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World Health Organization : (Emro) Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean, Year 1994-99 ; World Health Organization-Eastern Mediterranean, Expanded Programme on Immunization, No. 151-E-L: Fourth Meeting of the Regional Interagency Coordination Committee (RIACC)

By World Health Organization

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Book Id: WPLBN0000081107
Format Type: PDF eBook
File Size: 1.2 MB
Reproduction Date: 2005

Title: World Health Organization : (Emro) Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean, Year 1994-99 ; World Health Organization-Eastern Mediterranean, Expanded Programme on Immunization, No. 151-E-L: Fourth Meeting of the Regional Interagency Coordination Committee (RIACC)  
Author: World Health Organization
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Health., Public health, Wellness programs
Collections: Medical Library Collection, World Health Collection
Historic
Publication Date:
Publisher: World Health Organization

Citation

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Organization, W. H. (n.d.). World Health Organization : (Emro) Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean, Year 1994-99 ; World Health Organization-Eastern Mediterranean, Expanded Programme on Immunization, No. 151-E-L. Retrieved from http://hawaiilibrary.net/


Description
Medical Reference Publication

Excerpt
Introduction In view of the still high numbers of waterborne diseases, the United Nations's General Assembly adopted Resolution 35/18 concerning the implementation of the International Drinking-Water Supply and Sanitation Decade (IDWSSD), to ensure that safe water and water hygiene, indispensable prerequisites for human health, be taken into consideration. In fulfilling this resolution, the WHO Regional Office for Europe proclaimed the Regional Target 20 as follows: By 1990, all people of the Region should have adequate supplies of safe drinking water, and by the year 1995 pollution of rivers, lakes and seas should no longer pose a threat to human health. Within the Region, more than 100 million people are not connected to a safe water supply system at home, and about 200 million are without adequate sewage disposal. A dominating role is played by the diminution of infectious waterborne diseases. Diseases, such as typhoid fever, infectious hepatitis, dysentery and cholera, form an important part of all cases of infectious diseases which are subject to registration. In several Mediterranean countries, cholera occurred endemically, whereas diarrhoea is still one of the major causes for disease and death of newborn and small infants in most of the southern countries of the Region. It is generally known that the supply of drinking water free from infectious germs (for instance, bacteria and viruses) is an indispensable prerequisite for any effective, prophylactic initiative towards combating these diseases. On the other hand, it cannot be ignored that the quality of raw water, surface water, and to an increasing degree also groundwater, has deteriorated more and more due to anthropogenic activities. In this process, the ever-increasing number of potentially toxic substances from households, trade and industry, as well as from agriculture, play an important role.

Table of Contents
LIST OF CONTENTS 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 . Presence of organic substances in drinking water and their sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3 . Organic compounds being farmed in the course of chlorination of drinking water (by-products) . . . . . . . 3.1 Trihalomethanes (THM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Chlorinated phenols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33.. 34 HHaallooagceentaotneidt mreitlheasn e(Hs.A Ne) th.an.es. a.nd. e.th.en.es. .. .. .. ........ 3.5 Chlorinated polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). chlorinated aldehydes and ketone derivatives . . . . 4 . Health aspects of by-products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5 . Mutagenic effects of by-products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 6 . Alternative prDcedures for drinking water disinfection and health implications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 5.1 Chlorine dioxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 6.2 Chloramine . . . . . . a * . . . . . . . . . a . . . . . . 17 6.3 Ozone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 7 . Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 8. Summary and recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 9 . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

 

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