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The Benefits of Reducing Nitrate Contamination in Private Domestic Wells under Cafor Regulatory Options

By Environmental Protection Agency

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Book Id: WPLBN0000002902
Format Type: PDF eBook
File Size: 0.5 MB
Reproduction Date: 2007
Full Text

Title: The Benefits of Reducing Nitrate Contamination in Private Domestic Wells under Cafor Regulatory Options  
Author: Environmental Protection Agency
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Ecology, Natural resource issues, Environemtal protection
Collections: Environmental Awareness Library Collection
Historic
Publication Date:
Publisher: United States Environmental Protection Agency

Citation

APA MLA Chicago

Agency, E. P. (n.d.). The Benefits of Reducing Nitrate Contamination in Private Domestic Wells under Cafor Regulatory Options. Retrieved from http://hawaiilibrary.net/


Description
Excerpt: Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) can contaminate aquifers and thus impose health risks and welfare losses on those who rely on groundwater for drinking water or other uses. Of particular concern are nitrogen and other animal waste-related contaminants (which come from manure and liquid wastes) that leach through soils and ultimately reach groundwater. Nitrogen loadings convert to elevated nitrate concentrations at household and public water system wells, and elevated nitrate levels in turn pose a risk to human health.

Table of Contents
CONTENTS Exhibits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S-1 Chapter 1 Introduction and Objectives 1.1 Overview of Benefit Assessment Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2 1.2 Report Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4 Chapter 2 Loadings and Well Nitrate Concentrations 2.1 Relationship between Nitrogen Loadings and Well Nitrate Concentrations . . . 2-1 2.1.1 Included Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2.1.2 Omitted Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 2.2 Data Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 2.2.1 USGS Retrospective Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 2.2.2 1990 U.S. Census . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5 2.2.3 National Pollutants Loadings Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5 2.3 Regulatory Scenarios Used for Benefits Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6 Chapter 3 Modeling Well Nitrate Concentrations 3.1 Model Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 3.2 The Statistical Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4 3.3 Fitted Values and Scenario Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5 3.4 Discrete Changes from above the MCL to below the MCL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7 3.5 Incremental Changes below the MCL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7 3.6 Timeline Following Scenario Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8 Chapter 4 Valuation: Benefits Transfer 4.1 Benefits Transfer Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1 4.1.1 Transfer an Average Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1 4.1.2 Transfer a Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2 4.1.3 Calculate a Metafunction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2 4.1.4 Calibrate a Preference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3 4.2 Choice of Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4

 

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