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Commercial Banking


A system of trading in money which involved safeguarding deposits and making funds available for borrowers, banking developed in the Middle Ages in response to the growing need for credit in commerce. The lending functions of banks were undertaken in England by money- lenders. Until their expulsion by Edward I in 1291, the most important money-lenders were Jews. They were replaced by Italian merchants who had papal dispensations to lend money at interest. In the 13th cent. credit was essential to finance commerce and major projects.

 
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Final Report on the Audit of the Bureau of the Public Debt's Compl...

By: Dennis S. Schindel

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: This memorandum transmits the final report titled Audit of the Bureau of the Public Debt's Compliance with the Government Performance and Results Act. The audit results showed that the Bureau of the Public Debt's (BPD) executive management was diligent in establishing performance goals and measures that reflect an emphasis on customer service and program efficiency. Based on our review of selected performance measures, we found that BPD is meeting, and in many c...

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The Use and Counterfeiting of United State Currency Abroad

By: United States Department of the Treasury

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The holding and use of U.S. currency overseas has grown in the wake of high and volatile inflation and economic and political instability in the former Soviet Union and Latin America. In many of these economies, citizens and small businesses continue to face unstable local currencies and underdeveloped banking and payment systems, making it difficult to accumulate savings and make transactions in local currencies. As a result, many residents of transition econom...

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Department of the Treasury Revised May 2004

By: United States Department of the Treasury

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Treasuries, including ministries of finance, or corresponding departments of national governments; central banks, including all departments thereof; stabilization funds, including official exchange control offices or other government exchange authorities; and diplomatic and consular establishments and other departments and agencies of national governments.

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Corporate Inversion Transactions : Tax Policy Implications

By: United States Department of the Treasury

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: While the so-called corporate inversion transactions are not new, there has been a marked increase recently in the frequency, size, and profile of the transactions. The Treasury Department is undertaking a study of the issues arising in connection with this corporate inversion activity and the implications for the U.S. tax system and the U.S. economy. The Treasury Department concluded it was important to provide this preliminary report describing the current tax...

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The Money Exchange Dealers of Kabul a Study of the Hawala System i...

By: United States Department of the Treasury

Government Reference Publication

Abstract: Money exchange dealers, or hawaladars, have long provided their customers with a reliable, convenient, and inexpensive means of transferring funds into Afghanistan and among its provinces. They offer a diverse range of financial and non- financial business services at the local, regional, and international level. More recently, they have been instrumental in providing financial services for the delivery of emergency relief and humanitarian and developmental aid...

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Meeting the Challenge : U.S. Industry Faces the 21St Century the B...

By: David R. Berg

Technical Reference Publication

Foreword: The ability of the United States to achieve sustained and sustainable economic growth is directly linked to the opportunity for its businesses to integrate environmental and productivity decisions. Since 1970, successive Congresses and Presidents, in a bipartisan response, have introduced a wide range of policies and programs directed toward improving U.S. environmental performance. These policies and programs have led to substantial environmental improvements ...

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The U.S. Environmental Industry

Technical Reference Publication

Description: This document contains information regarding topics such as Reinvention of the Environmental Industry, Revamping Government Policies and Initiatives to Enhance the Competitiveness of the Environmental Industry, and Strategies for Government/Industry Cooperation to Increase Environmental-Related Exports.

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Writings Volume 1

By: Abraham Lincoln

It has long been a grave question whether any government not too strong for the liberties of its people can be strong enough to maintain its existence in great emergencies. On this point, the present rebellion brought our republic to a severe test, and the Presidential election, occurring in regular course during the rebellion, added not a little to the strain... The strife of the election is but human nature practically applied to the facts in the case. What has occurre...

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The Re-Creation of Brian Kent

By: Harold Bell Wright

I have wondered many times, while writing this simple story of life and love, if you would ever forgive me for putting you in a book. I hope you will, because if you do not, I shall be heartbroken, and you wouldn't want me that way, would you, Auntie Sue? I fancy I can hear you say: But, Harold, how COULD you! You know I never did the things you have made me do in your story. You know I never lived in a little log house by the river in the Ozark Mountains! What in the world will people think!...

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Contents : Federal Register III Vol. 70, No. 156

By: Government Printing Office

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Agriculture Department See Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service See Farm Service Agency See Forest Service Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau Proposed Rules Alcohol; Viticultural area designations: Alta Mesa et al., Sacramento and San Joaquin Counties, CA, 47740-47754 Notices: Agency information collection activities; proposals, submissions, and approvals, 47876-47877 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notices: Agency information collection a...

