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Martial Arts for Health : Translating Reserach into Practice

By: Shirley S.M. Fong

Martial arts were developed for use on the battlefield in ancient times, and even in the modern world many people learn such skills for self-defense [1]. Despite their combative nature, training in marital arts is safe compared with many other contact sports. The use of protective equipment such as mouth guards and headgear is mandatory during sparring, and practitioners must follow strict competition rules in many types of martial arts [2]. In addition, some types of martial arts such as Tai Chi and Qigong are noncombative in nature, with practitioners focusing on coordinated movements and relaxation during practice – all of which are beneficial to practitioners’ health [1,3]. These days, the popularity of martial arts is increasing, particularly among young people [4]. There are about 200 distinct martial arts types or disciplines around the world, each with its own training characteristics and philosophy [5]. Only the most common types of Oriental and Western martial arts and their associated health effects are introduced in this book. These martial disciplines include the internal (e.g. Tai Chi and Qigong) and external ...

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Exposure of the American People to Iodine-131 from Nevada Nuclear-bomb Tests : Review of the National Cancer Institute Report and Public Health Implications

By: National Academies Press US

Description: On January 27, 1951, the United States began a program of atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons-related devices in Nevada that continued intermittently until August 5, 1963, when the Limited Test Ban Treaty was signed. For nearly fifty years...

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Sources and Transport of Δ14C on Co2 Within the Mexico City Basin and Vicinity : Volume 9, Issue 2 (17/03/2009)

By: Y. Choi; D. R. Blake; S. A. Vay; S. C. Tyler; N. J. Blake; G. W. Sachse; G. S. Diskin; H. B. Singh

Description: NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, USA. Radiocarbon samples taken over Mexico City and the surrounding region during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 exhibited an unexpected distribution: (1) relatively few samples (23%) were below the North American free tropospheric background value (57‰) despite the fossil fuel emissions from one of the world's most highly polluted environments; and (2) frequent enrichment well above the background value was observed. Correlate source tracer species and air transport characteristics were examined to elucidate influences on the radiocarbon distribution. Our analysis suggests that a combination of radiocarbon sources biased the regional radiocarbon background above the North American value thereby decreasing the apparent fossil fuel signature. These sources included the release of bomb or hot radiocarbon sequestered in plant carbon pools via the ubiquitous biomass burning in the region as well as the direct release of radiocarbon as CO2. Plausible large local perturbations include the burning of hazardous waste in cement kilns; medical was...

Anderson, B. E., Gregory, G. L., Collins, J. E. Jr., Sachse, G. W., Conway, T. J., and Whiting, G. P.: Airborne observations of spatial and temporal variability of tropospheric carbon dioxide, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 1985–1997, 1996.; Blake, D. R. and Rowland, F. S.: Urban leakage of Liquefied Petroleum Gas and its Impact on Mexico City Air Quality, Science, 269, 953–956, 1995.; Christen, K.: Environmental Impacts of Gas Flaring, Venting add up, Environ. Sci. Technol., 38(24), p. 480A, 2004.; Collins, C. O. and Scott, S. L.: Air Pollution in the Valley of Mexico, Geogr. Rev., 83(2), 119–133, 1993.; Crounse, J. D., DeCarlo, P. F., Blake, D. R., Emmons, L. K., Campos, T. L., Apel, E. C., Clarke, A. D., Weinheimer, A. J., McCabe, D. C., Yokelson, R. J., Jimenez, J. L., and Wennberg, P. O.: Biomass burning and urban air pollution over the Central Mexican Plateau, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 9, 2699–2734, 2009.; De Bauer, L. I. and Krupa, S. V.: Valley of Mexico: summary of observational studies on its air quality and effects on vegetation, Environ. Pollut., 65, 109–118, 1990.; Gaffney, J. S., Marley, N. A., Tackett, M., Gunawan, G., Stu...

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Sources and Transport of Δ14C in Co2 Within the Mexico City Basin and Vicinity : Volume 9, Issue 14 (27/07/2009)

By: S. C. Tyler; G. W. Sachse; S. A. Vay; N. J. Blake; Y. Choi; D. R. Blake; G. S. Diskin; H. B. Singh

Description: NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, USA. Radiocarbon samples taken over Mexico City and the surrounding region during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 exhibited an unexpected distribution: (1) relatively few samples (23%) were below the North American free tropospheric background value (57±2‰) despite the fossil fuel emissions from one of the world's most highly polluted environments; and (2) frequent enrichment well above the background value was observed. Correlate source tracer species and air transport characteristics were examined to elucidate influences on the radiocarbon distribution. Our analysis suggests that a combination of radiocarbon sources biased the regional radiocarbon background above the North American value thereby decreasing the apparent fossil fuel signature. Likely sources include the release of 14C-enhanced carbon from bomb 14C sequestered in plant carbon pools via the ubiquitous biomass burning in the region as well as the direct release of radiocarbon as CO2 from other hot sources. Plausible perturbations from local point hot s...

