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Bulletin of the World Health Organization : 1969; Volume 41, Number 6, Year 1969, Pages 771-778: Smallpox Vaccination by Intradermal Jet Injection

By John M. Neff

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Book Id: WPLBN0000002715
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Reproduction Date: 2005

Title: Bulletin of the World Health Organization : 1969; Volume 41, Number 6, Year 1969, Pages 771-778: Smallpox Vaccination by Intradermal Jet Injection  
Author: John M. Neff
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Health., Public health, Wellness programs
Collections: Medical Library Collection, World Health Collection
Historic
Publication Date:
Publisher: World Health Organization

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Neff, Dr, J. M. (n.d.). Bulletin of the World Health Organization : 1969; Volume 41, Number 6, Year 1969, Pages 771-778. Retrieved from http://hawaiilibrary.net/


Description
Medical Reference Publication

Excerpt
The HIV epidemic in the Eastern Mediterranean Region began in the late 1980s, and evidence suggests that it has been 'speeding up' since the mid 1990s. Since the start of the epidemic, 12 079 cases of HIV infection have been reported in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. However, an estimated 750 000 people in the Region are currently living with HIVIAIDS. This points to the need for more people to have access to HIV testing as an entry point to care and prevention. There were 83 000 estimated new HIV infections in 2002. In 2001, the number of deaths attributable to HIVIAIDS was 58 000. It bas been estimated that the loss of healthy life amounts to 3 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYS). The adult prevalence rate of HIV infection in the Eastern Mediterranean Region is between 0.3% and 2.8%. The main modes of transmission are thought to be heterosexual sex and intravenous drug use (IDU). However, there are significant differences between countries in the region with regard to the magnitude of the problem and the mode of transmission. Young people are most affected, with 62% of AIDS cases occurring among 24-39 year olds. However, vulnerability begins at a much younger age. Of AIDS cases, 1.6% are reported among 15-19 year olds. In Djibouti, 54% of those between the ages of 20-34 have HIVIAIDS. Women develop AIDS at a younger age (25-29 years) compared to men (35-39 years). The most vulnerable and most stigmatized groups in society are most affected. In the Eastem-most area of the region 39% of AIDS cases are due to intravenous drug use, primarily in the Islamic ~ e ~ u b loifc I ran. In the Near East sub-region 16% of AIDS cases are due to men who have sex with men (MSM) contact. Intravenous drug use is a potential driving force for the epidemic. Stigma and discrimination constitute barriers to scaling up the response. Stigma and discrimination are reported from all the countries of the region and vulnerable groups are reported to be hidden and hard to reach in all of the countries.

Table of Contents
CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................1.. .. 2 . TECHNICAL PRESENTATIONS ................................................................................2.. .. 2.1 Situation of HIVIAIDS and the status of voluntary counselling and testing in the Eastern Mediterranean Region ................................................................................ 2 2.2 Testing and counselling: new directions ...............................................................3.. . 2.3 Practical considerations for implementation of VCT .............................................. 4 2.4 Quality assessment in VCT ..................................................................................... 5 3 . COUNTRY PRESENTATIONS AND REPORTS ............................................................ 5 3.1 Ba..h rain .................................................................................................................5 3.2 Djlbouti .................................................................................................................... 6 3.3 Egypt ........................................................................................................................ 6 3.4 Islamic Republic of Iran ......................................................................................6.. .. 3.5 Jordan ..................................................................................................................7. 3.6 Lebanon ................................................................................................................... 8 . . . 3.7 Libyan Arab Jamahiriya .......................................................................................... 9 3.8 Morocco ..................................................................................................................9. 3.9 Oman ..................................................................................................................... 10 3.10 Pakistan ................................................................................................................ 10 3.11 Sudan .....................................................................................................................1 0 3.12 Republic of Yemen ............................................................................................... I1 4 . GROUP DISCUSSIONS .............................................................................................. 11 5 . GROUP WORK ............................................................................................................ 12 5.1 Group work 1 ....................................................................................................... 12 5.2 Group work 2 ........................................................................................................ 14 5.3 Group work 3 ......................................................................................................... 14 6 . CONCLUSIONS ............................................................................................................. 16 7 . RECOMMENDATIONS ............................................................................................... 16 Annexes 1 . AGENDA ........................................................................................................................ 18 2 . PROGRAMME ............................................................................................................. 19 3 . LIST OF PARTICIPANTS ............................................................................................ 20 4 . PROTOCOL FOR COUNTRY REPORTS ..................................................................... 24 5 . GROUP WORK DISTRIBUTION .............................................................................

 

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