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Export Controls Regulatory Change Needed to Comply with Missile Technology Licensing Requirements

By: Katherine V. Schinasi

Government Accountability Integrity Reliability Office Collection

Excerpt: Concerned about missile proliferation, the United States and several major trading partners in 1987 created an international voluntary agreement, the Missile Technology Control Regime, to control the spread of missiles and their related technologies. Congress passed the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1991 to fulfill the U.S. government?s Missile Technology Control Regime commitments. This act amended two governing U.S. export control statutes: the Export Administration Act of 1979, as amended, which regulates the export of dual-use items (those having both military and civilian applications), and the Arms Export Control Act, as amended, which regulates the export of military items. The Department of Commerce licenses most dual-use items, while the Department of State licenses military items. Congress is currently considering the passage of a new Export Administration Act because the current statute is set to expire in August 2001....

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United States General Accounting Office Washington, D.C. 20548

By: Jim Saxton

Government Accountability Integrity Reliability Office Collection

Excerpt: Posthearing Questions Related to the Department of Defense?s (DOD) Management of the Chemical Agents and Munitions Destruction Program On October 30, 2003, I testified before your committee at a hearing on DOD?s Chemical Agents and Munitions Destruction Program. This letter responds to your request that I provide answers to posthearing questions from you and Congressman Mike Rogers. The questions and responses follow. Question from Chairman Jim Saxton 1. As noted in both Mr. Hinton?s and Mr. Wakefield?s statements, the Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (ACWA) program is managed separately from the chemical stockpile destruction program, as directed by Congress, and maintenance of a separate program contributes to a complex program management structure. In his statement Mr. Wakefield said that the Department of Defense is looking at further streamlining the management of the chemical demilitarization program and now desires to consolidate the ACWA program manager under the Army?s Chemical Materials Agency. How does the current division of the program structure between the Chemical Materials Agency and the Project Manager...

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United States General Accounting Office Washington, D.C. 20548

By: Benjamin F. Nelson

Government Accountability Integrity Reliability Office Collection

Excerpt: In 1996, the Air Force launched an acquisition program to develop and produce a revolutionary laser weapon system, the Airborne Laser (ABL), capable of defeating an enemy ballistic missile during the boost phase of its flight. Over the last 8 years, the program?s efforts to develop this technology have resulted in significant cost growth and schedule delays. These events led you to request that we answer the following questions: (1) How much and why has the ABL?s cost increased since the program?s inception? (2) What is the expected military utility of the initial ABL aircraft? (3) What support systems will be required when the ABL is fielded and what is the likely cost of those systems? (4) Have recent program changes resulted in a more cost effective strategy for developing the weapon?...

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Foreign Military Sales Improved Army Controls Could Prevent Unauthorized Shipments of Classified Spare Parts and Items Containing Military Technology to Foreign Countries

By: Jeff Nelligan

Government Accountability Integrity Reliability Office Collection

Excerpt: Overall objective was to determine the adequacy of the Army?s internal controls for foreign military sales under blanket orders. Our specific objectives were to assess and test whether key internal controls adequately restricted blanket orders for classified spare parts sold to foreign countries and restricted access to certain unclassified items containing military technology. We also determined whether periodic tests were conducted to validate that the Army?s Centralized Integrated System for International Logistics5 was working as intended. This report is one in a series on DOD?s foreign military sales program......

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Nuclear Security Federal and State Action Needed to Improve Security of Sealed Radioactive Sources

By: General Accounting Office

Government Accountability Integrity Reliability Office Collection

Excerpt: Since the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks there has been concern that certain radioactive material, such as cobalt-60, strontium-90, iodine-131, cesium-137, iridium-192, and americium-241, could be used in the construction of a radiological dispersion device-commonly referred to as a ?dirty bomb.? Such radioactive materials are used in devices that treat cancer, sterilize food and medical instruments, and detect flaws in pipelines and other types of metal welds. Much of the radioactive material used in these devices is encapsulated, or sealed, in metal such as stainless steel, titanium, or platinum to prevent its dispersal. A dirty bomb could be produced by using explosives in combination with radioactive material upon detonation. Most experts agree that the dispersed radioactive material would have few short-term health effects on exposed individuals and that the explosives, not the radioactive material, would likely cause the greatest amount of immediate injuries, fatalities, and property damage. However, a dirty bomb-depending on the type, form, amount, and concentration of radioactive material used-could cause rad...

