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Commercial Banking


A system of trading in money which involved safeguarding deposits and making funds available for borrowers, banking developed in the Middle Ages in response to the growing need for credit in commerce. The lending functions of banks were undertaken in England by money- lenders. Until their expulsion by Edward I in 1291, the most important money-lenders were Jews. They were replaced by Italian merchants who had papal dispensations to lend money at interest. In the 13th cent. credit was essential to finance commerce and major projects.

 
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The $30,000 Bequest : And Other Stories

By: Mark Twain

Lakeside was a pleasant little town of five or six thousand inhabitants, and a rather pretty one, too, as towns go in the Far West. It had church accommodations for thirty-five thousand, which is the way of the Far West and the South, where everybody is religious, and where each of the Protestant sects is represented and has a plant of its own. Rank was unknown in Lakeside -- unconfessed, anyway; everybody knew everybody and his dog, and a sociable friendliness was the p...

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The $30,000 Bequest : And Other Stories

By: Mark Twain

Lakeside was a pleasant little town of five or six thousand inhabitants, and a rather pretty one, too, as towns go in the Far West. It had church accommodations for thirty-five thousand, which is the way of the Far West and the South, where everybody is religious, and where each of the Protestant sects is represented and has a plant of its own. Rank was unknown in Lakeside -- unconfessed, anyway; everybody knew everybody and his dog, and a sociable friendliness was the p...

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The History of Banks : To Which Is Added, A Demonstration of the A...

By: Richard Hildreth

Economic Theory Literature

Excerpt: Chapter I. Banks of Venice, Genoa and Barcelona. The first regular institution resembling what we call a Bank, was established at Venice, nearly seven hundred years ago. In its origin it had nothing to do with the business of banking. It began in this way. The Republic being engaged in war, and falling short of funds, had recourse to a forced loan. The contributors to that loan, were allowed an annual interest of four per cent on the sums they had been obliged t...

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Bulletin of the World Health Organization : 1987; Volume 65, Numbe...

By: P. Heizmann

Medical Reference Publication

In 2002, the World Summit for Sustainable Development (WSSD) urged countries, as part of achieving the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (targets 10 and 1 I), to halve by 20 15 the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and sanitation. These targets represent monumental challenges to many countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of WHO, especially when, at the end of 2000, 85 million people in the Region still had no access ...

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European Occupational Health Series : 1994-97; Prevention in Prima...

By: M. S. Tsechkovski, Dr.

Medical Reference Publication

Leading health care agencies and professionals maintain that immunization is one of the most cost

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European Occupational Health Series : 1994-97, Llubljana Charter-I...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

I. THE REGIONAL PLAN FOR INVESTMENT IN THE ENVIRONMENT AND HEALTH Whal is PZAS? The Regional Plan for Investment in the Environment and Health (PIAS)' is an initiative to promote necessary investments in the environmental and health sectors in the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean over the next 12 years. The Plan has been endorsed by the Ibero-American Reads of State and Govemment in Madrid, July 1992, and by the Heads of Govemment of the Caribbean Community in The Bahamas, July 1993.

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World Health Organization : Year 1998 ; World Health Organization,...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

Executive summary 'l'liis aim of this document is to inform people in the health sector with no partic~~llacrg al background itbout the impact of globalization on access to drugs, iitid especially about the WTO agreement on intellectual propcrty (TRIPS Agreement) that may have repercussions in the pharmaceutical field. The first part gives an introduction to the international commercial system from thc GATT to the W'TO. The second part analyses the section on patents of ...

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World Health Organization : Year 1998 ; World Health Organization,...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

Acknowledgements The authors acknowledge the following individuals who contributed comments and constructive suggestions to the review of this document: D. G. Barboza (Law Firm of Neviani, Borges & Beildeck, Rio de Janeiro); P. Chirac (pharmacist, la revue Prescrire, Paris); C. Correa (Professor at the University of Buenos Aires); M. Haubert (Director of the Institute of Study on Economic and Social Development at the University of Paris I); B. Remiche (Professor at the ...