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Agriculture Acts Public Law 104-105

By: Government Printing Office

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: To amend the Farm Credit Act of 1971 to provide regulatory relief, and for other purposes. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, Section 1. Short Title; Table Of Contents. (A) Short Title.-This Act may be cited as the “Farm Credit System Reform Act of 1996.” (b) Table Of Contents.-The table of contents for this Act is as follows: Sec. 1. Short title; table of contents. Title I-Agricultural...

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Bulletin of the World Health Organization : 1963; Volume 29, Numbe...

By: G. H. Frank

Medical Reference Publication

The sixth meeting of the Eastern Mediterranean Regional Interagency Coordination Committee for Poliomyelitis Eradication and the Expanded Programme on Immunization was held in the WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean (WHOIEMRO) in Alexandria, Egypt from 3-4 April 2000. It was attended by representatives from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Rotary International, USAID, World Bank, Islamic Development Bank, UNICEF headquarters and regiona...

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Bulletin of the World Health Organization : 1966; Volume 34, Numbe...

By: L. B. Hejfec

Medical Reference Publication

BACKGROUND 1. For most of the countries in the African region, it is unfortunate that the advent of globalization coincided with a continuous declining trend in official development assistance, thereby obliging most of the countries to drastically reduce per capita public expenditure on health, with all its negative consequences. 2. Fortunately, there had been growing international concern about increasing and persistent poverty in developing countries, particularly in S...

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World Health Organization Fact Sheet, Year 2004, Volume 282 - in F...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

Every year more than 11 million children in developing countries die before they reach their fifth birthday, many during the first year of life. Seven in ten of these deaths are due to acute respiratory infections (mostly pneumonia), diarrhoea, measles, malaria or malnutrition - and often to a combination of these conditions. Much has been learned from disease-specific child survival programmes in the past 15 years. The challenge now is to apply the lessons from these pr...

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World Health Organization : Year 2000 ; World Health Organization,...

By: K. Janovsky, Dr.

Medical Reference Publication

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Cambodia is an extremely poor, post-conflict society. It is in some ways a mirror image of Viet Nam where health and education status is relatively good, given the level of poverty. The Cambodian state, by contrast, has very limited capacity to provide its citizens with productive or social services and is often, through exploitation and dispossession, a significant contributor to poverty. As a result, human development indicators in Cambodia are even l...

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World Health Organization Publication : 0N02657577, Volume 2, (P1 ...

By: Bo Stenson

Medical Reference Publication

Executive Summary Cameroon counts among the middle-income level countries with correspondingly good health status indicators. However, since 1985 the country has experienced an economic decline, resulting in a 40% decrease in private consumption and a severe financial crises for the government. In spite of an increase of the share of the government budget for health, the infrastructure has been eroded and the private sector has increased its importance. Up till now the W...

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World Health Organization Publication : Year 2003 ; Issue 92415908...

By: Ian Grubb

Medical Reference Publication

Triple-drug combination antiretroviral (ARV) therapy has remarkable effects on the lives of people living with HIV/AIDS. When it is provided on a large scale, AIDS wards in hospitals are emptied, people living with HIV/AIDS return to their families and jobs and AIDS-related morbidity and mortality fall dramatically 1-6. However, since ARV therapy was introduced in 1996, these benefits have been reserved almost exclusively for industrialized countries, which bear only 5% ...

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World Health Organization Publication : Year 2003 ; Issue 92415910...

By: Michel Jonosz

Medical Reference Publication

1. INTRODUCTION 1 CREATING AN ENVIRONMENT FOR EMOTIONAL AND SOCIAL WELL-BEING WHY DID WHO PREPARE THIS DOCUMENT? There is increasing recognition that health and educational outcomes are inextricably linked, and that the school can be an ideal setting through which to strive for both. A number of international efforts have been developed in the past decade to improve both learning and health through schools. Four important examples include WHO's Global School Health Initi...

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World Health Organization Publication : Year 2003 ; Issue 92950360...

By: Heba Nassar

Medical Reference Publication

Executive summary This study examines certain economic questions that Egyptian policy-makers should address when considering tobacco control measures. It aims in particular to study the impact on employment in the tobacco industry of policies that reduce the demand for tobacco. This is a rather important issue because it is the main reason why many countries resist taking serious action to adopt tobacco control measures. There is a fear that reduced tobacco consumption m...

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World Health Organization Publication : Year 2005 ; Issue 92415629...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

GENERAL INFORMATION Tajikistan is a country with an approximate area of 143 thousand sq. km. (UNO, 2001). Its population is 6.297 million, and the sex ratio (men per hundred women) is 99 (UNO, 2004). The proportion of population under the age of 15 years is 35% (UNO, 2004), and the proportion of population above the age of 60 years is 7% (WHO, 2004). The literacy rate is 99.7% for men and 99.3% for women (UNESCO/MoH, 2004). The country is a low income group country (base...

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