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Testimony for Commercial Activities Panel

By: Dr. John L. Meason

Government Accountability Integrity Reliability Office Collection

Excerpt: Good afternoon, I am John Meason, currently Director of EMRTC, the Energetic Material Research and Testing Center, at New Mexico Tech University (NMT). Prior to that position however, I was the Director of the Applied Technology Test and Simulation Directorate located at the U. S. Army White Sands Missile Range. It was while I served in that capacity that I first learned about the Transitional Benefit Corporation (TBC) concept while attending an A-76 Institute Conference where Mr. Steve Sorett briefed the concept. For a number of reasons, I was intrigued and interested in pursuing the concept for my business unit. I have since then retired and moved to the NMT, however, I speak today as a former government employee who believes very strongly that the TBC offers the Government a viable alternative to the A-76 process. The TBC concept and methodology truly represents a public private partnership that can transcend the traditional Government - Contractor relationship....

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Nonproliferation Improvements Needed to Better Control Technology Exports for Cruise Missiles and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

By: General Accounting Office

Government Accountability Integrity Reliability Office Collection

Excerpt: The growing threat to U.S. national security of cruise missile and UAV proliferation is challenging the tools the United States has traditionally used. Multilateral export control regimes have expanded their lists of controlled technologies, but key countries of concern are not members. U.S. export control authorities find it increasingly difficult to limit or track unlisted dualuse items that can be acquired without an export license. Moreover, a gap in U.S. export control authority enables American companies to export certain dual-use items to recipients that are not associated with missile projects or countries listed in the regulations, even if the exporter knows the items might be used to develop cruise missiles or UAVs. American companies have in fact legally exported dual-use items with no U.S. government review to a New Zealand resident who bought the items to build a cruise missile....

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Nonproliferation Improvements Needed to Better Control Technology Exports for Cruise Missiles and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

By: General Accounting Office

Government Accountability Integrity Reliability Office Collection

Excerpt: The growing threat to U.S. national security of cruise missile and UAV proliferation is challenging the tools the United States has traditionally used. Multilateral export control regimes have expanded their lists of controlled technologies, but key countries of concern are not members. U.S. export control authorities find it increasingly difficult to limit or track unlisted dual-use items that can be acquired without an export license. Moreover, a gap in U.S. export control authority enables American companies to export certain dual-use items to recipients that are not associated with missile projects or countries listed in the regulations, even if the exporter knows the items might be used to develop cruise missiles or UAVs. American companies have in fact legally exported dualuse items with no U.S. government review to a New Zealand resident who bought the items to build a cruise missile....

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United States General Accounting Office Washington, D.C. 20548

By: Jerry Lewis

Government Accountability Integrity Reliability Office Collection

Excerpt: Dear Mr. Chairman: In fiscal year 2003, the Department of Defense expects to spend more than $18 billion to develop, acquire, and operate satellites and other space-related systems. Satellite systems collect information on the capabilities and intentions of potential adversaries. They enable military forces to be warned of a missile attack and to communicate and navigate while avoiding hostile action. And they provide information that allows forces to precisely attack targets in ways that minimize collateral damage and loss of life. DOD?s satellites also enable global communications, television broadcasts, weather forecasting; navigation of ships, planes, trucks, and cars; and synchronization of computers, communications, and electric power grids....

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Defense Acquisitions : Incentives and Pressures That Drive Problems Affecting Satellite and Related Acquisitions

By: Robert E. Levin

Government Accountability Integrity Reliability Office Collection

Excerpt: In fiscal year 2006, the Department of Defense (DOD) expects to spend more than $23 billion to develop, acquire, and operate satellites and other space-related systems. These systems are becoming increasingly critical to every facet of military operations as well as the U.S. economy and homeland security. Satellite systems collect information on the capabilities and intentions of potential adversaries. They enable U.S. military forces to be warned of missile attacks and to communicate and navigate while avoiding hostile actions. They provide information that allows forces to precisely attack targets in ways that minimize collateral damage and loss of life. DOD?s satellites also enable global communications; television broadcasts; weather forecasting; disaster planning; navigation of ships, planes, trucks, and cars; and synchronization of computers, communications, and electric power grids....