Amiro, B. D., Todd, J. B., Wotton, B. M., Logan, K. A., Flannigan, M. D., Stocks, B. J., Mason, J. A., Martell, D. L., and Hirsch, K. G.: Direct carbon emissions from Canadian forest fires, 1959–1999, Can. J. Forest Res., 31, 512–525, 2001.; Anderson, B. E., Gregory, G. L., Collins Jr., J. E., Sachse, G. W., Conway, T. J., and Whiting, G. P.: Airborne observations of spatial and temporal variability of tropospheric carbon dioxide, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 1985–1997, 1996.; Blake, D. R and Rowland, F. S.: Urban leakage of Liquefied Petroleum Gas and its Impact on Mexico City Air Quality, Science, 269, 953–956, 1995.; Blake, D. R., Chen, T.-Y., Smith, T. W. Jr., Wang, C. J.-L., Wingenter, O. W., Blake, N. J., and Rowland, F. S.: Three-dimensional distribution of nonmethane hydrocarbons and halocarbons over the northwestern Pacific during the 1991 Pacific Exploratory Mission (PEM-West A), J. Geophys. Res., 101(D1), 1763–1778, 1996.; Caldeira, K., Rau, G. H., and Duffy, P. B.: Predicted net efflux of radiocarbon from the ocean and increase in atmospheric radiocarbon content, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 3811–3814, 1998.; Christen, K.: Environ...

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Investigation of a Deep Ice Core from the Elbrus Western Plateau, the Caucasus, Russia : Volume 9, Issue 4 (16/07/2015)

By: P. Ginot; S. Kutuzov; S. Sokratov; S. Preunkert; U. Schotterer; S. Lim; X. Faïn; P. Toropov; V. Lipenkov; A. Ekaykin; M. Legrand; I. Lavrentiev; V. Mikhalenko; A. Kozachek

Description: Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia. A 182 m ice core has been recovered from a borehole drilled through the glacier to the bedrock at the Western Plateau of Mt Elbrus (43°20'53.9'' N, 42°25'36.0'' E; 5115 m a.s.l.), the Caucasus, Russia, in 2009. This is the first ice core in the region which represents a paleoclimate record practically undisturbed by seasonal melting. Relatively high snow accumulation rate at the drilling site enabled analysis of the intra-seasonal climate proxies' variability. Borehole temperatures ranged from −17 °C at 10 m depth and −2.4 °C at 182 m. A detailed radio-echo sounding survey showed that the glacier thickness ranged from 45 m near marginal zone of the plateau up to 255 m at the central part. The ice core has been analyzed for stable isotopes (δ18O and Δ D), major ions (K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4+, SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, F-), succinic acid (HOOCCH2COOH), and tritium content. The m...

Abich, H.: Geologische Beobachtungen auf Reisen im Kaukasus im Jahre 1873, Bulletin de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou, 48(2), 278–342 + 1 Karte, 1874a.; Abich, H.: Geologische Beobachtungen auf Reisen im Kaukasus im Jahre 1873 (Fortsetzung), Bulletin de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou, 48(3), 63–107, 1874b.; AMAP: Snow, Water, Ice and Permafrost in the Arctic (SWIPA): Climate Change and the Cryosphere, Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), Oslo, 538 pp., 2011.; Abich, H.: Geologische Beobachtungen auf Reisen im Kaukasus im Jahre 1873 (Schluss), Bulletin de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou, 48(4), 243–272, 1874c.; Anisimov, O. A. and Zhil'tsova, E. L.: Climate change estimates for the regions of Russia in the 20th century and in the beginning of the 21st century based on the observational data, Russ. Meteorol. Hydrol., 37, 421–429, doi:10.3103/S1068373912060106, 2012.; Arkhipov, S. M., Mikhalenko, V. N., Thompson, L. G., Zagorodnov, V. S., Kunakhovich, M. G., Smirnov, K. E., Makarov, A. V., and Kuznetsov, M. P.: Strati...

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First Investigations of an Ice Core from Eisriesenwelt Cave (Austria) : Volume 5, Issue 1 (16/02/2011)

By: D. Wagenbach; B. May; Y. Dublyansky; C. Spötl; J. Liebl

Description: Institut für Umweltphysik, Universität Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. Investigations into the genesis and dynamical properties of cave ice are essential for assessing the climate significance of these underground glaciers. We drilled an ice core through a 7.1 m-thick ice body filling a large cavern of the dynamic ice cave Eisenriesenwelt (Austria). In addition to visual core inspections, quasi-continuous measurements at 2 cm resolution comprised particulate matter, stable water isotope (Δ18O, ΔD) and electrolytic conductivity profiles supplemented by specifically selected samples analyzed for tritium and radiocarbon. We found that recent ablation led to an almost complete loss of bomb-derived tritium removing any ice accumulated since, at least, the early fifties leaving the actual ice surface even below the natural tritium level. The small particulate organic masses rendered radiocarbon dating inconclusive, though a crude estimate gave a basal ice age in the order of several thousand years. The visual stratigraphy and all investigated parameters showed a clear di...

Achleitner, A.: Zum Alter des Höhleneises in der Eisgruben-Eishöhle im Sarstein (Oberösterreich), Die Höhle, 46, 1–5, 1995.; Behm, M. and Hausmann, H.: Eisdickenmessungen in alpinen Höhlen mit Georadar, Die Höhle, 58, 3–11, 2007.; Andreichuk, V. and Dorofeev, E.: The influence of natural and anthropogenous factors on temperature regime and ice formations of Kungur Cave (Russia), Theor. Appl. Karstology, 7, 149–153, 1994.; Austrian Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (ANIP), Umweltbundesamt, http://www.umweltbundesamt.at/umweltinformation/wasser/isotopen/isotopen, last access: 01.01.2011, 2010.; Behm, M., Dittes, V., Greilinger, R., Hartmann, H., Plan, L., and Sulzbacher, D.: Decline of cave ice – a case study from the Austrian Alps (Europe) based on 416 years of observation, in: Proc. 15th Intern. Congr. Speleol., Kerrville, Texas, 19–26 July, 3, 1413–1416, 2009.; Bock, H.: Mathematisch-physikalische Untersuchung der Eishöhlen und Windröhren, in: Die Höhlen im Dachstein, edited by: Bock, H., Lahner, G., and Gaunersdorfer, G., Verein für Höhlenkunde...

