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Arithmetic


Arithmetic or arithmetics (from the Greek word ????ยต?? = number) is the oldest and most elementary branch of mathematics, used by almost everyone, for tasks ranging from simple day-to-day counting to advanced science and business calculations. It involves the study of quantity, especially as the result of combining numbers. In common usage, it refers to the simpler properties when using the traditional operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division with smaller values of numbers. Professional mathematicians sometimes use the term (higher) arithmetic when referring to more advanced results related to number theory, but this should not be confused with elementary arithmetic.

 
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Effects of Long-Term Nitrogen Dioxide Exposure on Rat Lung : Morph...

By: Kentaro Kubota

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Rats continuously exposed to NO, at 0.04, 0.4, and 4.0 ppm for as long as 27 months were submitted to morphological observation and electronmicroscopic morphometry of the lung. At 4 ppm exposure for 9 months, bronchial epithelium showed typical proliferation, which progressed further at 18 months. At this stage, proliferation of type I1 alveolar epithelium and edematous extension of interstitial tissue were evident and yielded fibrosis at 27 months. At 0.4 ppm, ...

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Age-Related Differences in Susceptibility to Carcinogenesis. Ii Ap...

By: Dale Hattis

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: In an earlier report we developed a quantitative likelihood-based analysis of the differences in sensitivity of rodents to mutagenic carcinogens across three life stages (fetal, birth to weaning, and weaning to 60 days) relative to exposures in adult life. Here we draw implications for assessing human risks for full lifetime exposures, taking into account three types of uncertainties in making projections from the rodent data: uncertainty in the central estimate...

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World Health Organization Publication : Year 2002 - Summary Mueasu...

By: Michael C. Wolfson

Medical Reference Publication

As I noted in chapter 2.2, by far, the most fundamental use of summary measures of population health (SMPH) is to shift the centre of gravity of health policy discourse towards the basic objective of health policy, namely improving the health of the population. Without valid and broadly accepted measures of health, it is much more difficult to focus resources and activities in ways that have the most beneficial impact in improving health. And analogously with the economy...

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The American

By: Henry James

Chapter I. On a brilliant day in May, in the year 1868, a gentleman was reclining at his ease on the great circular divan which at that period occupied the centre of the Salon Carre, in the Museum of the Louvre. This commodious ottoman has since been removed, to the extreme regret of all weak-kneed lovers of the fine arts, but the gentleman in question had taken serene possession of its softest spot, and, with his head thrown back and his legs outstretched, was staring a...

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