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National Criminal History Improvement Program Federal Grants Have Contributed to Progress

By: General Accounting Office

Government Accountability Integrity Reliability Office Collection

Excerpt: States have used program grants primarily to support NICS in conducting presale background checks of firearms? purchasers. BJS data show that over 75 percent of the total $164.3 million in program grants awarded in fiscal years 2000 through 2003 was used for NICS-related purposes. These uses encompassed a broad range of activities, such as converting manual records to automated formats and purchasing equipment to implement computerized systems or upgrade existing systems. All other uses of program grants, according to BJS, also had either direct or indirect relevance to building an infrastructure of nationally accessible records....

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National Criminal History Improvement Program Federal Grants Have Contributed to Progress

By: General Accounting Office

Government Accountability Integrity Reliability Office Collection

Excerpt: States have used program grants primarily to support NICS in conducting presale background checks of firearms? purchasers. BJS data show that over 75 percent of the total $164.3 million in program grants awarded in fiscal years 2000 through 2003 was used for NICS-related purposes. These uses encompassed a broad range of activities, such as converting manual records to automated formats and purchasing equipment to implement computerized systems or upgrade existing systems. All other uses of program grants, according to BJS, also had either direct or indirect relevance to building an infrastructure of nationally accessible records....

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Dod Excess Property Management Control Breakdowns Result in Substantial Waste and Inefficiency

By: Gregory D. Kutz

Government Accountability Integrity Reliability Office Collection

Excerpt: DOD does not have management controls in place to assure that excess inventory is reutilized to the maximum extent possible. Of $33 billion in excess commodity disposals in fiscal years 2002 through 2004, $4 billion were reported to be in new, unused, and excellent condition. DOD units reutilized only $495 million (12 percent) of these items. The remaining $3.5 billion (88 percent) includes significant waste and inefficiency because new, unused, and excellent condition items were transferred and donated outside of DOD, sold for pennies on the dollar, or destroyed. DOD units continued to buy many of these same items. GAO identified at least $400 million of fiscal year 2002 and 2003 commodity purchases when identical new, unused, and excellent condition items were available for reutilization. GAO also identified hundreds of millions of dollars in reported lost, damaged, or stolen excess property, including sensitive military technology items, which contributed to reutilization program waste and inefficiency. Further, excess property improperly stored outdoors for several months was damaged by wind, rain, and hurricanes....

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Dod Excess Property Management Control Breakdowns Result in Substantial Waste and Inefficiency

By: Dennis J. Kucinich

Government Accountability Integrity Reliability Office Collection

Excerpt: DOD does not have management controls in place to assure that excess inventory is reutilized to the maximum extent possible. Of $18.6 billion in excess commodity disposals in fiscal years 2002 and 2003, $2.5 billion were reported to be in new, unused, and excellent condition. DOD units reutilized only $295 million (12 percent) of these items. The remaining $2. billion (88 percent) includes significant waste and inefficiency because new, unused, and excellent condition items were transferred and donated outside of DOD, sold for pennies on the dollar, or destroyed. DOD units continued to buy many of these same items. GAO identified at least $400 million of commodity purchases when identical new, unused, and excellent condition items were available for reutilization. GAO also identified hundreds of millions of dollars in reported lost, damaged, or stolen excess property, including sensitive military technology items, which contributed to reutilization program waste and inefficiency. Further, excess property improperly stored outdoors for several months was damaged by wind, rain, and hurricanes....