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Landuse Effects on Runoff Generating Processes in Tussock Grassland Indicated by Mean Transit Time Estimation Using Tritium : Volume 7, Issue 1 (10/02/2010)

By: B. D. Fahey; M. K. Stewart

Description: Aquifer Dynamics & GNS Science, P.O. Box 30 368, Lower Hutt 5040, New Zealand. The east Otago uplands of New Zealand's South Island have long been studied because of the environmental consequences of converting native tussock grasslands to other land covers, notably forestry and pasture for stock grazing. Early studies showed that afforestation substantially reduced annual water yield, stream peak flows, and 7-day low flows, mainly as a consequence of increased interception. Tritium measurements have indicated that surprisingly old water is present in catchments GH1 and GH2, and the small headwater wetland and catchment (GH5). The old water contributes strongly to baseflow (and therefore also to quickflow). The data have been simulated assuming the presence of two types of water in the baseflow, young water from shallow aquifers connecting hillside regolith with the stream, and old water from deep bedrock aquifers, respectively. The mean transit time of the young water is of the order of months, while that of the old water is 25–26 years as revealed by the presence of tritium originating from the bomb-peak...

Bonell, M., Pearce, A. J., and Stewart, M. K.: The identification of runoff-production mechanisms using environmental isotopes in a tussock grassland catchment, Eastern Otago, New Zealand, Hydrol. Process. 4, 15–34, 1990.; Bowden, W. B., Fahey, B. D., Ekanayake, J., and Murray, D. L.: Hillslope and wetland hydrodynamics in a tussock grassland, Southland, New Zealand, Hydrol. Process., 15, 1707–1730, 2001.; Busenberg, W. and Plummer, L. N.: Use of chlorofluorocarbons (CCl3F and CCl2F2) as hydrologic tracer and age-dating tools: the alluvium and terrace system of Central Oklahoma, Water Resour. Res., 28, 2257–2283, 1992.; Campbell, D. I. and Murray, D. L.: Water balance of snow tussock grassland in New Zealand, J. Hydrol., 118, 229–245, 1990.; Morgenstern, U. and Taylor, C. B.: Ultra low-level tritium measurement using electrolytic enrichment and LSC, Isot. Environ. Health S., 45, 96–117, 2009.; Fahey, B. D., Bowden, W. B., Smith, J., and Murray, D. L.: Hillslope – wetland hydrological linkages in the headwaters of a tussock grassland catchment at Glendhu, South Island, New Zealand. In Hydrology, Water...

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Evaluation of Vegetation Fire Smoke Plume Dynamics and Aerosol Load Using Uv Scanning Lidar and Fire-atmosphere Modelling During the Mediterranean Letia 2010 Experiment : Volume 1, Issue 4 (08/08/2013)

By: J. B. Filippi; C. Mari; F. Bosseur; M. Fourmentin; V. Leroy-cancellieri; P. Augustin; F. Morandini; H. Delbarre

Description: Laboratoire Sciences Pour l'Environnement, CNRS-Université de Corse, Corte, France. Vegetation fires emit large amount of gases and aerosols which are detrimental to human health. Smoke exposure near and downwind of fires depends on the fire propagation, the atmospheric circulations and the burnt vegetation. A better knowledge of the interaction between wildfire and atmosphere is a primary requirement to investigate fire smoke and particle transport. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the usefulness of an UV scanning lidar to characterize the fire smoke plume and consequently validate fire-atmosphere model simulations.

An instrumented burn was conducted in a Mediterranean area typical of ones frequently concern by wildfire with low dense shrubs. Using Lidar measurements positioned near the experimental site, fire smoke plume was thoroughly characterized by its optical properties, edge and dynamics. These parameters were obtained by combining methods based on lidar inversion technique, wavelet edge detection and a backscatter barycenter technique. The smoke plume displacement was determined...

Balbi, J. H., Morandini, F., Silvani, X., Filippi, J. B., and Rinieri, F.: A physical model for wildland fires, Combust. Flame, 156, 2217–2230, 2009.; Alves, C. A., Gonçalves, C., Evtyugina, M., Pio, C. A., Mirante, F., and Puxbaum, H.: Particulate organic compounds emitted from experimental wildland fires in a Mediterranean ecosystem, Atmos. Environ., 44, 2750–2759, 2010.; Alves, C. A., Vincente, A., Monteiro, C., Goncalves, C., Evtyugina, M., and Pio, C.: Emission of trace gases and organic components in smoke particules from a wildfire in mixed-evergreen forest in Portugal, Sci. Total Environ., 409, 1466–1475, 2011.; Amiridis, V., Balis, D. S., Giannakaki, E., Stohl, A., Kazadzis, S., Koukouli, M. E., and Zanis, P.: Optical characteristics of biomass burning aerosols over Southeastern Europe determined from UV-Raman lidar measurements, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 2431–2440, doi:10.5194/acp-9-2431-2009, 2009.; Amiridis, V., Zerefos, C., Kazadzis, S., Gerasopoulos, E., Eleftheratos, K., Vrekoussis, M., Stohl A., Mamouri, R. E., Kokkalis, P., Papayannis, A., Eleftheriadis, K., Diapoul...