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World Health Organization : Year 2000 ; World Health Organization,...

By: Collins, J.

Medical Reference Publication

INTRODUCTION The reasons for promoting health through schools are clear. With more children than ever receiving a formal education, schools are an efficient way to reach school-age youth and their families in an organised way, and to ensure the individual growth essential for national development. In almost every community, the school is a setting in which many people learn and work. It is a place where students and staff spend a great portion of their time. It is a plac...

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Investigation of Concentration of Economic Power. Hearings before ...

By: United States. Temporary National Economic Committee

pt. 1. Economic prologue. Dec. 1-3, 1938 -- pt. 2. Patents ; automobile industry ; glass container industry. Dec. 5-6, 12-16, 1938 -- pt. 3. Patents ; proposals for changes in law and procedure. Jan. 16-20, 1939 -- pt. 4. Life insurance. Metropolitan life insurance co. ; New York life insurance co. ; Acacia mutual life insurance co. ; Mutual life insurance co. of New York ; Prudential life insurance co. of America ; Northwestern mutual life insurance co. Feb. 6-10, 14-17...

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Investigation of Concentration of Economic Power. Hearings before ...

By: United States. Temporary National Economic Committee

pt. 1. Economic prologue. Dec. 1-3, 1938 -- pt. 2. Patents ; automobile industry ; glass container industry. Dec. 5-6, 12-16, 1938 -- pt. 3. Patents ; proposals for changes in law and procedure. Jan. 16-20, 1939 -- pt. 4. Life insurance. Metropolitan life insurance co. ; New York life insurance co. ; Acacia mutual life insurance co. ; Mutual life insurance co. of New York ; Prudential life insurance co. of America ; Northwestern mutual life insurance co. Feb. 6-10, 14-17...

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Investigation of Concentration of Economic Power. Hearings before ...

By: United States. Temporary National Economic Committee

pt. 1. Economic prologue. Dec. 1-3, 1938 -- pt. 2. Patents ; automobile industry ; glass container industry. Dec. 5-6, 12-16, 1938 -- pt. 3. Patents ; proposals for changes in law and procedure. Jan. 16-20, 1939 -- pt. 4. Life insurance. Metropolitan life insurance co. ; New York life insurance co. ; Acacia mutual life insurance co. ; Mutual life insurance co. of New York ; Prudential life insurance co. of America ; Northwestern mutual life insurance co. Feb. 6-10, 14-17...

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Investigation of Concentration of Economic Power. Hearings before ...

By: United States. Temporary National Economic Committee

pt. 1. Economic prologue. Dec. 1-3, 1938 -- pt. 2. Patents ; automobile industry ; glass container industry. Dec. 5-6, 12-16, 1938 -- pt. 3. Patents ; proposals for changes in law and procedure. Jan. 16-20, 1939 -- pt. 4. Life insurance. Metropolitan life insurance co. ; New York life insurance co. ; Acacia mutual life insurance co. ; Mutual life insurance co. of New York ; Prudential life insurance co. of America ; Northwestern mutual life insurance co. Feb. 6-10, 14-17...

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  • Cover Image

Investigation of Concentration of Economic Power. Hearings before ...

By: United States. Temporary National Economic Committee

pt. 1. Economic prologue. Dec. 1-3, 1938 -- pt. 2. Patents ; automobile industry ; glass container industry. Dec. 5-6, 12-16, 1938 -- pt. 3. Patents ; proposals for changes in law and procedure. Jan. 16-20, 1939 -- pt. 4. Life insurance. Metropolitan life insurance co. ; New York life insurance co. ; Acacia mutual life insurance co. ; Mutual life insurance co. of New York ; Prudential life insurance co. of America ; Northwestern mutual life insurance co. Feb. 6-10, 14-17...

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  • Cover Image

Investigation of Concentration of Economic Power. Hearings before ...