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United States General Accounting Office Washington, D.C. 20548

By: John F. Kerry

Government Accountability Integrity Reliability Office Collection

Excerpt: This report responds to your June 6, 2002, request, with then Senators Strom Thurmond and Fred Thompson, for information on the appointment and qualifications of U.S. Marshals in the 94 federal judicial districts. As agreed with your offices, we obtained information on the (1) U.S. Marshals? appointment process and, for comparison, the processes used by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (ATF); Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA); and Internal Revenue Service- Criminal Investigation (IRS-CI) to select senior field supervisors; (2) experience, education and diversity of U.S. Marshals and senior field supervisors at the ATF, DEA, and IRS-CI; (3) authority of the Director of the U.S. Marshals Service (USMS) to guide and control activities of U.S. Marshals; and (4) past legislative and other proposals for reforming the U.S. Marshals? appointment process....

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Missile Defense Knowledge-Based Practices Are Being Adopted, But Risks Remain

By: General Accounting Office

Government Accountability Integrity Reliability Office Collection

Excerpt: Our work has shown that programs are most successful when they evolve products over time rather than try to make big leaps in capability and when the programs adopt knowledge-based acquisition processes. Similarly, MDA is taking an evolutionary approach to developing the missile defense system by developing capabilities in spirals or ?blocks? rather than attempting to deliver all desired capabilities at one time. The agency intends to facilitate this approach by keeping requirements flexible before beginning activities to integrate technologies into a planned block, following a knowledge-based development plan, and demonstrating that technologies work as intended before beginning system integration of a block. In addition, the agency is seeking to involve stakeholders-such as the military services and operational testers-early in the development effort....

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Missile Defense Alternate Approaches to Space Tracking and Surveillance System Need to Beconsidered

By: General Accounting Office

Government Accountability Integrity Reliability Office Collection

Excerpt: MDA purposely adopted a strategy that would evolve STSS over time rather than trying to make a big leap in its capability, deferring some requirements, and calling for competition in the development of the sensors aboard the satellite. Recent decisions, however, will limit MDA?s ability to achieve its original goals as well as the knowledge that could be gained from its satellite demonstrations. Specifically......

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Missile Defense Additional Knowledge Needed in Developing System for Intercepting Long-Range Missiles

By: General Accounting Office

Government Accountability Integrity Reliability Office Collection

Excerpt: GMD is a sophisticated weapon system being developed to protect the United States against limited attacks by long-range ballistic missiles. It consists of a collection of radars and a weapon component-a three-stage booster and exoatmospheric kill vehicle-integrated by a centralized control system that formulates battle plans and directs the operation of GMD components. Successful performance of these components is dependent on 10 critical technologies. MDA expects to demonstrate the maturity of most of these technologies before fielding the GMD element, which is scheduled to begin in September 2004. However, the agency has accepted higher cost and schedule risks by beginning integration of the element?s components before these technologies have matured. So far, MDA has matured two critical GMD technologies. If development and testing progress as planned, MDA expects to demonstrate the......

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Missile Defense Additional Knowledge Needed in Developing System for Intercepting Long-Range Missiles

By: General Accounting Office

Government Accountability Integrity Reliability Office Collection

Excerpt: MDA estimates that it will spend about $21.8 billion between 1997 and 2009 to develop the GMD element. This estimate includes $7.8 billion to develop and field the GMD Block 2004 capability. For example, the funds will be used to install interceptors at two sites, upgrade existing radars and testing infrastructure, and develop the sea-based X-band radar. We found that MDA has incurred a greater risk of cost growth because for more than a year the agency was not able to rely fully on data from its primary tool for monitoring whether the GMD contractor has been performing work within cost and on schedule. In February 2002, MDA modified the prime contract to reflect an increased scope of work for developing GMD. It was not until July 2003 that the agency completed a review to ensure that the data was fully reliable....

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Missile Defense Actions Are Needed to Enhance Testing and Accountability

By: General Accounting Office

Government Accountability Integrity Reliability Office Collection

Excerpt: SBIRS Space-Based Infrared System SBX Sea-Based X-band Radar SCF Seeker Characterization Flight SDACS Solid Divert and Attitude Control System SDD System Development and Demonstration SIL System Integration Laboratory SM Standard Missile STSS Space Tracking and Surveillance System TILL Target Illuminator Laser THAAD Theater High Altitude Area Defense TPM Technical Performance Measure USNORTHCOM U.S. Northern Command USPACOM U.S. Pacific Command USSTRATCOM U.S. Strategic Command WSMR White Sands Missile Range......

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