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Global Risk from the Atmospheric Dispersion of Radionuclides by Nuclear Power Plant Accidents in the Coming Decades : Volume 14, Issue 9 (13/05/2014)

By: Y. Proestos; J. Lelieveld; T. Christoudias

Description: The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia, Cyprus. We estimate the global risk from the release and atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides from nuclear power plant accidents using the EMAC atmospheric chemistry–general circulation model. We included all nuclear reactors that are currently operational, under construction and planned or proposed. We implemented constant continuous emissions from each location in the model and simulated atmospheric transport and removal via dry and wet deposition processes over 20 years (2010–2030), driven by boundary conditions based on the IPCC A2 future emissions scenario. We present global overall and seasonal risk maps for potential surface layer concentrations and ground deposition of radionuclides, and estimate potential doses to humans from inhalation and ground-deposition exposures to radionuclides. We find that the risk of harmful doses due to inhalation is typically highest in the Northern Hemisphere during boreal winter, due to relatively shallow boundary layer development and limited mixing. Based on the continued operation of the current nuclear power plants, we calculate ...

Anspaugh, L., Catlin, R., and Goldman, M.: The global impact of the Chernobyl reactor accident, Science, 242, 1513–1519, 1988.; Arnold, D., Gufler, K., Kromp, W., Kromp-Kolb, H., Mraz, G., Seibert, P., Sholly, S., Sutter, P., and Wenisch, A.: flexRISK – Flexible tools for assessment of nuclear risk in Europe, in: Air Pollution Modeling and its Application XXI, Springer, 737–740, 2012.; International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA): International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale User Manual, IAEA, Vienna, 2009.; Christoudias, T. and Lelieveld, J.: Modelling the global atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1425–1438, doi:10.5194/acp-13-1425-2013, 2013.; CIESIN/CIAT/SEDAC: Gridded Population of the World, Version 3 (GPWv3), available at: http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/gpw (last access: 28 February 2014), 2005.; Hilton, J., Cambray, R., and Green, N.: Chemical fractionation of radioactive caesium in airborne particles containing bomb fallout, Chern...

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An Isotopic (Δ14C, Δ13C, and Δ15N) Investigation of Particulate Organic Matter and Zooplankton Biomass in Lake Superior and Across a Size-gradient of Aquatic Systems : Volume 9, Issue 4 (13/04/2012)

By: P. K. Zigah; J. P. Werne; E. C. Minor; S. Leigh McCallister

Description: Large Lakes Observatory and Water Resources Science Program, University of Minnesota, Duluth, Minnesota, USA. Food webs in aquatic systems can be supported both by carbon from recent local primary productivity and by carbon subsidies, such as material from terrestrial ecosystems or past in situ primary productivity. The importance of these subsidies to respiration and biomass production remains a topic of debate, but they may play major roles in determining the fate of organic carbon and in sustaining upper trophic levels, including those contributing to economically important fisheries. While some studies have reported that terrigenous organic carbon supports disproportionately high zooplankton production, others have suggested that phytoplankton preferentially supports zooplankton production in aquatic ecosystems. Here we apply natural abundance radiocarbon (Δ14C) and stable isotope (Δ13C, Δ15N) analyses to show that zooplankton in Lake Superior selectively incorporate recently-fixed, locally-produced (autochthonous) organic carbon even though other carbon sources are read...

Aller, R. C., Blair, N. E., and Brunskill, G. J.: Early diagenetic cycling, incineration, and burial of sedimentary organic carbon in the central Gulf of Papua (Papua New Guinea), J. Geophys. Res., 113, F01S09, doi:10.1029/2006JF000689, 2008.; Barbiero, R. P. and Tuchman, M. L.: The deep chlorophyll maximum in Lake Superior. J. Great Lakes Res., 30, 256–268, 2004.; Berggren M., Strom, L., Laudon, H., Karlsson, J., Jonsson, A., Giesler, R., Bergstrom, A. K., and Jansson, M.: Lake Secondary production fueled by rapid transfer of low molecular weight organic carbon from terrestrial sources to aquatic consumers, Ecol. Lett., 13, 870–880, 2010.; Brett, M. T., Kainz, M. J., Taipale, S. J., and Seshan, H.: Phytoplankton, not allochthonous carbon, sustains herbivorous zooplankton production, P. Natl. Acad. Sci., 106, 21197–21201, 2009.; Caraco, N., Bauer, J. E., Cole, J. J., Petsch, S., and Raymond, P.: Millenial-aged organic carbon subsidies to a modern river food web, Ecology, 91, 2385–2393, 2010.; Carpenter, S. R., Cole, J. J., Pace, M. L., Van de Bogert, M., Bade, D. L., Bastviken, D., ...

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Partitioning of Soil Co2 Efflux in Un-manipulated and Experimentally Flooded Plots of a Temperate Fen : Volume 9, Issue 8 (31/08/2012)

By: W. Borken; S. Wunderlich

Description: Department of Soil Ecology, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany. Peatlands store large amounts of organic carbon, but the carbon stock is sensitive to changes in precipitation or water table manipulations. Restoration of drained peatlands by drain blocking and flooding is a common measure to conserve and augment the carbon stock of peatland soils. Here, we report to what extent flooding affected the contribution of heterotrophic and rhizosphere respiration to soil CO2 efflux in a grass-dominated mountain fen in Germany. Soil CO2 efflux was measured in three un-manipulated control plots and three flooded plots in two consecutive years. Flooding was achieved by permanent irrigation during the growing seasons. Radiocarbon signatures of CO2 from different sources including soil CO2 efflux, incubated peat cores and live grass roots were repeatedly analyzed for partitioning of soil CO2 efflux. Additionally, heterotrophic respiration and its radiocarbon signature were determined by eliminating rhizosphere respiration in trenched subplots (only control). ...