By: United States. Temporary National Economic Committee

pt. 1. Economic prologue. Dec. 1-3, 1938 -- pt. 2. Patents ; automobile industry ; glass container industry. Dec. 5-6, 12-16, 1938 -- pt. 3. Patents ; proposals for changes in law and procedure. Jan. 16-20, 1939 -- pt. 4. Life insurance. Metropolitan life insurance co. ; New York life insurance co. ; Acacia mutual life insurance co. ; Mutual life insurance co. of New York ; Prudential life insurance co. of America ; Northwestern mutual life insurance co. Feb. 6-10, 14-17...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Investigation of Concentration of Economic Power. Hearings before ...

By: United States. Temporary National Economic Committee

pt. 1. Economic prologue. Dec. 1-3, 1938 -- pt. 2. Patents ; automobile industry ; glass container industry. Dec. 5-6, 12-16, 1938 -- pt. 3. Patents ; proposals for changes in law and procedure. Jan. 16-20, 1939 -- pt. 4. Life insurance. Metropolitan life insurance co. ; New York life insurance co. ; Acacia mutual life insurance co. ; Mutual life insurance co. of New York ; Prudential life insurance co. of America ; Northwestern mutual life insurance co. Feb. 6-10, 14-17...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Investigation of Concentration of Economic Power. Hearings before ...

By: United States. Temporary National Economic Committee

pt. 1. Economic prologue. Dec. 1-3, 1938 -- pt. 2. Patents ; automobile industry ; glass container industry. Dec. 5-6, 12-16, 1938 -- pt. 3. Patents ; proposals for changes in law and procedure. Jan. 16-20, 1939 -- pt. 4. Life insurance. Metropolitan life insurance co. ; New York life insurance co. ; Acacia mutual life insurance co. ; Mutual life insurance co. of New York ; Prudential life insurance co. of America ; Northwestern mutual life insurance co. Feb. 6-10, 14-17...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Investigation of Concentration of Economic Power. Hearings before ...

By: United States. Temporary National Economic Committee

pt. 1. Economic prologue. Dec. 1-3, 1938 -- pt. 2. Patents ; automobile industry ; glass container industry. Dec. 5-6, 12-16, 1938 -- pt. 3. Patents ; proposals for changes in law and procedure. Jan. 16-20, 1939 -- pt. 4. Life insurance. Metropolitan life insurance co. ; New York life insurance co. ; Acacia mutual life insurance co. ; Mutual life insurance co. of New York ; Prudential life insurance co. of America ; Northwestern mutual life insurance co. Feb. 6-10, 14-17...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Investigation of Concentration of Economic Power. Hearings before ...

By: United States. Temporary National Economic Committee

pt. 1. Economic prologue. Dec. 1-3, 1938 -- pt. 2. Patents ; automobile industry ; glass container industry. Dec. 5-6, 12-16, 1938 -- pt. 3. Patents ; proposals for changes in law and procedure. Jan. 16-20, 1939 -- pt. 4. Life insurance. Metropolitan life insurance co. ; New York life insurance co. ; Acacia mutual life insurance co. ; Mutual life insurance co. of New York ; Prudential life insurance co. of America ; Northwestern mutual life insurance co. Feb. 6-10, 14-17...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Investigation of Concentration of Economic Power. Hearings before ...

By: United States. Temporary National Economic Committee

pt. 1. Economic prologue. Dec. 1-3, 1938 -- pt. 2. Patents ; automobile industry ; glass container industry. Dec. 5-6, 12-16, 1938 -- pt. 3. Patents ; proposals for changes in law and procedure. Jan. 16-20, 1939 -- pt. 4. Life insurance. Metropolitan life insurance co. ; New York life insurance co. ; Acacia mutual life insurance co. ; Mutual life insurance co. of New York ; Prudential life insurance co. of America ; Northwestern mutual life insurance co. Feb. 6-10, 14-17...

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