; as a state of equilibrium. Neutrosophy is the basis of neutrosophic logic, neutrosophic set which generalizes the fuzzy set, and of neutrosphic probability and neutrosophic statistics, which generalize the classical and imprecise pr...

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Neutrosophic Physics : More Problems, More Solutions

By: Florentin Smarandache, Editor

Research papers presented in this collection manifest only a few of many possible applications of neutrosophic logics to theoretical physics. Most of these applications target the theory of relativity and quantum physics, but other sections of physics are also possible to be considered.

We apply the S-denying procedure to signature conditions in a four-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian space — i. e. we change one (or even all) of the conditions to be partially true and partially false. We obtain five kinds of expanded space-time for General Relativity. Kind I permits the space-time to be in collapse. Kind II permits the space-time to change its own signature. Kind III has peculiarities, linked to the third signature condition. Kind IV permits regions where ...

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