Alm, J., Schulman, L., Walden, J., Nykänen, H., Martikainen, P. J., and Silvola, J.: Carbon balance of a boreal bog during a year with an exceptionally dry summer, Ecology, 80, 161–174, 1999.; Borken, W., Savage, K., Davidson, E. A., and Trumbore, S. E.: Effects of experimental drought on soil respiration and radiocarbon efflux from a temperate forest soil, Glob. Change Biol., 12, 177–193, 2006.; Bortoluzzi, E., Epron, D., Siegenthaler, A., Gilbert, D., and Buttler, A.: Carbon balance of a European mountain bog at contrasting stages of regeneration, New Phytol., 172, 708–718, 2006.; Bridgham, S. D., Pastor, J., Dewey, B., Weltzin, J. F., and Updegraff, K.: Rapid carbon response of peatlands to climate change, Ecology, 89, 3041–3048, 2008.; Chen, Y. T., Borken, W., Stange, C. F., and Matzner, E.: Dynamics of nitrogen and carbon mineralization in a fen soil following water table fluctuations, Wetlands, 32, 579–587, 2012.; Chimner, R. A. and Cooper, D. J.: Influence of water table levels on CO2 emissions in a Colorado subalpine fen: an in situ microcosm study, Soil Biol. Biochem., 35, 345–351, 2003.; Chivers, M. R., Turetsky...

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Hidden Truth of Double-Slit Test: Comprehensive Study Of Mysteries In Science

By: Cres Huang

Study the contradictory interpretations of double slit experiment. Reasoning the validity of particle-wave duality, uncertainty, chaos, and multi-verses. Fundamental particle can only react precisely with it's environment, and vice versa. Above all, the rest of the universe is the absolute complement of an object. Even a particle, it is impossible for it to be anywhere else at the same time, since anywhere else is it's absolute complement....

Particle and wave are fundamentally different. Particle is mass of distinct entity, and wave is the reaction of it's complement, which is wide and complex. The participating entities and their actions can not be fully identified. Nonetheless, particle and wave are separate entities. Isn't it scientifically essential to differentiate particle and wave?...

1 Introduction 2 Current Contradictory Interpretations 2.1 Particle-Wave Duality 2.2 Observation Alters The Outcome 2.3 Uncertainty 2.4 Particles Can Be In Different Places At A Time 3 Anatomy of Double-Slit Device 3.1 The Deficiency of Double-Slit Device 4 A Look at Current Experiment 4.1 Test with Additional Detectors 4.2 Summary 5 Anatomy of Particle and Wave 5.1 Three States of Particle 5.1.1 Particle at Rest 5.1.2 Particle Spin 5.1.3 Particle Translation 5.2 Shape of Wave 5.3 Detection of Particle In Motion 26 6 Restudy the Double-Slit Experiment 6.1 Design 6.1.1 Definitions of the Components 6.1.2 Data Collected 6.1.3 Assumptions Experiment I - Reliability Test Experiment II - Normal Open Slit Test Experiment III - Additional Detectors Experiment IV - Wave Only Test Experiment V - Single Slit Test7 Summary 8 Appendix - Jeopardy of Atomic Experiments 8.1 Submerged Chemical Laboratory 8.2 Electron Cloud and Entanglement 9 Appendix - Fundamental Principles References...

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Hidden Truth of Double-Slit Test (Brief): Comprehensive Study of Mysteries in Science

By: Cres Huang

Study the contradictory interpretations of double slit experiment. Reasoning the validity of particle-wave duality, uncertainty, chaos, and multi-verses. Fundamental particle can only react precisely with it's environment, and vice versa. Above all, the rest of the universe is the absolute complement of an object. Even a particle, it is impossible for it to be anywhere else at the same time, since anywhere else is it's absolute complement. ...

Double-slit device is but a wave detector than a bullet hole counter. Particle and wave are fundamentally different. Particle is mass of distinct entity, and wave is the reaction of it's complement, which is wide and complex. The participating entities and their actions can not be fully identified. Nonetheless, particle and wave are separate entities. Isn't it scientifically essential to differentiate particle and wave? ...

1 Introduction 2 Current Contradictory Interpretations 2.1 Particle-Wave Duality 2.2 Observation Alters The Outcome 2.3 Uncertainty 2.4 Particles Can Be In Different Places At A Time 3 Anatomy of Double-Slit Device 3.1 The Deficiency of Double-Slit Device 4 A Look at Current Experiment 4.1 Test with Additional Detectors 4.2 Summary 5 Anatomy of Particle and Wave 5.1 Three States of Particle 5.1.1 Particle at Rest 5.1.2 Particle Spin 5.1.3 Particle Translation 5.2 Shape of Wave 5.3 Detection of Particle In Motion 26 6 Restudy the Double-Slit Experiment 6.1 Design 6.1.1 Definitions of the Components 6.1.2 Data Collected 6.1.3 Assumptions Experiment I - Reliability Test Experiment II - Normal Open Slit Test Experiment III - Additional Detectors Experiment IV - Wave Only Test Experiment V - Single Slit Test7 Summary 8 Appendix - Jeopardy of Atomic Experiments 8.1 Submerged Chemical Laboratory 8.2 Electron Cloud and Entanglement 9 Appendix - Fundamental Principles References...

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Brief Communication a Multi-disciplinary Approach to a Side-flash Lightning Incident to Human Beings in the Basque Country : Volume 13, Issue 3 (20/03/2013)

By: J. A. Aranda; J. López; P. Anitua; V. Urgoiti; M. González; S. Gaztelumendi

Description: Euskalmet, Basque Meteorology Agency, Miñano, Spain. On 31 August 2011 a lightning incident affecting two human beings was registered in the Basque Country (northern Spain). The two individuals were sightseeing in the Painted Forest of Oma (province of Biscay, Basque Country) when an approaching thunderstorm forced them to look for shelter under the lowest branches of one of the trees. A lightning discharge in that exact place caused serious injuries to the couple, consisting of the loss of consciousness, superficial burns, a tympanic membrane perforation and a broken clavicle. The investigation presented in this paper was carried out in order to find out the causes by which the couple was hit by the lightning discharge and why the injuries were superficial and did not kill them. Using the data available by the lightning detection networks in the Basque Country and the information available by the weather radar, the exact place where the lightning discharge occurred could be found, the mechanism of lightning injury was classified and the episode was reconstructed....

Blumenthal, R.: Secondary Missile Injury from Lightning Strike, American J. Forensic Medicine Pathology, 33, 83–85, 2012a.; Agoris, D., Pyrgioto, E., Vasileiou, D., and Dragoumis S.: Analysis of lightning death statistics in Greece, 26th International Confere,nce on Lightning Protection, 2002, Poland, 2002.; Aranda, J. A. and Morais, A.: The new weather radar of the Basque Meteorology Agency (Euskalmet): Site selection, construction and installation, 4th European Conference on Radar in Meteorology and Hydrology, ERAD 2006, Spain, 2006.; Blumenthal, R.: The forensic investigation of fatal lightning strike victims, Reconsidered and Revised, 31st International Conference on Lightning Protection, ICLP 2012, Austria, 2012b.; Browne, B. J. and Gaasch, W. R.: Electrical injuries and lightning, Emerg. Med. Clin. North Am., 10, 211–229, 1992.; Cardoso, I., Pinto Jr., O., Pinto, I. R. C. A., and Holle, R.: A new approach to estimate the annual number of global lightning fatalities, 14th Intl. Conf. Atmospheric Electricity, Brazil, 2011.; Coates, L., Blong, R., and Siciliano, F.: Lightning fatalities in Australia, 1824–1991, Nat. Hazards, 8, 2...

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The Zombie Chronicles - Book 1 : Apocalypse Infection Unleashed Series

By: Chrissy Peebles

*This is a young adult book series. Each chronicle will feature Dean's struggles as he tries to survive in this new world. And thus the name, The Zombie Chronicles. I hope you enjoy this series, and thank you for giving book one a chance.* Warning: Mild violence. For mature teens or older. BOOK TRAILER: http://youtu.be/ociUHiL1g70 Val was bitten by a zombie and now she’s scheduled for lethal injection. Breaking all the rules, eighteen year old, Dean Walters snags an experimental serum. But it can’t be tested until Val turns into a zombie: something authorities won’t allow. Her execution is scheduled to happen before transformation is complete, giving Dean only hours to break her out. When their helicopter crashes straight into the heart of Zombie Land, his rescue mission becomes a fight for survival…and giving up on Val is NOT an option....

Chapter 1 One year earlier… It had been a long day in July, with heat waves rampaging throughout South Carolina. Even though nighttime had long fallen and the temperatures had cooled down noticeably, my shirt still stuck to my back. I wondered what good that shower had done that I’d taken before meeting Sherry. A rush of wind blew through my hair as we rode to the top of the Ferris wheel and then stopped, hovering in midair. I breathed in, relaxed, and listened to the distant screams, music, and laughter echo below us. Sherry set down the stuffed pink pig I’d won for her in the ring toss and folded her hands in her lap, enjoying the silence. I dared a quick look at the stuffed animal, fighting with myself whether to be proud or sink into the ground. The guys back at school surely would’ve suggested the latter, but I didn’t care. Granted, it wasn’t the giant teddy bear I’d spent twenty bucks trying to win, but Sherry seemed happy with her little plush pink prize nonetheless. She squeezed my hand, and I smiled. I rocked the cart back and forth with my legs. “Hey! Stop it,” Sherry said, twining her fingers through my hair. “B...

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Raghu-nomics 7: Beyond Two Party Politics

By: Raghu Giuffre

The discovery found in looking over these proposals was this pattern of simply reviewing elements of each issue that both parties are familiar with, but have never taken the time to review more carefully. Ideology seems to be the reason for this and so made the stunning discovery that most of our problems are primarily due to the ideological death grip on our discourse and consideration. Simply moving beyond this political paradigm opens up to a vista of new options. Raghu-nomics is simply a demonstration of how much opportunity and potential solutions are there if we should simply get beyond the ideological framework confining our policy options....

Contents RAGHU-NOMICS 7 1 Beyond Two Party Politics 1 2012 Campaign Policy Review 1 Section 1 3 Home Page of Raghu-nomics website 3 Section 1 11 Chapter 1 11 Home Page of Raghu-nomics website 11 Solving Real Estate & Banking Crisis in just weeks. See video above. 11 Raghu-nomics: What it can do? 11 Beyond 2 Party Politics 14 Section 2 19 Chapter 1 19 Raghu for Congress 19 Section 2 20 Chapter 2 20 About Raghu 20 Section 3 26 Kingdom of Hawaii 26 Section 3 27 Chapter 1: 27 10 Reasons Why US Wants to Re-instate the Kingdom of Hawaii 27 Section 4 33 Health Care Reform: 33 ROOPA 33 Section 4 34 Chapter 1: 34 ROOPA: Responsibility for One’s Own Products & Actions 34 Magic bullet to Health Care Reform 34 ROOPA: 34 3 Page Summary 36 Part I: 36 The Problme - it's a Crap Shot 36 Part II: 37 Solution: Pricing Social Cost 37 Demo 1: Obesity 37 Part III: 39 $4 Trillion in Savings 39 Demo 2: Tobacco 39 Add Summary Chapters & Intro from Book, Economics: Hand of God, ROOPA Theology and The Abyss of Activism and the Wisdom Learned. 41 (Editor’s Note: . the ROOPA book was last written 5 years ago. We need to ...

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Dangerous Times II Edition : Living in and surviving the dangerous times: Living in and surviving the dangerous times

By: Magen Ha Cherut, Ph.D.; Occulta Aspicientis, Ph.D., Co-Author

On preservation of the Western rights, freedoms and quality of life in 21st century and beyond

Systemic approach to life of the highly cultured people provides them with higher level of happiness simply because their lives are better organized, risks are covered, reserves are maintained, dangers avoided, contacts established and so on so forth. Culture is not something that comes only with DNA, but genetic pre-disposition towards culture exists without doubt. Otherwise there would be no examples of people raising themselves above the scum they were born in and reaching high levels of society. Understanding of the elements of high culture, its systemic approach to organizing one’s life, can be practiced by virtually everybody. One just needs to want to elevate themselves and work towards that goal, which may involve getting better training and education, moving to a different neighborhood, getting a different job, spending time on more important things rather than on leisure, quitting drinking and smoking, refusing drugs, taking care of health, concentrating on the upbringing of the children and helping them in their adult life, babysitting grand-children, watching over quality of food supply and keeping the family ...

Table of Contents Introduction iii Table of Contents iv About this book ix Who should not read this book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix Who is this book for? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix Response to our critics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x About the authors xiii I What do we want to preserve and why? 1 1 Foreword 3 2 Measuring the quality of life 5 2.1 Individual happiness and self-fulfillment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.2 Individual rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.3 Social harmony . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3 Checks and balances 11 3.1 Acceptable personal risk and responsibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4 What is worth to fight for? 15 4.1 Security of the person . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 4.2 Personal and societal wealth . . . . . . . . . . . . ....

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The Renaissance of Science : The Story of the Cell and Biology

By: Dr. Albert Martini

The concept of science and the sciences. Fundamental and historical development in the sciences. Great ideas that revolutionize our scientific world. The story of the cell and Biology. The birth of modern Biology. The rise of the modern University and experimental stations. The cell as the basic building block of life. The origin of life. The development of microbiology and microscopy. The germ theory of diseases, vaccines, and antibiotics. The vector insects and infectious diseases. The virus, viral diseases, and vaccines. The principle of vegetation and the basic requirements of plants. William Harvey, the heart and the circulatory system. Carl Linneaus and the development of modern taxonomy in biology. Charles Darwin and the development of evolution in biology. Gregor Mendel and the development of genetics and the laws of heredity....

THE GREATEST FUNDAMENTAL INVENTIONS CREATED BY MOTHER NATURE THE ATOM AND ITS CAPACITY TO STORE AND RELEASE UNIVERSAL ENERGY BY MEANS OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROCESSES THE CELL AND ITS CAPACITY TO SUSTAIN INDEPENDENT LIFE BY MEANS OF UNIQUE BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES THE PROCESS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND ITS CAPACITY TO TRANSFORM SOLAR (LIGHT) ENERGY INTO CHEMICAL AND FOOD ENERGY BY MEANS OF BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES LIGHT AND ITS CAPACITY TO TRANSPORT ENERGY AND CHANGE OUR UNIVERSE BY TRANSFORMING DARKNESS INTO LIGHTNESS BY THE MIRACLE OF ILLUMINATION THE PHENOMENON OF ELECTROMAGNETISM AND ITS CAPACITY TO PRODUCE THE DYNAMIC ELECTRIC CURRENT THAT ENERGIZES AND POWERS OUR UNIVERSE AND THE MOST FUNDAMENTAL OF ALL OF NATURE’S INTUITIVE CREATIONS IS THE PROCESS OF UNIVERSAL TRANSFORMATION, WHERE PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION TRANSFORM MATTER, ENERGY, SPACE, TIME AND LIFE ITSELF ...

INTRODUCTION 1 ABSTRACT ON THE CONCEPT OF PERSPECTIVE AND SENSE OF DUTY 4 THE CONCEPT OF SCIENCE 5 FUNDAMENTAL AND HISTORIC DEVELOPMENTS IN THE SCIENCES 7 ABSTRACT ON THE ATOM AND ITS ENERGY 11 GREAT IDEAS THAT REVOLUTIONIZED OUR SCIENTIFIC WORLD 16 DEMOCRITUS (470 - 380 BC) Greek Philosopher 16 NICHOLAS COPERNICUS (1473 - 1543) Polish Astronomer 17 GALILEO GALILEI (1564 - 1642) Italian Mathematician and Astronomer 18 RENE DESCARTES (1596 - 1650) French Mathematician and Philosopher. 19 ISAAC NEWTON (1642 - 1727) English Scientist and Mathematician 20 ANTOINE LAVOISIER (1743 - 1794) French Chemist 23 JOHN DALTON (1766 - 1844) English Chemist 24 JONS J. BERZELIUS (1779 - 1848) Swedish Chemist 25 HUMPHRY DAVY (1778 - 1829) English Chemist 25 AMEDEO AVOGADRO (1776 - 1856) Italian Physicist 26 DMITRI MENDELEEV (1834 - 1907) Russian Chemist 26 FRIEDRICH A. KEKULE (1829 - 1896) German Organic Chemist 27 JACOBUS VAN’T HOFF (1852 - 1911) Dutch Physical Chemist 28 WILLIAM H. WOLLASTON (1766 - 1828) English Chemist and Physicist 28 EDWARD FRANKLAND (1825 - 1899) English Chemist 29 SVANTE A. ARRHENIUS (1859 -...

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Space Force Grunts : A Science Fiction Novel

By: Ingo Potsch

Space Force Grunts is a Science Fiction novel playing several generations into the future. After the human race has invented hyperspace flight, thousands of planets are colonised. Those new societies maintain their independence until the human race encounters an alien civilisation that also masters space flight and hyperspace travel. Being so very different from the human race, those aliens are at first not even recognised as an eminent civilisation commanding over impressive, seemingly sheer unlimited means and a proficient use of advanced technologies. When the mistake is discovered, it is too late already for avoiding a clash of civilisations and a violent conflict has already started. The worlds settled by the human race gradually unite ever more under the leadership of a political movement. Conscription is introduced to provide for the military forces’ need for soldiers. People with sufficient means can purchase freedom from conscription and escape the draft. The funds obtained by the administration via that purchase of freedom are used to supply the military with materials means like weapons and to pay the soldiers who get dra...

Base 18 on Planet DN-DU-144/5 was a place that could only be found on detailed military maps. This planet was circling a sun situated at the border between our Local Bubble of stars in the Milky Way and the much bigger Loop 1 Bubble, another assembly of suns and planets. DN-DU-144/5 was the fifth planet in outward direction, when counted from the local star as centre. Base 18 now consisted of a dozen bunkers, a few deep wells and a couple of cisterns appendant to them, a makeshift front-line spa, and most importantly a maintenance station for fighter robots and combat drones. Base 18 on planet DN-DU-144/5 was in principle a bleak place. Though at that moment it was officially day-time at the location of base 18, there was actually just a little twilight. The far sun, going by the less-than-poetic name of DN-DU-144, illuminated only the abundant clouds enfolding the planet decently. Little light ever made it through to the surface. ‘I just love it’ Master Sergeant Koon had sarcastically said when arriving at this place, together with all the other soldiers of the 5th company. They had taken this base over from a unit that had suffe...

Not Applicable

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Space Force Grunts : A Science Fiction Adventure, Second, Revised Edition

By: Ingo Potsch

Space Force Grunts (Second, Revised Edition) tells the story of soldiers conscripted to defend the Human Alliance, a civilisation that has spread over thousands of worlds after the invention of hyperspace flight. They are fighting an enemy they don't understand in a war they did not choose. Space Grunts is told mainly from the perspective of the rank and file of the Human Alliance ground forces, who face an eminent foe, commanding over far superior means. Space Force Grunts tells about the feelings and thoughts of these soldiers, reports their talks and the trials and tribulations they have to go through, as well as the little pranks they play to each other and their superiors. - See more at: http://gutenberg.us/wplbn0003468521-space-force-grunts--a-science-fiction-novel-by-potsch-ingo.aspx?#sthash.GxmYw9Wd.dpuf...

Base 18 on Planet DN-DU-144/5 was a place that could only be found on detailed military maps. This planet was circling a sun situated at the border between our Local Bubble of stars in the Milky Way and the much bigger Loop 1 Bubble, another assembly of suns and planets. DN-DU-144/5 was the fifth planet in outward direction, when counted from the local star as centre. Base 18 now consisted of a dozen bunkers, a few deep wells and a couple of cisterns appendant to them, a makeshift front-line spa, and most importantly a maintenance station for fighter robots and combat drones. Base 18 on planet DN-DU-144/5 was in principle a bleak place. Though at that moment it was officially day-time at the location of base 18, there was actually just a little twilight. The far sun, going by the less-than-poetic name of DN-DU-144, illuminated only the abundant clouds enfolding the planet decently. Little light ever made it through to the surface. ‘I just love it’ Master Sergeant Koon had sarcastically said when arriving at this place, together with all the other soldiers of the 5th company. They had taken this base over from a unit that had suffe...

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Paradoxist Distiches

By: Florentin Smarandache

The whole paradoxist distich should be as a geometric unitary parabola, hyperbola, ellipse at the borders between art, philosophy, rebus, and mathematics – which exist in complementariness. The School of Paradoxist Literature, which evolved around 1980s, continues through these bi-verses closed in a new lyric exact formula, but with an opening to essence. For this kind of procedural poems one can elaborate mathematical algorithms and implement them in a computer: but, it is preferable a machine with … soul!...

I M M O D E S T With the shame Shamelessness U N D E C I D E D Fighting Himself J A Z Z ( I ) Melodious Anarchy J A Z Z ( I I ) Anarchic Melody...

Fore/word and Back/word _________ 3 The making of the distich : _____ 3 Characteristics: ______________ 3 Historical considerations: _____ 5 Types of Paradoxist distiches ___ 8 1. Clichés paraphrased: ___ 8 2. Parodies: _____________ 8 3. Reversed formulae: ____ 8 4. Double negation _______ 8 5. Double affirmation, ____ 8 6. Turn around on false tracks: _________________ 8 7. Hyperboles (exaggerated): __________________ 8 8. With nuance changeable from the title: ________ 8 9. Epigrammatic: ________ 8 10. Pseudo-paradoxes: ___ 8 11. Tautologies: ________ 9 12. Redundant: _________ 9 13. Based on pleonasms: _ 9 14. or on anti-pleonasms: 9 15. Substitution of the attribute in collocations ___ 9 16. Substitution of the complement in collocations 9 17. Permutation of various parts of the whole: ___ 9 18. The negation of the clichés ______________ 10 19. Antonymization (substantively, adjectively, etc.) ________________ 10 20. Fable against the grain: _________________ 10 21. Change in grammatical category (preserving substitutions’ homonymy): ________________ 10 22. Epistolary or colloquia style: _________...

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